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Not long after this dignity had been by the Jewish historian, nor is the conferred upon him, it was unexpectedly account of any similar deed by Agrippa ; augmented by receiving from the same but from what he does relate of him it emperor, the tetrarchy of his uncle
appears highly probable that he should Herod Antipas. Herodias, the wife of have thus acted, and that he should Herod Antipas, who was tetrarch of have been instigated to act so by such Galilee and Peræa, and the sister of a consideration as that attributed to Agrippa, mortified and irritated that him by the evangelist. “Herod the fortune had begun so brightly to shine great, his grandfather,” he says, upon her brother, that he was raised continually obliging foreign states and to the government of Judea, and had cities by large bounties, but did very received the title of king, by which few things to gratify the Jews. Wherehe was rendered superior to her hus- as, Agrippa was of a mild and gentle band, envied him his dignity, and disposition, and good to all men; he persuaded Herod to go to Rome and was beneficent to strangers, but especially solicit from the emperor the same dis- kind to the Jews, his countrymen, and tinction. But Caligula was so far from sympathized with them in all their granting his request, that hearing he troubles. For which reason he also was in confederacy with one foreign lived much at Jerusalem, observed the power or more against the imperial Jewish institutions, practised the purity government, he took away from him they require, and did not let a day pass the tetrarchy of Galilee, and gave it to without worshiping God according to Agrippa: Herod was banished to Lyons, the law.” Antiq. 1. xix. C. 7. This in France, whither his wife followed show of zeal for the institutions and him. Josephus concludes his account customs of the Jews, and desire to of this event with this reflection, “ This oblige that people, very much confirm punishment did God inflict on Herodias the account St Luke gives of his forfor envying her brother, and on Herod wardness in persecuting the disciples for following the vain counsels of a of Jesus. woman.”
Jos. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 8. What the inspired historian adds conThe prosperity of Agrippa had not yet cerning this person
extrordinary, however, reached its height. Being at and Josephus concurs with him in it. Rome when Caius Caligula died, he “And he went down from Judea to interested himself greatly in the suc- Cæsarea, and there abode. cession of Claudius to the throne, and a set day, Herod, arrayed in royal materially contributed to that event. apparel, sat upon his throne, and made In consideration of this, Claudius con- an oration to them. And the people firmed to him all that his predecessor gave a shout, saying, “It is the voice of a had bestowed, and gave him Judea, God, and not of a man.” Acts xii. 19, Samaria, and the southern parts of 21–23. Josephus' words are these :Idumea, in the utmost extent as pos- “Having now reigned three whole years sessed by his grandfather Herod the over all Judea, he went to the city of great. Thus he restored to him the Cæsarea, formerly called Straton's tower. right of consanguinity ; but Abila, Here he celebrated shows in honor of which had been Lysanias', together Cæsar, a festival having been appointed with the country in mount Libanus, he to be observed there at this time for his added as out of his own territories. safety. On this occasion there was a
St. Luke says, that having " killed vast resort of persons of rank and disJames, the brother of John, with the tinction from all parts of the country. sword, because he saw it pleased the On the second day of the shows, eariy Jeu's, he proceeded further to take in the morning, he came into the Peter also.” This action recorded by theatre, dressed in a robe of silver, of the author of the “ Acts," is not related the most curious workmanship. The
that we promised “to refer to Lysanias, Josephus here makes to the tetrarchy of whom Luke mentions in connection with Lysanias, as well as in one or two other Herod Antipas and Philip, in a subsequent places in connexion with the two Agrippas, paper.” Of Lysanias being tetrarch of Abi- it appears clear to ourselves that there must lene, there is no distinct account in any have been about this time some prince of writer extant; but, from the allusion which this name who was tetrarch of Abilene.
