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ments of the body and blood of Christ fifth century, we may briefly inquire which we receive, are a divine matter, how far their views coincided with those and on this account, we are by them of the three great parties which now made partakers of a divine nature, but divide Christendom. If we compress still the substance or nature of the bread the various statements we have selected, and wine does not

to exist;

we presume it will be found that the although through energy of the Holy following proposition involves the senSpirit, they pass over into a divine sub- timents entertained by the authors stance, yet their own proper nature re- mentioned, “ That by a mysterious mains."*" If infallibility be the pre

and invisible union of the Logos with rogative of the popes of Rome, why the elements of the Eucharist, or by his has the above doctrine been contradicted supernatural presence and influence by the Council of Trent?

upon them, they were to be considered Still there cannot be the slightest in the light of a body and blood for the doubt, that in the writings of many of time being; so that those who partake the fathers of the fourth century, ex- of them become physically united to pressions may be found, which when Christ as well as spiritually one with taken singly would lead to the supposi- him.” “The elements themselves did not tion that they entertained the dogma of change their proper nature, but supertransubstantiation. But when we care- added powers and virtues were connected fully examine their views, and compare

with them. Nor did the proper body one statement with another, we cannot and blood of Christ become present in, avoid the conviction that the substance with and under the bread and the wine of their faith on this point amounted to of the supper, but the logos himself no more than this, “that the change pervading and uniting with these elemade in the bread and wine consisted ments used them as his body and blood in the accession or addition of preter for the time being. Now this is not natural or supernatural influences com- transubstantiation, that is, it is not the municated to these elements, without transformation of the Eucharistic elechanging the physical nature of the ments into the proper human body and elements themselves.” Cyril

, of Jeru- blood of Jesus, so as to change their salem, the most strenuous of them all, nature entirely as elements of bread says expressly in his catechism, (21, § 3), and wine. Nor was it consubstantiathat “the body of Christ is presented tion, which assumes the actual human by the symbol of the bread, and the body and blood of Christ as present in, blood of Christ by the symbol of the with and under the elements, for it is the wine." And he adds, respecting the LOGOS who forms a union with them, declaration of Jesus to the Jews; that and not Christ's human body. Nor are they must eat his flesh, and drink his the views of the fathers in accordance blood, that they did not understand with those who hold only to the symhim in a spiritual manner and so they bolic significancy of the elements. All took offence and went away, because parties have appealed to the fathers. they thought he exhorted them to the All can find passages in them which literal eating of flesh.” And it may may easily be made to favor their views here be further observed, that there if no comparison with other passages were peculiarly eminent individuals be made; and all appeal in vain, when during the fourth century, who con- they expect to find either union or continued to regard the Lord's-supper as sistency among them. The quod unum, only a memorial of the Saviour's death. quod ubique, quod semper, is quite out Such were Eusebius, Gregory Nazian- of all reasonable question in regard to zen, and Augustine. But they all seem this matter. to have admitted that there was some It is evident, from the preceding remysterious virtue in the elements.t marks, that the views of the fathers on

Having thus endeavored to ascertain this subject underwent but slight changes the opinions of the fathers down to the during the third, fourth, and fifth cen

turies. “ The first exhibition of the doc* Gelas. in Bib. Max. Pat. 8. p. 703. trine of transubstantiation, which can now + Euseb. Dem. Evangel. i. p. 38, 39; iv.

be fairly traced, was made by a monk p. 223. Greg. Naz. Orat. xvii. p. 273. Aug. of Picardy, in France, about A. D. 881. Ep. 98. & 9. Con. Faust. xx. c. 18. 21. His name was Paschasius, surnamed

Ratbertus. He wrote a treatise on the John, king of England, about the elecbody and blood of Christ, which is still tion of an archbishop of Canterbury, held in high esteem by the Romanists. not only carried the day, but gave away In this he maintains, that, after con- the dominions of John to the king of secration, the Eucharistic elements no France, and finally compelled John, in longer remain bread and wine, but are the sight of all England, to kneel in the absolutely and substantially the body dust at the foot of the Romish legate, and blood of Christ; but, instead of resign his crown, and, after five days, meeting, as one would expect, from the receive it again from the legate, merely views of the Romish church in respect as a gift of the pope's grace, whose vasto this matter, soon after this period, sal he professed himself to be: and, to with universal, or even general appro- crown all, this was the pope that first bation, Paschasius was speedily op- introduced auricular confession, a thing posed by formidable antagonists, Raba- which put the whole mass of the comnus Maurus, Johannes Scotus, or munity entirely under the control and Erigena, and Bertramus, or Ratramus, at the mercy of the priests. who all flourished about the middle of But, even after the council of Lateran, the ninth century, and were highly dis- transubstantiation was not universally tinguished for their literature and ta- received. The question continued to be lents, wrote against the views of Pascha- agitated until finally the famous council sius, and in favor of the symbolic of Trent, about the middle of the sixexegesis of the passages respecting the teenth century, decreed, that, if any one Eucharist; yet the general inclination should deny the conversion of the whole of the age to superstitious views, and to substance of the bread and wine into mysterious forms and rites, predominated the body and blood of Christ, leaving at last over the reasonings of these nothing more than the mere appearance learned men. It was not, however, of those elements, he should be acuntil the twelfth century, that the word cursed.* transubstantiation was introduced. It We have thus endeavored to furnish was first employed by the famous Hilde- a brief account of the opinions held by bert, of Tours, (1134) and the corres- the fathers on this subject, and have ponding verb, transubstantiate, was first described the gradual introduction of used by Stephen, bishop of Autun, the Romish dogma. The most imporabout the same period, who was some- tant part of the discussion remains to what distinguished for his attainments. be presented, namely, what is the real

