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zeal for God, their confidence in his terms with any of the inhabitants of the power, and their strict obedience to his land; that their duty was to have deprecepts. The war against the heathen stroyed every vestige of idolatry; that of the land was to be a war of extermi- their conquests would now cease, as God nation; they were not to be allowed to would not further assist them; and that live. If they fled, as there are evidences the idolaters and their gods would be a that, in the time of Joshua, many of great snare to them in days to come. them did, and formed colonies in other T'he people wept bitterly at this intellilands, they of course were free, but gence; they saw their error, and their neither they nor their religion were to want of faith in God; they perceived at be allowed to exist any longer in that once the incalculable injury inflicted on land. The Israelites had every proper themselves and their children by their inducement to carry out the purposes of cowardice and disobedience; and so deep God. They had his own oft-repeated was their distress, that the place was command; they had the promises of his called “ Bochim," or the weepers. Oh, power and presence, and the recollection the sorrows that follow irresolution in of the wonders he had already per- the service of God! The people offered formed for them in driving out so many sacrifices unto the Lord, as an atoneof the people: then there were the ment for their sin. repeated charges of their former and The penitence of the Israelites appears honored leaders, Moses and Joshua; to have been sincere; but obedience is their own covenant; the value of the better than repentance, especially, as in territory yet occupied by the heathen; this case, when it came too late to free and the warnings they had received of them from the evil consequences of their the evils that would follow, if they did sin. The nation apparently was prenot fully execute the divine purpose. served from open idolatry for a number These at first seemed to influence them; of years after Joshua's death; but, as and Judah, the most powerful, and now, the next generation grew up, the worst by divine revelation, recognized as the effects were experienced. From living leading tribe, with Simeon, made some with the heathen, in a state of tranremarkable conquests in their own al- quility, they and their children prolotment; and so, indeed, did most of the ceeded to intercourse and intimacy; other tribes : but, instead of pushing on intermarriages followed, and idolatry, their conquests until the whole land with all its pollutions, until the people, was cleared, both of idols and idolaters, in many parts at least, became as vile as both duty and interest dictated, it is as the heathen themselves. Probably, recorded to their dishonor, that their as directed in the law, the elders and efforts were relaxed, their courage and parents sought to inculcate on their confidence in God failed them, and they children their duties to God, and to lead timidly contented themselves with a par them to Shilo to worship; but their tial possession of the land. In some commingling with the heathen rendered cases they cowered before the enemy, all the means used for their preservation and, in others, they so far prevailed as abortive. So do “evil communications to exact a tribute. Thus, neither Judah corrupt good manners.” nor Benjamin had full possession of About twenty years after the death of Jerusalem; the Jebusites were there: Joshua, a species of idolatry, mingled the Philistines remained on the coast of with the worship of the true God, was Judah and Dan; and the Sidonians, on adopted in a private family in Ephraim. that of Asher; and many Canaanites A section of the Danites, driven from were left in Lebanon, and in other parts their inheritance by the Amorites who of the land ; while all continued to in- remained in that region, travelled northcrease in strength and power.

ward, to seize on a territory which their God regarded the timid policy of his spies reported as feebly guarded, and in people, as an infraction of their cove- their march, they plundered this family nant, and sent an angel to them as they of its idols, and induced the Levite who assembled at Shilo, where the taber had been their priest to go with them; nacle was set up, on one of their great and there, in their new possession at the religious festivals, and he told them risings of Jordan, they set up this worthat they had done evil against God, ship, and had, as is supposed by some, and against themselves, in coming to a grandson of Moses, and his descen

was

dants, as their priests, until the time of and, after subduing them, fortified the their captivity. So prone were they to

old site of Jericho. For eighteen years idol worship

he dwelt in the midst of them. They About the same period, that dreadful again, as their fathers had done, cried example of corrupt and mad debauchery, unto God, and, by the hand of Ehud, such as is fostered and engendered by a Benjamite, he was privately killed, idolatry, and which is recorded in the and his people, as they sought to pass last three chapters in the book of Judges, the ford of Jordan, were destroyed. occurred in Gibeah, a small town, a The land then had a long interval of little north of Jerusalem, and of the tranquility, viz., eighty years. Shangar, tribe of Benjamin. It is too revolting of the tribe of Judah, or Dan, in his and vile to be repeated. Suffice it to time repressed a party of the Philistines, say, that the protection afforded to the and with an ox goad, a formidable weayoung men who had been guilty of a pon, slew 600 of them. So did God licentious outrage on a passing stranger, protect and deliver a repentant people! by the whole tribe of Benjamin, A new generation appeared, and they