rays of the rising sun, reflected from so Herod Agrippa as an extraordinary splendid a garb, gave him a majestic person, and free from the vices of his and awful appearance. In short, they grandfather Herod; and indeed reprebegan in several parts of the theatre sented his character for lenity and flattering exclamations, which proved goodness in a manner that is by no pernicious to him. They called him a means consistent with the representagod, and intreated him to be propitious tions of some other historians. Dio to them, saying, “Hitherto we have Cassius says, Agrippa was reckoned one respected you as a man; but now we of Caligula's advisers in his cruel and acknowledge you to be more than mor- tyrannical measures. Dio, lib. lix. tal.” The king neither reproved these p. 658. persons, nor rejected the impious flat- Another circumstance in which this tery. Soon after this, casting his eyes agreement is particularly observable, is, upward, he saw an owl sitting upon a that according to St. Luke, “immedicertain cord over his head. He per- ately the angel of the Lord smote him :" ceived it to be a messenger of evil to and Josephus assures us, that these him, as it had been before of his pros- pains seizing him in the theatre, before perity, and he was struck with the all the assembly, he apprehended a deepest concern. Immediately after fatal necessity of leaving this world. this he was seized with pains in his And when Josephus says, “ these flatterbowels, extremely violent at the very ing acclamations proved pernicious to first. Then turning himself towards Agrippa,” he plainly intimates that his his friends, he spoke to them in this death was supposed to be a punishmanner: 'I your god, am required to ment for the approbation with which leave this world; fate instantly con- he received them. futing these false applauses just be- In these circumstances, then, there stowed upon me: I who have been is an observable harmony between the called immortal, am hurried away to history which St. Luke has given, and death. But God's appointment must that furnished by the author of the be submitted to. Nor has our condition Jewish Antiquities. In one or two in this world been despicable; we have others, however, there is a discrepancy. lived in the state which is accounted Josephus says in his account of Agriphappy.' While he was speaking these pa's death, that, “ casting his eyes upwords, he was oppressed with an in- ward, he saw an owl sitting upon a crease of his pains. He was carried, certain cord over his head. therefore, with all haste to his palace.ceived it to be a messenger of evil to These pains in his bowels continually him as it had been before of his prostormenting him, he expired in five days' perity, and was struck with the deepest time, in the fifty-fourth year of his age,
concern." Allusion is here made to and of his reign the seventh.” Antiq. something which the author had belib. xix. c. 8. sect. 2.
fore related; the perching of such a bird Between this narration and that upon a tree near this same Agrippa, given by St. Luke, many points of when he was put into prison by order agreement must present themselves to of Tiberius; and to a prognostication the mind of the reader. In respect to the which a German astrologer is said to place where, and the time when, this have delivered at that time concerning event happened, the magnificence of him. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 7. Whether Herod's dress, the flattery of the Jews, such a bird did or did not appear to they entirely accord. But there are Agrippa cannot now be determined ; two particulars, above all others, in nor does it appear important that it which this harmony is remarkable. should be. Josephus now and then One of these is, the temper of mind throws a circumstance or two into his with which Herod Agrippa received the relations that give them a heathenish flattery that was so wickedly bestowed. air, with the design, it is probable, of
He gave not God the rendering his history more agreeable to glory;" Josephus, “ He neither reproved the Greeks and Romans, for whom it those persons, nor rejected the impious was principally intended.
In our flattery.” These words are deserving opinion he does so in the present of the greater notice in Josephus, be- instance. But it is evident from his cause he has at times represented this account, that Herod was seized with a
St. Luke says,
very uncommon disorder, and that he Herod Agrippa than we had expected had the most lively apprehensions of to be; the observations, however, we his approaching end.
trust, will not be deemed by our readers St. Luke says, “Herod was eaten up uninstructive and unimportant. If, in of worms.” This is not mentioned by these incidental references, the repreJosephus; and his omission of it has sentations which the evangelists make been supposed by some to be an objection of certain men and things can be shown against the evangelist's account; but in to agree with such representations made our apprehension without any just by profane writers living at the same
The distemper of which Herod time with the apostles, or subsequently, Agrippa died, was, according to Jose- then the credibility of the former is phus' own description of it, very similar established beyond a doubt; in respect to that of Herod, his grandfather, who, to these accounts, at least, the faith of besides other disorders, was afflicted the christian is strengthened, and good with violent pains in his bowels, and service done to the cause of truth. an ulcer which bred worms. Now it is And if their accuracy is demonstrated not at all unlikely that Agrippa's case in these things, the truth of which is thus was, in this last respect also, very much proved, we feel to have no doubt of the same as that of Herod the great their accuracy in those things which Certainly to represent this as a serious cannot be thus tested. objection and press it, indicates a cavil. Our fourth, and concluding paper, ling, captious disposition, rather than a which will appear in the next number simple, ardent desire, to discover and of the Repository, will contain observaembrace the truth. Upon the whole, tions upon Agrippa, Bernice, and Druwe believe that this passage which we silla, three children of Herod Agrippa, have extracted out of Josephus will be mentioned by the sacred historians; allowed to be a remarkable attestation of and upon Pilate, Felix, Festus, Sergius the extraordinary event related by the Paulus, and Gallio, heathen governors, sacred historian, Luke.
to whom also they make some allusion. We have been occupied longer with
PATRISTICAL AND EXEGETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE QUESTION RESPECTING THE REAL BODILY PRESENCE OF CHRIST
IN THE ELEMENTS OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.*
BY THE REV. J. J. OWEN.