Still the doctrine of transubstantiation truth of the matter as stated in the word was not received and sanctioned by the of God. pope of Rome, until Innocent III., and the fourth council of Lateran, composed

* Principio docet sancta synodus, et aperti of 418 bishops, and held A. D. 1215,

ac simpliciter profitetur in almo declared it to be essential to the belief of

Eucharistiae Sacramento, post panis et vini

consecrationem, Dominum nostrum Jesum a catholic christian. This was the pope

Christum, verum Deum atque hominem, veri, whose administration gave birth to

realiter, ac substantialiter sub specie illarum various orders of monks, who first

rerum sensibilium contineri, &c.Decreta claimed a right to appoint or depose all et Canones Concilii Tridentini. 1 Ecl. Rome, the kings or emperors of Europe, and 1564, Sessio 13, sub Julio III. Pont. max even of Asia, who, in his contest with celebrata Die xi. Oct. M. D. 61, caput I.




or popery and acquainted. Its worthy author has gathered christianity contrasted, in their leading facts and arguments from all quarters, and principles, their spirit, and practice. By presented them in contrast with the pure, the J. G. PIKE. Baynes, Lonilon; Wilkins, holy, the benevolent and peaceful religion of Derby. 32m0., pp. 468.

the New Testament, with excellent effect.

He writes like a man in good earnest, and This is the most complete summary of speaks out as one fully convinced of the popery, and exposure of its errors and abomi

wickedness of popery, and fearless of the nations, with which, in a small work, we are bitter hate his book may provoke from the abet. and popery.

tors of antichrist. He calls things by their parations, so very valuable a series of essays, right names, and displays none of that spurious selected from the most approved evangelical liberality which hesitates to ascribe to an divines, on the ministry, its exercises and infernal system its true character. His work obligations. Should any regard the sketches is divided into fourteen chapters: the first is as of inferior value, they will find in the introductory; the second shews, that, while essays much that will repay studious and rechristianity was predicted as a universal bless- peated perusal. ing, popery was foretold as a blight and a curse, and it has verified the prophecy; the

THE INFANTICIDE'S CRY TO BRITAIN. The third exposes the zeal of the Romanists in

present state of infanticide in India, chiefly suppressing or concealing the scriptures; the

extracted from the parliamentary papers fourth, the popish perversion of the word

ordered to be printed by the Honorable of God; the fifth relates to the absurd

House of Commons, June, 1824, July, doctrine of apostolical succession; the sixth

1828, and August, 1843. By the Rev. sets forth the idolatry of Rome; the seventh, its

JAMES PEggs, late missionary in Orissa,

author of India's Cries," $c. Fourth opposition to the simple doctrines of Christ; the eighth relates to purgatory; the ninth, to

edition, revised and enlarged.

Ward & indulgences and extreme unction; the tenth,

Co., London. to the mass; the eleventh exposes the cruel

We are not aware that there is any thing and demoralizing effects of its austerities, very attractive in the word "cry," or in its convents, &c.; the twelfth, its wickedness in plural, “ cries." They denote the exclama. its popes, missions, &c.; the thirteenth con- tion of distress, or the expression wrong. trasts the benevolence of christianity with

But when these or any similar terms are used as the wicked and murderous practices of Rome; the standing catch titles to every work which the fourteenth is a general summary of the

issues from the same pen, they are liable to points of contrast between pure christianity objection, as they defeat the purpose for

which they are used. We hope our brother As the work may be had for two shillings,

will take this hint, and though we do not and we wish all our readers, and especially ask him to lay aside his pen, we would the young and active, to peruse it, we feel suggest the propriety of his “cries” being that we need do no more than earnestly re

changed for some other term in any future commend it to their attention. It is full of work he may produce. This pamphlet of one painful interest; it is replete with resistless hundred and twelve pages, gives an exargument. There will be no danger of any

tended sketch of infanticide in various ages one sinking into the errors of popery, after a and countries ; in China and India; the efforts candid perusal of this volume.

