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Senator FERGUSON. Would you find that out for the committee, please!

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir. I do not believe, sir, that there are any. Senator FERGUSON. That is what I want to find out.

Would you give us, then, the number of persons and the names of those persons that he did recommend, that may now be in the Department? That is not covered, as I understand it, by the secrecy rule.

Mr. HUMELSINE. No, sir; it is not.

I will furnish that for the record. I can have it for you tomorrow. I have it in my office.

(The information requested, subsequently furnished, is as follows:)

A survey has been made and no evidence was found indicating that there is any employee in the Department or the Foreign Service who was recommended for employment by Alger Hiss.

Mr. HICKERSON. Mr. Chairman, may I make a brief comment at that point ?

Senator McCARRAN. Yes, sir.

Mr. HICKERSON. When I took my job on the 9th of August 1919, because of the fact that Mr. Hiss had been associated for a time with the Office of United Nations Affairs, before I took my oath of office I went to Mr. Peurifoy and told him that I wanted to be assured that everybody in the organization had been completely investigated for loyalty.

Mr. Peurifoy assured me that that was the case, and I took my oath of office only after having that explicit assurance.

Senator McCARRAN. That was in 1949; is that correct !
Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. I just want the names and the numbers, and then the committee can pass upon the other questions as to whether or not there is any indication of disloyalty or anything else. It is not that we are casting any reflection upon your work in the Department, or Mr. Peurifoy's work in the Department.


Might I ask along this line now, since the new rule has gone into effect under the Loyalty Board, is it the intention of the State Department to review all the cases that had been up and undecided under the old rule?

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir.
Senator FERGUSON. It is the intention to cover it?

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir. It is not only the intention, but it is already started. Not only are we going to investigate those that they have asked us to, that have been remanded to us, but they made a suggestion that certain of them we could make our own decision on it, whether we would or would not reinvestigate. My decision was to reinvestigate all of them.

Senator FERGUSON. All persons?
Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. If they have already been investigated you will reinvestigate them under the new rule; is that the idea!

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir. We will go through the procedure again to make sure that there is no doubt about them.


Senator McCARRAN. We have covered this item of the Office of Assistant Secretary, and we now go to the Office of Executive Director.

Under this classification here on page 167 of the justifications, you show here the Office of Dependent Area Affairs. What does that mean? What is the "dependent area?"


Mr. HICKERSON. That is an office of my bureau, Mr. Chairman.

Senator McCARRAN. Before we go into that, Senator Ferguson, let me say I brought up a matter in your absence here that I think you would be interested in, and that is as to whether or not there is any activity on the part of this office or any office of the State Department, known to this witness, which was attempting to oust the Naionalist Chinese delegation in the United Nations.

Senator FERGUSON. What was the answer?
Senator McCARRAN. The answer was “no."

Mr. HICKERSON. The answer was an unequivocal “no”; that we have worked vigorously in exactly the opposite direction, with complete success.

I should have added, Mr. Chairman, that the 77 votes that I referred to were all won by us except 1, and that was on a technical organization, the Universal Postal Union.

In 1950, for that meeting only, they seated the Chinese Communist representatives, and in 1951, on the 19th of May, I am happy to tell you that that vote was reversed under the strong leadership of the United States.

Today the Nationalist representative of China represents China in all of the international organizations of which China is a member.

Senator FERGUSON. Could I just ask another question here, Mr. Chairman?

Senator McCARRAN. Yes, sir.


Senator FERGUSOX. Who has charge of the labor section of the United Nations, or the section that would cover the labor attachés in our embassies?

I have a clipping that I wanted to take up with someone about attempting to call a strike here to join the longshoremen of another country. You may be familiar with the case.

Mr. HUMELSINE. I am familiar with the case, Senator. Is that Edith Cameron Wall ?

Senator FERGUSON. Yes.
Mr. HUMELSINE. I could go into it completely, if you care to, now.

Senator FERGUSON. We can take that up a little later. I do not want to interfere here, but I just wanted to get the right person.

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir.


Senator McCARRAN. Now, can you tell us what the Office of Dependent Area Affairs is?

Mr. HICKERSON. It is an office in the Bureau of United Nations Affairs that handles the task of working out our substantive policy recommendations with regard to United States policies and programs pertaining to, first, non-self-governing territories and the international trusteeship system of the United Nations, and, secondly, two regional commissions: the Caribbean Commission and the South Pacific Commission.

The first one of those responsibilities—that is, working out our policies in the United Nations with respect to non-self-governing territories and the trusteeship system-takes up the overwhelming majority of their time.



Senator FERGUSON. Along that line, on policy, you have an item on page 168:

To insure the foreign policy of the United States is consistent with the obligation of the United States under the Charter of the United Nations.

Could you give us specifically what those obligations are under that Charter, as you give them?

Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir; the first and foremost obligation is not to use force or the threat of force except in the common good, which means in pursuance of United Nations obligations.

Senator FERGUSON. Is there any case where you think that there was an occasion to use force ?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir. You just asked me to state the obligations, and I am just running through the list.

Senator FERGUSON. Yes. I am asking you as you go along whether you have had any work under that. You have not had any under that section; have you!

Mr. HICKERSON. No, I am happy to say, sir.

The second is to settle all of our disputes by peaceful means. We have had no difficulties with that as yet.


The third is to order our national affairs in such a way that we will be an asset in the international community, that we will follow policies that tend to raise standards of living-our own and those of the rest of the world generally.

Fourth, as regards dependent areas under our control and we have some-our objective is to prepare them for self-government.

Senator FERGUSON. How large a staff have you on this policy?

Mr. HICKERSON. There is no particular person. This is a general statement of our over-all objectives, sir. We have no person especially designated on this task No. 3.

Senator FERGUSON. You do not purport by that statement, do you, to mean that the United Nations has control of our foreign policy?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. It is to line up with our treaty obligations under that rather than to say that they have control of our foreign policy; is that correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.


Senator FERGUSON. Over on page 169, do you have in mind there that you are going to have a supplemental budget?

You say:

It is particularly difficult in this critical period to determine very far in advance just what activities the Bureau will need to carry out and just what additional staff will be required for the job. In the meantiine the personnel of the Bureau is being taxed to the limit to keep pace with the growing volume and intensity of the work. It appears now that the workload will soon expand beyond the present capacity of the Bureau to absorb it.

Mr. WILBER. Mr. Chairman, we have at the present time a supplemental estimate under consideration by the Bureau of the Budget in this Bureau.

Senator FERGUSON. In other words, before you get through testifying here you have in mind a supplemental; is that correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. We do not know whether they will approve it or

not, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. But you have it in mind.
Chairman MCKELLAR. You are having it worked out.
Mr. WILBER. That is correct.

Senator FERGUSON. How large a budget is it? What are you asking for?

Mr. WILBER. Sixteen additional positions in this Bureau.
Senator McCARRAN. Is that in the Office of Dependent Area Affairs?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir; the whole Bureau of United Nations Affairs.

Senator FERGUSON. You are asking for 244 and you have already planned for 16 more.

Mr. HICKERSON. We have asked for 16 more, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. That is for the 1952' supplemental; is that correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. Here in 1950 you had $116,760, with 21 persons, as I read your breakdown here on page 167, and again with 21 persons in 1951 you have $116,760. You are asking for the same amount

this year.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. I gathered that you did not have this staff at all. I must have misunderstood you.

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir. Senator Ferguson went over to something not relating to that.

Chairman McKELLAR. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask a question here.

Senator McCARRAN. Certainly.


Chairman MCKELLAR. I notice you asked for $1,347,965 for your office here, and I notice that the United Nations in New York is asking for approximately the same amount. Is not that just a duplication of what they have in New York?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir; it is not. Our task here is to work out the instructions of Senator Austin and his staff in New York. Senator Austin and his staff in New York then endeavor to have adopted in the United Nations the programs which we think ought to be adopted.

Our task is to work out those programs and get out the instructions.


Senator McCARRAN. Let me see if I caught the whole tenor of this particular thing correctly.

It is in your office, and by you, that the policy of this country is worked out that is submitted to the United Nations through Mr. Austin and his staff; is that correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. Then you are the head of the policy-making group in the Department of State; is that not correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

As someone called it, I am the operating vice president for the United Nations. I operate in the Secretary's name. That does not mean that I decide these things.

Senator McCARRAN. You operate in whose name?

Mr. HICKERSON. The Secretary's name; as regards United Nations affairs.

Many of these things the President approves personally, but it is my responsibility to see that it is done. If it is something I can decide, I decide it.

Senator McCARRAN. Is that without the President's approval?
Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. About what percentage of the decisions do you submit to the President?

Mr. HICKERSON. I would have to guess at that. I would say less than 10 percent.

Senator McCARRAN. Then you decide about 90 percent of them yourself; is that correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct.

If something gos wrong, if I make an unwise decision, I am responsible for that. If I make enough unwise decisions

Senator FERGUSON. You mean we are responsible for that, the people.

Mr. HICKERSON. Yes. But I have to take the responsibility for it.
Senator McCARRAN. We have to bear the brunt of it.
Mr. HICKERSON. That is right, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. So now we know where the policy is established.

Mr. HICKERSON. And if something goes wrong I am the guy who is to blame, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. In other words, if we want to know anything about United Nations policy we come to you?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.


Chairman McKELLAR. I notice in some of these items you are asking for the same amount each year for 3 years. How does that happen?

And now you say you have a supplemental bill. Have you had a supplemental bill every time?

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