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however, they have a subterfuge for holding us wonderfully cheap, even for this very superiority: they 'clepe us pedlars,' despise us for having recourse to labour, and load us with all the opprobrious epithets due to rusty knaves and mechanics. Some few of them, indeed, begin to perceive that, notwithstanding the disgrace attached to trade and manufactures, industry is an essential means of national prosperity; and that even their great empire, 'la belle France,' with her plains and her forests, her vines and her olives, runs considerable risk of being thrown, farther than ever, behind the shopkeeping nation, whose late successes in arms delivered and abashed her, and whose present prosperity quite stupifies her.
That this class, however, is not very numerous or enlightened, the French press demonstrates. The works which appear upon industry are lamentably few, and still more lamentably deficient in originality. Large views are therefore not to be expected; neither must the world look for much improvement from that quarter. The Société d'Encouragement' publishes little of any value, except what is taken from England, and nothing is more completely jejune and characteristic than its bulletins. We could not, indeed, quote any work, periodical or not, worthy to be compared to the very worst production of these islands, relating to the subject now before us.
A weekly journal has lately been undertaken, · Le Journal Hepdomadaire des Arts et Métiers,' for the express purpose of making known, upon the continent, the state of arts and manufactures in England; and, of all the presents which could be made to the French people, this is the richest. But it is an ungrateful task to teach a nation that thinks it has nothing more to learn ; and the author is reduced to the necessity of apologizing for his temerity. As it is impossible to relate the wonders of British labour without eulogizing them, as to mention is to praise them, he has found it necessary to intimate that he is not an Anglomane; but that he does all this in order that the eyes of the whole world may be opened to see and imitate us. He tells his countrymen, however, some hard truths, and indirectly cautions them against one of their principal weaknesses:
Avant de tracer quelques routes, avant de signaler quelques points remarquables dans l'immense tableau industriel que j'offre à mes lecteurs, je dois combattre ce honteux préjugé, cette pitoyable vanité, ces sentimens funestes de rivalité nationale, qui causent tant de dommage à ceux qui s'y livrent, et qui sont le signe spécial de la sottise et de l'ignorance; assertion dure, mais justifiée par les stupides dédains qu'ont pour les autres peuples, pour leur intelligence et pour tout ce qui vient d'eux, les esclaves bruts de la Turquie et de la Moscovie ; les fainéans, les ignorans, les mendians, les superstitieux de la grande péninsule.' - Vainement les petites bouffisures locales ou individuelles chercheroient-elles à nier, les
supériorités industrielles de l'Angleterre. Les faits sont trop nombreux, trop accumulés ; ils parlent trop haut pour qu'il n'y ait pas de la mauvaise foi à les nier.'
In a preface, containing sounder views than are usual in France, the author gives a rapid sketch of the present prospects of the world, in the branch of which he treats. After briefly considering the vicissitudes of trade and manufactures in Venice, Spain, Portugal, Holland, France and England, he concludes :
1. Le monde social a totalement changé de sphère, et ne sortira plus de celle de l'industrie, dans laquelle l'ancienne propriété territoriale n'a désormais qu'une importance extrêmement secondaire, au moins quant au vieux continent. 2. L'Angleterre est seule, jusqu'à présent, dans l'esprit de ce nouveau système. 3. Les deux Amériques s'uniront à elle; et, si l'Europe demeure plus long-tems engourdie, étrangère aux grandes entreprises commerciales, à l'usage général des machines,-c'est à dire principalement à celui de la machine à vapeur--elle tombera nécessairement dans l'état de pauvreté industrielle où se trouvoient l'Espagne et le Portugal il y a 35 ans.'