that have been made at different times for its

suppression; and contains a variety of sugTHE PULPIT CYCLOPÆDIA, and christian gestions for the purpose of rendering the

minister's companion. By the author of humane purposes of the British government 6. Sketches and Skeletons of Sermons," &c. more effective. It is painful to learn that Vol. IV. Houlston and Stoneman. Svo., the practice still prevails. How true is the

language of the psalmist, “ The dark places

of the earth are full of the habitations of This volume concludes the series, and is equal in value to any of its predecessors. cruelty.” Our beloved brother Peggs, who

deserves every acknowledgement for his zeal To say we have perused every one of the

in the interests of humanity and religion, has sixty-seven sketches of sermons it contains,

been assisted would be an overstatement : we have perused

we are happy to say, by two several, and would remark, that, while a

benevolent gentlemen in getting out this en. happy diversity of topics has been selected, larged edition of his pamphlet on infanticide,

which we cheerfully commend to the atten. they are very frequently arranged in a plea

tion of our readers. sing, and sometimes in a striking manner. The essays, selected chiefly from American

THE FONT AND THE TUB; or the baptism writers, refer to revivals, pastoral duties, &c.;

of the royal prince, Alfred Ernest Albert. and, though all may not approve of every Dyer, London ; Winks, Brooks, Leicester. sentiment or plan contained in them, none will peruse them without benefit.

In laying

This is a four-paged tract. It very face. down this well-printed volume, we would tiously exposes the grave errors of infant again express our gratification that its es. baptism, and deserves a place in company teemed author has given in the four volumes, with its celebrated forerunner. It is from the in addition to a most extensive array of same pen. various subjects, as specimens of pulpit pre

pp. 348.



perceptions, either in Luke x, or 1 Cor. xvi.

It is stated by brother H.,“ Christ bas ordain. DEAR BROTHER,—We should feel obliged

ed that those who preach the gospel should by your allowing us, through the next month's

live of the gospel, therefore it is the duty of Repository, if it is not too late, to give the

their friends to make the necessary provision,” following intelligence and request.

&c. Surely this does not prove that it is The General Baptist church, Bradford,

scriptural to solicit the ungodly to sustain having discovered a serious failure in the

the christian ministry, or to assist in roof of their chapel, and its very dangerous

defraying the necessary expences connected condition, have been obliged to uncover it,

with the cause of Christ. The deductions to pull down and rebuild a portion of the

of our esteemed brother do not appear here wall, and to incur expense to the amount of

to come to the point. nearly £100. Previous to this they were

The expression Luke x. 7,“ And in the exerting themselves to reduce their debt of

same house remain, eating and drinking £1015, for the payment of a portion of

such things as they give," does not apwhich they had received notice. Being un

parently recognize a solicitation, but anti. able of themselves to meet the expense of cipates an offer, and enjoins its acceptance

for the reason stated. these necessary repairs, they will be much gratified by the reception of assistance from

It is also observed that I Cor. xvi. 2 “ can any of their sister churches that are more

only be brought to bear against public favourably circumstanced, or from any chris

collections by assuming that the money for tian friends sympathizing with them in their

this truly charitable object was raised by distress; especially from those who have not

each individual privately." Whether this yet contributed to the removal of their burden

money, laid by every week, was preserved some debt. Please to remit hy a post office by each christian to be ready for delivery order, directed to


when the apostle came, or was deposited by each in one common treasury, does not appear, to the writer, to have the least con

nection with the scripturalness of public REMARKS ON PUBLIC

collections as they now take place. It is a COLLECTIONS.

direction given to the christians at Corinth DEAR SIR,—Deeming the remarks of

for the regulation their individual onabrother H. in favor of public collections incon

tions to a benevolent object. clusive, I would direct his attention, if the

If brother H. would refer to some other subject has been taken up by no other, to

passages in vindication of public collections, one circumstance which he appears to have

or would shew more clearly how these afford overlooked.

a precedent for soliciting the money of the In public collections, at least, when the

unconverted in support of the Redeemer's box is taken from pew to pew, and presented

cause, he would oblige, before each individual, a request is made to

Yours in Christ,

I. B each person, irrespective of moral and spiri. tual character, for pecuniary support, which P. S. It is granted that the above remarks he grants or refuses according to his own do not contain or imply an objection equally option. This for purely spiritual purposes, strong against every public collection. is not encouraged, according to the writer's


ye return and discern between the righteous Death of Reb. J. Wilders,

and the wicked,” &c. There was much

unction in these discourses, which rendered MY DEAR FRIEND.-It is with very them very interesting. On Thursday the solemn feelings I inform you of the sudden 20th, a young gentleman, whom he was teachdeath of my valued friend, J. Wilders, of ing the classics, came to him in his study, Smalley; a few particulars of which I have and taking out his watch, he said, “ It is gathered from one of his deacons, and soine twenty minutes past two o'clock.” In about other members. On Lord's day, Aug. 18th, a quarter of an hour after, he began to cough, he preached in the morning, from “ Let him and ruptured a blood vessel. He was asked that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he whether he wished to be taken up stairs, fall;" and in the evening from," Then shall when he replied, “ If you please.” These