Continued from page 305. Having traced the history of the subject proved ultimately detrimental to the under consideration down to the close interests of vital religion. It cannot, of the third century, we may observe, however, be denied, that the Church, that the views to which we have ad- toward the close of the fourth century, verted continued to be entertained, contained
men of distinguished abilies. without any modification, at least for It is sufficient to mention Cyril, of Afty years. During the first quarter Jerusalem, Ephrem Syrus, Gregory of of the fourth century, Constantine Nyssa, Athanasius, Chrysostom, Basil, the Great having ascended the impe- Gregory of Nazianzen, Epiphanius, rial throne, became a professed chris- Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and Castian, and, as may be supposed, the sian. Though we may differ from these aspect of things quickly changed; hea- fathers on many essential points, it thenism, to a considerable extent, lost would evince extreme stupidity or prejuits power; but this seeming triumph dice not to allow that they possessed
* Will the reader have the kindness to correct the following typographical errors in the article which appeared last month,-page 301, line five on the second column, after “ wonder not,” place a semi-colon. Page 304,
second column, 8th line from the top, obliterate the verb “is" and read “ The bread which the God Logos (theoslogos) declared,” &c. In line 33, same column, for “Carcilius” read, “ Caecilius."
strong intellectual powers. In detailing, own body. If any were to commit gold then, the history of opinions respecting dust to thee, to be conveyed any where, the Eucharist, it is of importance that wouldest thou not guard carefully against we ascertain the views which losing any particle thereof? How much entertained at this period.
“ What more shouldest thou guard against the changes did the doctrine of the earlier smallest crumb of that which is more christians undergo ?" One fact, deserv- precious than gold or rubies! Draw ing peculiar attention, strikes the mind near to the cup, bowed down, and with in glancing at the transactions of these a kind of worshipful reverence. days, namely, the gradual and insidious drop of it should hang upon thy lips, introduction of the dogmas of the moisten thine eyes and forehead thereRomish hierarchy. “The germ began with, and thus sanctify them."* Chryin monkery, and in a multiplication of sostom having described with what church offices and ceremonies.” The reverence we are accustomed to apsublime institutions of Christianity be- proach earthly majesty, gives utterance came regarded as unattractive, unless to the following impassioned language : attended with worldly pomp and splen
_“ With how much more shuddering dour. Not a few of the heathen ceremo- shouldest thou approach, when thou nies were incorporated into the ritual of seest him (Christ) lying before thee ! the churches. The mysteries associated Say now to thyself, By means of this with heathenism, and the profound body, I am no more dust and ashes, no reverence entertained for them, gave more a captive, but a freeman; through birth to a desire for corresponding attrac- this I expect an eternal life, in heaven, tions in connection with the christian with all the blessings there reserved, religion.
“ Baptism and the Lord's- and to obtain an inheritance with the supper opened a door of easy access to angels, and intercourse with the Remysteries. In this process little more deemer.t" Again he says, in the sequel, was required than the confirmation of “ This entertainment is the nerve of the the views stated in our last article. In soul, the bond of the spirit, the foundathe first there was the presence of the tion of confidence, hope, safety, light, and Holy Spirit, with his regenerating and life. When we go away in possession sanctifying influence in the consecrated of this, we find ourselves in possession water. The sign of the cross, chrism of golden armour. Why should I with holy oil, sponsors, and a variety of speak of the future? This mysterious other ceremonials,” became a part of this transaction transforms the earth into ordinance: and as to the supper, every
heaven. All that the heaven holds of effort was made to associate with it the the precious, will I point out to thee on “most mysterious qualities and influ- earth. In a royal palace, nothing is
Nothing could be better adapt- more precious than the person of the ed to this than to interpret the language king. This thou canst now see on of Christ “This is my body, this is my earth, yea, touch, eat; purify thself, then, blood, in a kind of literal way. This in order to be made partaker” of such would carry the matter even beyond the mysteries. I One more extract, from bounds of the heathen mysteries; it Cyril
, of Alexandria, must conclude would fully satisfy the cravings of our na- these examples. “Christ gives us a ture for the mysterious and the awful.” feast to day. Christ serves us. Christ,
Such sentiments silently incorporating the friend of men, receives us. Awful themselves with human feelings during is what is said; awful, what is done. the progress of the fourth century, we The fatted calf is slain, the Lamb of cannot be astonished that the men to God, which takes away the sins of the whom we have referred seem filled with ecstacy and awe" when alluding to the
* Catech. xxiii. $ 21, 22. Some intelliEucharist. A few examples will fur
gent friends have expressed their regret to
the writer, that he did not, in his last article, nish the reader with a specimen of their
furnish references to the authorities quoted. general language, “ Direct thy view,”
This was an inadvertence. In this article, says Cyril, of Jerusalem, “to the holy
however, constant references are made to all body, (meaning the consecrated bread)
the fathers whose opinions are mentioned. and sanctify thine eyes; guard well against losing any thing of it; for it
+ Hom. xxiv. in Ep. ad Cor. Opp. xi. would be like losing a member of thine
| Idem, p. 261. Vol. 6.-2 N. S.
