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A COMPENDIOUS GRAMMAR

AND

PHILOLOGICAL HAND-BOOK OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

PART I.

DEFINITIONS.—ORTHOEPY.—ORTHOGRAPHY.

Language (French langue, Lat. lingua = Language. tongue) is the expression of our thoughts by words, both spoken and written.

Language is made up of words; words, of syllables; and syllables, of letters.

Letters are conventional symbols representing Letters. the different sounds of the voice.

They were formerly pictures of different objects which they were intended to represent; that is, they formed a pictorial alphabet.

A Syllable (sullabein=to take together, Greek) Syllable. is a single vowel sound, without or with one or more consonants, capable of being pronounced by a single effort of the voice.

A Word consists of one or more syllables Word. having a distinct and independent meaning; as, one, orchard, glorious.

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а

ble.

Grammar.

Mono-
A Monosyllable (monos = alone, Greek) is a

) syllable.

word consisting of only one syllable; as, a, man,

the. Dissyllable. A Dissyllable (dis = two, Greek) is a word

consisting of two syllables; as, garden, deist. Trisyllable. A Trisyllable (tri = three, Greek) is a word

consisting of three syllables; as, formerly. Polysylla

A Polysyllable (polus = many, Greek) is a word consisting of many syllables; as, luminary, tyrannically.

Grammar (grapho = to write, Greek) teaches the art of speaking and writing our thoughts correctly.

Grammar is divided into four parts :-(1.) Orthoepy and Orthography; (2.) Etymology

or Accidence; (3.) Syntax; (4.) Prosody. Orthoepy. Orthoepy (orthos = correct, and

epo

to speak, Greek) means the correct pronunciation of words, and refers to spoken language.

Orthography (orthos = correct, and grapho = graphy.

to write, Greek) means the correct spelling of

words, and refers to written language. Etymology. Etymology (etumos = true, and logos = word,

Greek) is the true derivation of a word. It also has another and more general meaning, in which it corresponds with Accidence, when it teaches the inflections of words. In this sense, a rule of Etymology and a rule of Accidence mean the same thing.

Accidence (accidentia=things happening, Lat.) treats of the inflections which words undergo. It teaches the rules for the formation of the cases and plurals of nouns, the tenses of verbs, etc.

Ortho

a

Accidence.

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