an indication of criminal con- fell into the vices of their heathen nivance at their dreadful abominations. neighbours. Their next conqueror was This so exasperated the other tribes, from the north of the land. Jabin, who were summoned by the Levite king of Hazor, a successor of a king of sending the body of his abused and that name, whom Joshua had overcome, murdered concubine, by piece-meal, to was now become strong, and he subevery tribe in Israel, that, though they dued and oppressed the people for twenty suffered severely by the onslaught of years. In this instance a woman was the Benjamites, so as to lose at least their deliverer, Deborah, a prophetess, 40,000 men, they nearly extirpated the residing in mount Ephraim, to whom whole tribe, only 600 out of 30,000, the people resorted for counsel in their besides their families, escaping from difficulties. She, inspired of God, sent slaughter. So disastrous were the con- to Barak, who dwelt in the Kadesh, sequences of this sin!

north of the sea of Galilee, that he This display of abhorrence of wrong

should collect 10,000 men of war from did not check the downward progress of Naphtali and Zebulun to mount Tabor. the people. Corruption, and pollution, To inspirit him, she went with him. and the vices of idolatry, rapidly spread Sisera, the captain of Jabin's forces, their influence throughout the land. came against him, with a great and The people forsook the Lord, and went powerful army, and pitched his camp after other gods: they served Baal and near the foot of the mountain, in the Astaroth, gods analagous to the Jupiter plain of Jezreel. Barak went down and Venus of the Greeks, and there upon his adversary, and, though he had worshipped as the sun and moon, with 9,000 chariots of iron, and an immense obscene and abominable rites. To chas- force, God filled them all with terror, tize them, they were delivered of God and they were put to confusion and the into the hands of Chushan-rithashaim, sword. Josephus says, that a great the warlike king of Mesopatamia, who storm of rain and hail disabled the subdued them, and compelled them to Canaanites. Sisera fled away on foot,

The people were thus and alone, and was killed by a woman, awakened to a sense of their folly, and, Jael, a Kenite, whose family had migratwhen they cried unto the Lord, he raised ed thither, in whose tent he had taken up, as their deliverer, Othniel, a relation shelter. Thus ended this cruel bondage. of the distinguished Caleb. He was the This wonderful deliverance was celefirst of that extraordinary class of men brated by Deborah in a triumphant called judges, who, led by a special im- song, which constitutes the fifth chapter pulse from God, ruled and guided the of the book of Judges, and of which it is people. By his means they were de- said, that, “considered as a specimen of livered, after eight years servitude, and, lyric composition, it may challenge comunder his presidency, the land had rest parison with the finest effusions of the forty years.

classic muse in any age or country.” Again they relapsed into idolatry, Among other representations, it presents and its attendant pollutions, and Eglon, an affecting view of the previous degradaking of the Moabites, came upon them, tion and insecurity of the people, a glow

pay tribute.

men.

ing description of the battle, and the he said, if any avenged Baal, it should vile manners of the Canaanites.