The compiler of this journal, or, as he is termed in French, * le principal rédacteur,' was at first supposed to be M. Dupin; but there are evident marks that this is a mistake. M. Dupin is a better writer than the present, and is moreover much more familiar with scientific subjects; but what chiefly distinguishes them is, that the compiler of the Journal Hepdomadaire' appears to have sounder and more liberal (liberal in the good sense) views of general policy than M. Dupin. Besides, the compiler, in praising us, shows as little envy as a Frenchman can have, while the author of the Voyages dans la Grande Bretagne' gives too many proofs of that baleful sentiment. The former is, indeed, grossly mistaken respecting the conduct of England to Ireland, and also in some other points of her political bearings; but, at the same time, he seems to feel that a nation which makes so noble a use of intellect as she does which, in all her relations of industry, has constantly shown such just and comprehensive views-cannot be guilty of the petty duplicity of which she is often accused. The latter has not elevated his mind to such a height as this; and, being compelled to acknowledge the wonders which he beheld, he solaces his jealousy in harping upon charges which a very little knowledge of the human heart would at once reject. It is impossible for such large and enlightened industry as that of England not to perceive that in every thing honesty is the best policy. Pettifoggers alone may thrive by nefarious practices.
The great authority upon the subject of British industry, ever since his work was published in France, is M. Dupin. Although we have already spoken of his volumes, we must revert to them again; particularly as our object in the remainder of this article
is to refute an assertion made by him toward the conclusion of his introduction to the Force Commerciale' of Great Britain. After speaking, in a very rhapsodical style, of what England has, and France has not done, and mixing up the whole with Themistocles and Miltiades, he hopes that his country will be stimulated to success in industry by the example of Britain.
Gardons-nous de penser que ces victoires soient impossibles à notre persévérance. Je viens de le montrer, autant l'Angleterre est en avance aujourd'hui, autant, il y a cinquante années, elle étoit en arrière de la France, et dans l'entreprise et dans l'exécution des grands ouvrages utiles à l'industrie, indispensables au commerce. Ce qu'elle a fait durant un demi-siècle, nous pouvons le faire, plus promptement encore. Nous pouvons reprendre notre rang, en profitant de son expérience, comme elle a su profiter de la nôtre. Osons vouloir. Ni l'ardeur et l'activité, ni la science et le génie, ne manquent à notre heureux pays. Notre territoire est plus vaste, notre climat plus beau, notre sol plus fertile. Une immense frontière et deux mers ouvrent leurs débouchés aux produits des entrailles et de la superficie de notre terre. Mais nous manquons encore, pour arriver à ces limites, de communications intérieures assez nombreuses, assez aisées, assez économiques. Sachons les entreprendre, avec les efforts combinés et les sacrifices communs d'un grand nombre de citoyens,' &c. And a little before we have this :
* Enfin Louis XIV. législateur de ces mêmes travaux, ordonne qu'un jury' (Louis XIV. and a jury!) 'composé des plus notables babitans, accordera par un arbitrage conciliateur, tous les différends à naître sur la propriété de la nouvelle voie publique et des biens limitrophes ; et cent ans plus tard, l'Angleterre retrouvant là le génie de ses luir, s'est honoré de suivre cet exemple. Eh nous, mes chers concitoyens, nous Français ! serons nous les moins empressés à suivre les exemples légués à la postérité par les beaux règnes de Henri IV. et de Louis XIV.? Laisserons nous l'étranger jouir, plus que nous-mêmes, du plagiat d'une prospérité inventée par nos ancêtres ? et ne ressaisirons-nous point une des palmes de notre gloire héréditaire ?'
Upon what is fulsome and bombastical in these extracts, we shall offer no remark; but we must bestow some attention upon the passages printed in italics; and to point out their incorrectness shall be the business of the following pages.
Autant l'Angleterre est en avance aujourd'hui, autant, il y a cinquante années, elle étoit en arrière de la France, et dans l'entreprise et dans l'exécution des grands ouvrages utiles à l'industrie, indispensables au commerce.'
Now, if we can show that, three centuries ago, and ever afterwards, England was superior to the country of M. Dupin in all the points referred to, the fallacy of his assertion will be demonstrated.
That civilization began in the mild and genial climates of the south, indeed that it could not begin any where else, is undoubted.