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year 1806.

were his last words, as he died in about a sermon preached by Mr. Burditt with a view quarter of an hour, at the early age of thirty. to the benefit of a large and sympathizing six. “How many fall as sudden, not as audience, was founded on 2 Sam. xiv. 14, safe!” His remains were removed to Keg- “ For we must needs die, and are as water worth. This stroke is very deeply felt, and spilt upon the ground, which cannot be all classes in the neighbourhood sympathize gathered up again; neither doth God respect in the loss of so valuable a man. The dea- any person ; yet doth be devise means, that con informed me that some weeks since, he his banished be not expelled from him.” was talking with him about death, and he said he had three reasons for wishing to live MRS. MARY Knight died at Thurlaston, a little longer; which were—he could wish Leicestershire, on the 22nd day of June, to pursue his studies, to do a little more 1844, in the 59th year of her age. Her good, and to spare his friends the pain of his ancestors were firm General Baptists, and removal. Our brother has labored in this she was trained up in their principles from a church about five years. The debt of the child; and as she grew up to maturity, after Smalley chapel is removed; there are now examination, she found no reason to depart eight or ten candidates who, I hear, are to be from them. While young she possessed baptized next Lord's day, by Mr. Fogg, who convictions of the importance and value of preceded him in this church. Our brother religion, but did not partake of its blessings, did not run in vain, nor labor in vain;" taste its sweetness, or feel its power, till she and though weak in body, his good sepse, had nearly arrived at age; but when she by varied learning, transparent sincerity, and believing in Jesus could rejoice in him as simple devotedness to God, rendered him a her Saviour, she felt that love to him which workman not to be ashamed. His memory constrained her to keep his commandments; will be cherished as“ ointment poured forth.” and knowing baptism was one, she proposed Yours in Christ,

herself as a candidate for that ordinance to Ilkeston, Sep. 5th, 1844. J. Peggs. the General Baptist church at Hinckley,

and became a member of that church in the MR. THOMAS ABBOT was born at Tydd St. Mary, Lincolnshire, July 25th, 1795, at In 1810 she was united in marriage to which place his ancestors had long inherited Mr. John Knight, of Thurlaston, who is a a paternal estate. His parents, who were member and deacon of that church, and she, members of the church as by law established, with many more residing in that place, sepabrought him up in an exemplary manner rated in 1813 from the church at Hinckley, according to their views; but his lot in after and formed themselves into a church, of life being cast among Baptists, he sat under which she continued an honorable member the ministry of the late revered Mr. Rogers, till the Lord of all translated her to the of Fleet, until the time of Mr. R's decease; general assembly above. The leading traits and having imbibed the sentiments main. in her character were simplicity, meekness, tained and held forth under his ministry, and love. While some of her fellow travel. was afterwards baptized on a profession of lers were surveying the stars which have faith, by Mr. Burditt, the pastor of the adorned the christian hemisphere, she kept Baptist church at Long Sutton, for whom he her eyes on the Sun, as the chiefest among ever cherished the most kind and affectionate ten thousand and the altogether lovely; on regard.

him her eyes, her hope, and her faith, were The very distressing nature of his last fixed; and while looking at him she admired illness, which continued only five days, viz., him as an example, and learned to imitate from May 2nd to the 7th, prevented his him in meekness and lowliness of heart, friends conversing much with him, but from which are in the sight of God of great price. what could be gathered, it was evident his Her attachment to her christian friends was mind was contemplating the heavenly state displayed by a cheerful countenance and an on which he was so soon to enter. That affectionate salutation when she met them God whom he had so long served in the time in the house of God; nor was she willing to of bealth did not desert him in the hour of be absent from that house and its ordinances sickness and painful affliction. His mourn. while she could travel, being upheld by her ing relatives, though they feel their loss children, or drawn in a carriage obtained for to be utterly irreparable, do not sorrow as that purpose. Her last affliction commenced those without hope concerning him.

with a stroke, which paralized nearly all her Few persons have passed through life with powers, and for nearly four years she re

more unexceptionable character; few quired the assistance of her husband and more generally esteemed in their circle. The children, who were all very attentive unto respect manifested towards him in life and her to the last, and followed her to the grave in death affords another testimony to the mourning. But during this long affliction truth of that word of God, “ Them that her mind was calm, her prospect bright, her honor me

I will honor." The fuperal hope lively, and her faith firm. At length


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