be the god himself; and hence he called After this time, the land had rest his name Jerubaal, or “ let Baal plead." forty years; but as the subsequent race The devouring foe, like locusts, were sunk into their fathers' sins, they were now encamped in the plain of Jezreel, exposed for seven years to a heavy and and Gideon, inspired of God, summoned exhausting visitation. The Midianites, the tribe of Manasseh, and the northern Amalekites, and other wandering tribes tribes, who were yet unbroken by the of the east, races very similar to the enemy, and soon had an army of 32,000 Bedouin Arabs of the present day, Sign after sign was given him, poured in upon them with their camels in order to assure him of the divine and horses, in great multitudes. They protection; and thus he approached the pitched their tents among them, de- host of Midian. That it might clearly voured their provisions and their cattle; appear that God was their deliverer, so that, from the east, where they en- Gideon, instructed from heaven, protered, to the borders of the great sea on claimed that all who were fearful, or not the west, the whole breadth of the land, disposed to fight, were at liberty to rethey spread_famine, desolation, and tire, and 22,000 left the ranks. Another death. The Israelites, unable to resist reduction was made ; so that he was left their lawless depredations, were driven with only 300 men against a countto secrete themselves in dens and caves less multitude He then sent out to of the mountains, and in their strong- Ephraim, that they should hasten to the holds. This was the severest chastise- plains of Jordan, to intercept their ment the central and southern parts of retreat, and once more encouraged of the land had ever experienced. They God, by the dream of a Midianite, were plundered and destroyed daily. which he heard recited when by night When they looked up to God in their he went near their camp, he divided his extremity, a prophet was sent amongst little force into three sections, of 100 them, to instruct them in their duty, each. Each man took a lamp, an and to rebuke them for their ingrati- empty pitcher, and a trumpet, and tude, disobedience, and idolatry, and, in posting themselves on the eminences process of time, a deliverer was raised round the enemies' camp, in the stillup from an humble and obscure family ness of the night, they all at once blew of the tribe of Manasseh. Gideon, of their trumpets, broke their pitchers, Ophrah, about sixteen miles north of and raised a loud shout. Jericho, was thrashing his wheat, not in naturally aroused the Midianites from the usual thrashing floor, nor in the their slumbers, who seeing the numerous common way, with the treading of oxen, lights around them, and hearing their but with a stick, in a wine press, from war cry, were taken with a panic, and poverty, and for fear of the Midianites, Josephus says they fell on each other and an angel appeared to him, and and at length took to flight. Gideon hailed him as blessed of God, and the and his small army pursued them, and deliverer of his people; but Gideon those who had been dismissed with the complained that God, who had brought Ephraimites and others, fell on them, them out of Egypt, had forsaken them, and in their attempts to cross the Jorand delivered them into the hand of the dan, slew immense multitudes, and Midianites, and moreover said, “My Oreb and Zeeb, princes of Midian. family is poor in Manasseh, how can I Gideon pursued the Midianites who save İsrael ?" He perceived, by a sign, had escaped, and surprized them, when that it was an angel who spoke to him. they had passed the borders of Israel, Directed and encouraged by him, and and thought themselves secure. He assisted by his father's servant, in that slew their kings, Zeba and Zalmunna; night he destroyed the altar of Baal, and as he returned, he severely chasand cut down the grove that was by it, tized the inhabitants of Penuel and belonging to his father, and building an Succoth, of the tribe of Gad, who had altar to the Lord, put a suitable sac- cruelly refused sustenance to his faintrifice upon it. His father, struck with ing soldiers in their pursuit of a comthe boldness of the deed, protected him mon foe. He also pacified the Ephraimagainst the idolaters of the place, who ites who envied him his called for his death on the coming day, and with the utmost magnanimity also he

This very

success.

refused to be made a king, now for the father and his two sons died, leaving first time proposed in Israel, reminding the mother and her daughters-in-law, the people that God was their king. He widows. The mother being destitute became their judge, and preserved the and in a strange land, and hearing land for forty years. Unadvisedly, he in- that order was restored in Judah, detroduced an unwarranted worship in his termined to return to her own inherinative city, which, in time, degenerated tance, which had been sold, probably into idolatry. After his death, the for a trifle in those troublous times. Shechemites made Abimeleck, the least On ber return, one of her daughters-inworthy of his sons, their sovereign. He law, Ruth, filled with regard for her, began like a despot, and murdered all and with a desire to serve the true God, his father's sons, seventy in number, resolved to go with her, and said, “ Thy except Jotham, the youngest, who es- people shall be my people, and thy God caped. But though he had all the my God.” They came to Bethlehem ; attributes of a tyrant, he does not ap- and Ruth, instructed of her mother, pear to have been generally recognized, first gleaned in the fields of Boaz, a and after a troubled course of about rich kinsman, and afterwards claimed three years, he came to an inglorious end. the conjugal relation, according to the Cruelty and ambition often lead to custom of the people. Boaz, who was misery and contempt! Jotham posted pious and prudent as well as wealthy, on an eminence had rebuked the people informed her that there was a nearer of Shechem, when assembled together, kinsman than himself, but if the nearer in the oldest, and one of the most kinsman would not discharge his obligabeautiful parables in existence. tions, he promised they should not be

It was during the period we have overlooked. Accordingly, a court was just passed over, it is supposed, that called, and Boaz, by the defaulter of the the incidents occured which are nar- nearer kinsman, redeemed her inherirated in the book of Ruth. A family tance, and took Ruth to be his wife, consisting of four persons, the parents amid the blessings of a large assembly and two sons, emigrated from Bethle- of people. From this union sprung hem in Judah, to the land of Moab, in the family of David, “ of whom accordconsequence of the famine occasioned ing to the flesh Christ came, who is by the incursions of the Midianites. over all, God blessed for ever.” So There, the two young men married accurately is the genealogy of the great two of the daughters of Moab: but Redeemer marked in the inspired about ten years after the migration, the volume !

OBSERVATIONS
Upon some of the principal Jewish and Heathen Princes and Governors

mentioned in the New Testament.

(Continued from page 340.*) VII. Agrippa, who was the subject of are mentioned in the New Testament: our last communication, and who is to these our attention will be confined. generally styled Agrippa the great, had The first mention that is made of several children.