The cradle of the first generations was Asia; later races, and, with them, higher mental culture, sprung up on the southern shores of the Mediterranean, whence they crossed to the north; and Greece had the precedency of Rome, because her soil and climate were more favourable to youthful society than those of Italy. From Italy, again, at two different periods, the social arts spread themselves to the north; and France, not only because her natural circumstances were more capable of providing for the early wants of men, but as situated nearer to the source of improvement, had the priority of this island in the career of mind. But, as necessity is ever more powerful than example, and as greater obstacles, when not insuperable, always stimulate to greater exertions, it follows that, when the immediate wants of the inhabitants of the north are supplied, the ingenuity which was awakened in satisfying them is exercised upon other objects, and becomes a source of higher improvement than could be attained by men who, from their outset in life, have revelled in enjoyment. Thus Egypt, Greece, Italy, France, England succeeded each other in social progress, in periods nearly proportionate to the advantages which nature had bestowed upon the soil and climate of each; but the value of the civilization which they have enjoyed has been in a ratio as nearly inverse. The Greeks were far superior to their massive predecessors, not only in all the beautiful arts and accomplishments of life, but in philosophy and reason. The Romans, inferior to the Greeks in many respects, rose far above them in an art before which sculpture, painting, poetry, nay speculative philosophy itself must bow-the art of creating the greatest empire of the world from the smallest beginning, and of giving that empire longer freedom than the pettiest states have known. When social improvement flourished anew, after the dark ages, France
was more tardy than Italy; but she had not long begun to advance before she outstripped her in useful industry, and composed a larger and a finer empire, one
more swayed by reason, even than the spiritual realm of St. Peter. Last of all, necessarily came England; but the mental power which has been there developed exceeds all that antiquity, or even more modern ages, could have dreamed of. In every department of intellect, if it be but useful, Britain has no rival among nations; and she has opened and explored more new regions of thought in every
direction than all the rest of the world since the restoration of knowledge.
At what period, or at what precise degree of social improvement the tardier nations begin to take a lead, may not easily be determined: but, with respect to England, we have already shown in this article, that, in policy at least, she had the priority of France by more than one century and a half, at the epocha of our
Magna Charta. In other branches the genius of Britain was celebrated by the earliest Romans who visited the island; and, under the emperor Constantius Chlorus, the mechanical arts were so much superior to those of Gaul, that her architects and artificers were employed to repair the ruined fortresees upon the Rhine. But this advantage was soon lost when more barbarous invaders overran the country. A similar superiority was remarked by the Romans in the agriculture of Gaul; but as the German nations held this art in contempt, it declined after the irruption of the Franks. Thus then, even at this remote period, the career of both nations was marked out by their natural circumstances; and the advantageous territory and climate of France disposed her principally to the cultivation of the soil; while other wants and other opportunities determined the British to addict themselves to other arts, even more than to agriculture.
The further progress of these two nations was determined by the circumstances which act in general throughout the world: and the severer climate of England required harder labour than the fertility and warmth of France. In the former, industry at once assumed a character of utility which it wanted in the latter; and the luxury which there began to flourish at a much more early period, here gained footing only when the most imperious necessities were satisfied. The later developement of British industry was accompanied by the highest reach of intellectual civilization; and was incorporated with every branch of prosperity; but the industry of France was too much connected with ostentation and selfish enjoyment, to produce such enlarged advantages. In disproving the assertion of M. Dupin, we shall particularly attend to these distinctions; and consider the relative progress of both empires, not only as greater the one than the other, but as characteristic.
One of the earliest wants of men is clothing; the materials principally used for this purpose are wool, cotton, linens and silk. Now those which suit the wants of a northern climate are the two first; whilst the latter, but particularly silk, are appropriate to the demands of the south. An inquiry into the progress of these manufactures will, then, throw considerable light upon the
the present subject.
The first great historical encouragement given to the woollen manufactures of this country was in the reign of Edward III. though their introduction was prior to this period. The Romans, we are told by Camden, had a cloth manufactory at Winchester, and, under William the Conqueror, a body of Flemish weavers, expelled from home by an irruption of the sea, settled in this island. In the reigns of Henry I. and of Henry II. several privileges were granted to cloth-weavers; and, under Henry III. regu