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Y4. F76 :P 17
CRISIS IN EAST PAKISTAN

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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1971

63-112

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS

THOMAS E. MORGAN, Pennsylvania, Chairman CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI, Wisconsin

WILLIAM S. MAILLIARD, California WAYNE L. HAYS, Ohio

PETER H. B. FRELINGHUYSEN, New Jersey L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina

WILLIAM S. BROOMFIELD, Michigan DANTE B. FASCELL, Florida

J. IRVING WHALLEY, Pennsylvania
CHARLES C. DIGGS, JR., Michigan

H. R. GROSS, Iowa
CORNELIUS E. GALLAGHER, New Jersey EDWARD J. DERWINSKI, Illinois
ROBERT N. C. NIX, Pennsylvania

F. BRADFORD MORSE, Massachusetts
JOHN S. MONAGAN, Connecticut

VERNON W. THOMSON, Wisconsin DONALD M. FRASER, Minnesota

JAMES G. FULTON, Pennsylvania BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL, New York

PAUL FINDLEY, Illinois JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa

JOHN BUCHANAN, Alabama LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana

SHERMAN P. LLOYD, Utah ABRAHAM KAZEN, JR., Texas

J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida LESTER L. WOLFF, New York

SEYMOUR HALPERN, New York JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, New York

GUY VANDER JAGT, Michigan GUS YATRON, Pennsylvania

ROBERT H. STEELE, Connecticut
ROY A. TAYLOR, North Carolina

PIERRE S. DU PONT, Delaware
JOHN W. DAVIS, Georgia
MORGAN F. MURPHY, Illinois
RONALD V. DELLUMS, California

ROY J. BULLOCK, Staff Administrator

SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS

CORNELIUS E. GALLAGHER, New Jersey, Chairman LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana

WILLIAM S. BROOMFIELD, Michigan CHARLES C. DIGGS, JR., Michigan

J. IRVING WHALLEY, Pennsylvania LESTER L. WOLFF, New York

VERNON W. THOMSON, Wisconsin ABRAHAM KAZEN, JR., Texas

J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida JOHN W. DAVIS, Georgia

SEYMOUR HALPERN, New York
MORGAN F. MURPHY, Illinois

PIERRE S. DU PONT, Delaware
CHARLES P. WITTER, Subcommittee Staff Consultant

JEAN SMITH, Staf Assistant

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CRISIS IN EAST PAKISTAN

TUESDAY, MAY 11, 1971

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 2:05 p.m. in room 2172 Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Cornelius E. Gallagher (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Mr. GALLAGHER. The subcommittee will come to order.

We are rather short on members, because we are knee-deep in the SST debate on the floor. We will proceed as the members come in.

We are beginning hearings today into the situation in East Pakistan with particular emphasis on the related problems of refugees and famine.

I think it would be useful to briefly summarize events leading to what may be one of the worst human tragedies in modern times.

In November 1970 a cyclone and flood killed thousands in East Pakistan and crippled the main port of Chittagong. The recent fighting has prevented most crops from being planted. Because East Pakistan is a food deficit region in the best of times, as many as 30 million people may starve, according to reports said to have been submitted to the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. Right now, refugees are streaming from East Pakistan into India at the rate of 60,000 each day, swelling the already strained Indian food supply by an estimated 1.5 million new mouths to feed.

The refugees and the potential famine are the result of civil war which broke out on March 25, 1971. While the politics of Pakistan and the subcontinent are not the focus of this hearing, it is important to remember that in the election for a National Constitutional Assembly in December 1970, the Awami League captured 167 of the 169 seats contested in the East. This gave them an absolute majority of the 313 seats contested in all of Pakistan.

While the government of Yahya Kahn now is in apparent control of the cities, those who embrace autonomy for Bangla Desh claim the countryside. Factually, the countryside of East Pakistan is the equal of the countryside of South Vietnam in providing natural surrounding for insurgency and the fighting thus far has produced reports of savage atrocities on both sides.

Putting this together, we seem to have a situation which is potentially equal, in terms of human misery, to a combination of Vietnam and Biafra. Because of our military aid to the central government it appears that our arms, in conjunction with those supplied by other governments, are being used to defeat the people who won the election.

While these and other questions are as important as they seem to be unanswerable at this point, our focus is the immediate threat to the

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