"Thus died king Agrippa, for distinction's sake comAgrippa," writes Josephus, Antiq. lib. xix. monly called Agrippa the younger, c. 9, “leaving behind him one son named occurs Acts xxv. 13; where Št. Luke Agrippa, then seventeen years of age; relates, that, “After certain days, king and three daughters, Bernice, who was Agrippa came to Cæsarea, to salute married to Herod, her father's brother, Festus." The sacred historian calls being sixteen years of age; Mariamne, him king, as Josephus also very freand Drusilla, who were unmarried. quently does: but he does not suppose The former was ten years old, and Drusilla six. Drusilla was contracted

* In the last article, page 338, col. 1, for, to Epiphanes, son of Antiochus king

“Thus he restored to him the right of conof Commagene." Of these four, three, sanguinity,” read, “ This he restored to him numely, Agrippa, Bernice and Drusilla, by right of consanguinity."

*

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him to be king of Judea, for all the Paul appeared, and whose name frejudicial proceedings in that country quently occurs in the twenty-fifth and relating to Paul were transacted before twenty-sixth chapters of the Acts of the Felix, and his successor, Festus. Be- apostles. It may not be improper to sides he says here, that " Agrippa came remark what the reader has doubtless to Cæsarea to salute Festus," that is, observed, that when Paul was in the to pay his respects to him, and to com- presence of Agrippa, he addressed himpliment him upon his arrival in the self to him as a Jew. Acts xxvi. 2, 3, 27, province.

“I think myself happy, king Agrippa, When his father died, Claudius in- because I shall answer for myself this tended at first to have put him im- day before thee; especially because I mediately in possession of his father's know thee to be expert in all customs dominions; but as Agrippa was then and questions which are among the but seventeen years old, the emperor Jews. King Agrippa, believest was persuaded to alter bis mind, and thou. the prophets? I know that thou appoint Cuspius Fadus prefect of Judea believest.” From what has been said and the whole kingdom. Agrippa wasrelating to Herod Agrippa, it is evident therefore, disappointed of his father's that he was a zealous Jew, or at least kingdom; he had, by this time, how- appeared so at Jerusalem, and had ever, obtained considerable territories. educated all his children in the Jewish But on the death of Herod, brother of religion. This Agrippa, his son, unking Agrippa the great, in the eighth doubtedly maintained the same proyear of the reign of Claudius, A.D. 49, fession; and now he had, by the perthis emperor gave his, that is, Herod's, mission of the emperor, the direction government, to Agrippa the younger, of the sacred treasury, the government that is, the Agrippa of whom we are of the temple, and the right of nominow speaking, and who was at this nating the high priests. That St. Paul, time twenty-two years of age. Antiq. therefore, told Agrippa, that he “knew lib. xx. c. 5. “When Claudius had him to be expert in all customs and completed the twelfth year of his reign, questions which were among the Jews,” Agrippa being twenty-six years old, he is nothing

surprizing. gave him the tetrarchy of Philip, and VIII. Bernice, whose name occurs Batanea, adding also Trachonitis with twice in the narrative of St. Luke, Acts Abila. This had been the tetrarchy of xxv. 13, and xxvi. 30, was a lady well Lysanias. But he took away from him known in those times. There are Chalcis, after he had governed it four several particulars respecting her reyears." This passage occurs in the lated by Josephus, as well as other Antiq. lib. xx. c. 7. In the Wars, lib. ii. writers. But as St. Luke says nothing c. 12, Josephus writes in the following of her, except that she visited Festus manner :-"After this, Claudius sent Fe- with Agrippa, and it has been already lix, the son of Pallas, to be procurator of shewn who she was, namely, the Galilee, Samaria, and Peræa; and pro- daughter of Herod Agrippa, and the moted Agrippa from Chalcis to a greater sister of Agrippa the younger, it is not kingdom, giving to him the tetrarchy requisite for us to take further notice which had been Philip's. (This was of her. Batanea, Gaulanitis, and Trachonitis.) IX. Of Drusilla, a notice somewhat And he added moreover the kingdom more extended will be

necessary.

While of Lysanias, and the province which Paul was at Cæsarea, the sacred histohad belonged to Varus Nero, the

“ And after certain days, successor of Claudius, in the first year when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, of his reign, A.D. 54, gave Agrippa a who was a Jewess, he sent for Paul certain part of Galilee, ordering Ti- and heard him concerning the faith in berias and Taricheas to be subject to Christ.” Acts xxiv. 24. We have him. He gave him also Julias, a city already shewn that this Drusilla was of Peræa, and fourteen towns in its the youngest daughter of king Agrippa vicinity. Antiq. lib. xx. C. 8. The

The following account of evangelist Luke is, therefore, right in her marriage with Felix, A.D. 52, or 53, giving to Agrippa the title of king at appears in the Antiq. lib. xx. c. vii. this time.

Agrippa having received this present This is the Agrippa before whom from Claudius, gave his sister Drusilla

rian says,

the great.

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