world. The father is well pleased; the dox churches never hold that the two naSon freely presents himself as an offer- tures of Christ were so blended, that they ing, not brought forward by the enemies become merely one nature. The person of God, but by himself, to show that he was one, but the natures two. Eutychius, freely took upon him the sorrows that an abbot of Constantinople, who flourender us happy. Divine presents are rished at this period, maintained the offered; the mysterious entertainment is doctrine of one nature only in Christ; prepared; the life-giving cup is mingled; but Eutychius was assailed and opposed the King invites to honors; the incar- from all quarters. The union of the nate Logos exhorts us; he imparts his Logos, then, with the body of Jesus, did body as bread; he presents his life- not change or transform the proper giving blood as wine.' 0, what an in- human nature of the body. If, now, the describable arrangement ! What in- same fathers who attacked Eutychius, comprehensible condescension! What had maintained a real transubstantia unsearchable piety! The Creator gives tion of the elements in the supper into himself to the creature, to be partaken the body and blood of Christ, by the of; the source of life voluntarily presents presence of the logos in them, then himself to mortals as food and drink."* would they have put deadly arms into
Whilst there is much in the general the hands of Eutychius, who might well strain of this language which is reprehen- say, “By your own concession, the sible, we cannot but admire the deep- Eucharistic elements are transformed, toned piety it exhibits. Ought it not to and are no more bread and wine when fill many with shame and confusion, the logos is present in them; consewho, though possessing clearer views of quently, when he assumes a human truth, approach the Lord’s-table with body, it no longer remains such, but is comparative coldness and indifference ! transformed into a higher nature.” The
In forming an estimate of the real fathers were in general too wary dissentiments entertained by these fathers, putants to expose themselves in this way. and their contemporaries, we must enter Thirdly Some of the fathers are somewhat more minutely into the sub- occasionally so explicit in regard to the ject. At first sight, it would seem as if point before us, that no doubt can rethey unequivocally taught the doctrine main respecting their meaning. Chryof transubstantiation ; but their writings sostom, in his epistle to Cæsarius emevince that this was not the case. The ploys the following language, “As we following remarks will at once show the call the bread, before the consecration, truth of this assertion.
bread, but after consecration, it loses First. The fathers not unfrequently this name, and is called the body of the draw a comparison between the Eucha- Lord, ALTHOUGH THE NATURE OF THE rist and the ordinance of baptism, and BREAD STILL REMAINS.”+ Theodoret, in place both in the same class of mysteries; writing against the monophysites, asbut, in relation to baptism, they never sents, “ that the body of Christ retains maintain that the water becomes, when its proper nature when united with the consecrated, the Holy Spirit, or that the Godhead;" he adds, as the bread and holy oil undergoes any such change. wine, after the consecration, lose nothing They regarded this matter merely as of their sensible substance." + standing on the following basis, namely, Gelasius, made bishop of Rome in that the Holy Spirit communicated to A. D. 492, who lived a century later those elements an extraordinary and
than most of the fathers we have supernatural energy. But this is quite quoted, when writing against the Eutya different thing from a change or chians and Nestorians, says in the most transformation of the elements into the explicit manner, · Certainly the sacraHoly Spirit.
Secondly. It is a favorite idea of the *Epis; ad Cæsar. in Canissii Thesauro fathers in question, that the union of the I p. 235. We are aware that the genuineLOgos with the bread and wine is like ness of this epistle has been questioned. his union with a human body. Now, Muenscher, among others, has objected to it. in regard to this latter union, the ortho- (Dogm. Geschiehte, iv. p. 389).
sons, however, are far from being conclusive. * Homil. in Myst. Coen, Opp. v. p. 2, + Dial. Opp. iv., p. 125, Dial. ), p. 25. pp. 371, 372.
Comp. Ephrem. Syr. in Phot. Biblioth. c. 229.