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are not really in the United Nations at all, but in the Office of the Secretary of State here in Washington.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.
Senator McCARRAN. So, we do not have the United Nations in on it.
Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct.

Senator FERGUSON. You see, we are spending $1,300,000 right here in the Office before we get up to the United Nations.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is right, sir.

Chairman McKELLAR. As an illustration, the $1,140,500 is almost exactly the same amount spent in the United Nations.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is right.

Chairman McKELLAR. It just looks like a duplication of offices. That is all there is to it.

Mr. HICKERSON. I assure you there is no duplication, Senator.

Senator FERGUSON. You have an agency down here and you have the Austin staff in New York. Then you have an agency in the field doing the work.

Mr. HICKERSON. Senator Austin's staff is our field agency for this work.

Senator FERGUSON. But that is only in New York.
Mr. HICKERSON. That is right.

Senator FERGUSON. What about the field? You are trying to reform the people.

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir. That is, the United Nations sends out field missions. We do not send our staffs under this.

Senator FERGUSON. But you have appointees to that staff doing the work down in Indonesia.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is all done by the United Nations, sir.
Senator FERGUSON. Yes, but we are paying that bill.
Mr. HICKERSON. We are paying our share of it.
Senator FERGUSON What is our share of it?
Mr HICKERSON. 38.91 percent, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. The United Nations has a field staff of its own; is that not correct?

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct.
Senator McCARRAN. To which we contribute.
Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct.

Senator McCARRAN. Going back to your statement that we are trying to raise these people to our level, that is done through the United Nations; is that not right?

Mr. HICKERSON. In part, sir; yes.

Senator McCARRAN. And the United Nations is composed of a number of nations.

Mr. HICKERSON. Sixty nations.

Senator McCARRAN. And none of those 60 nations has the same standard that we have.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir. We are working toward that as a goal, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. I wish you would point out someday to me what we have really done and what has been adopted to the end of reforming the world. I am looking for it. I have seen it tried in some of our places here.

OFFICE OF POLITICAL AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

Senator McCARRAN. Coming now to the United Nations Office of Political and Security Affairs, what does that mean? What do those words “political" and "security” mean there?

Mr. HICKERSON. The security affairs relate to international security, Mr. Chairman; that is, colletive steps against aggression.

It does not relate to security as we use it here, about loyalty; it is security in the broad sense. We are trying to take the leadership in building a collective system of security that we hope ultimately will really work.

Senator McCARRAN. Your answer up to this point just is not an answer at all. I mean by "security” in this respect. Can you get it down to where we can understand it?

Mr. HICKERSON. The United States has taken the leadership, Mr. Chairman, in trying to get the United Nations developed into an organization whereby nations can pool their forces if there is aggression which menaces all of them. The Charter was designed with that in view, and the Charter has been frustrated by the abuse of the veto by the Soviet Union.

Senator McCARRAN. Are you speaking of the United Nations Charter

Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir.
Senator McCARRAN. And it has been frustrated by abuse?
Mr. HICKERSON. By abuse of the veto.

Last year Secretary Acheson proposed a plan under which, if the Security Council could not act in the event of aggression, the General Assembly could meet on 24 hours' notice and take such action as it considered wise to enable those countries who wished to take collective action to do it.

Senator McCARRAN. How did that come into existence, or how could it, in view of the United Nations Charter? Why did it not run counter to the provisions of the United Nations Charter?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir; it did not. The United Nations Charter clearly recognized that the General Assembly had important responsibilities in keeping the peace, and you will find running throughout the United Nations Charter recognition of that.

It is true that the Charter provided that the primary responsibility for keeping the peace should rest with the Security Council, but it did not provide that exclusively responsibiliy should be there.

Senator McCARRON. Is that what you mean by “security”?
Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir.
Senator McCARRAN. As the term is used here?
Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

In this office we do the spadework. We prepared the first draft of the Acheson plan Uniting for Peace.

We are taking our role of leadership in the Collective Measures Committee set up under that resolution, whereby we continue this study to see what free nations, who want to remain free, can do to pool their efforts in the common good when the General Assembly finds there is a reasonable necessity.

80513-51-pt. 1—-68

DEFINITION OF "POLITICAL AFFAIRS”

The phrase "political affairs” relates to the settlement of disputes between countries which have not yet reached the fighting stage. Under that, the Office of United Nations Political Affairs prepares the position of the United States with regard to such disputes as Kashmir, between India and Pakistan, and in regard to Palestine and in regard to Greece and Indonesia.

It takes in the whole range of peaceful settlement of disputes which have not reached the fighting stage.

Senator McCarran. Did this department have anything to do with the recent note sent by the President to Iran with regard to the oil dispute?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir. That was done by the Office of Near Eastern Affairs. The Iran oil dispute has not reached the United Nations.

Senator McCARRAN. I have not grasped your meaning of "security affairs” yet. I would like to have you go further into that, if you please.

You are asking for an additional $10,000 here.

Mr. HICKERSON. Yes, sir. That is two positions. That is an officer and a stenographer.

Senator McCARRAN. You have 30 positions now.

Mr. HICKERSON. We have 30 positions now, sir. This Office has carried a tremendous burden of work during the past year.

Senator McCARRAN. Can you tell us what it does?

WORK WITH REFERENCE TO KOREA

Mr. HICKERSON. It is in this Office, sir, that our work in regard to Korea is centered, the United Nations aspects of that work.

Senator McCARRAN. What is your work with reference to Korea?

Mr. HICKERSON. We drafted the resolutions, sir, which Senator Austin introduced in the Security Council.

Senator McCARRAN. Is that all you did as concerns the security affairs? What else did you do besides carry a tremendous volume of work? Let us have it and see what it means.

Mr. HICKERSON. We drafted the plan, the actual plan “Uniting for Peace,” which was adopted by the General Assembly last year.

We handled all aspects of the Kashmir dispute, the Palestine dispute.

Senator FERGUSON. We have not settled anything in Kashmir as yet.

Mr. HICKERSON. We are still trying. The Security Council drafted recently a resolution which we helped write and cosponsor, to send out eight representatives to have another trial, and Dr. Graham is going

Senator FERGUSON. According to the basis on which you are employing these people, how many people would you need to run the Appropriations Committee of the Senate? I am just wondering. You have 30 in this departinent. Do you know how many we have ?

Mr. HICKERSON. No, sir; I don't know that.

Senator FERGUSON. You tell me sometime how many you would need to have to run this Appropriations Committee. You have 30 in this department.

Mr. HICKERSON. It is one of the busiest and most important sections.

Senator FERGUSON. Sure, but I have the whole State of Michigan, as a Senator, and I do not have any number of people like that.

Mr. HICKERSON. But, Senator, we are trying to take the leadership in building up a collective system.

Senator FERGUSON. It is the same way that I am trying to take the leadership up in Michigan. We are all trying to do that.

Senator McCARRAN. We are handling billions of dollars of the taxpayers' money,

Chairman MCKELLAR. Just to show you how astounding it is, let me tell you this: A representative of a bureau just like yours came up and said that he wanted an additional number of employees last year, my recollection being that it was 300 additional employees.

I asked him how many he had now. He said 1,341. He pointed out that I did not understand what they had to do; that they had 600 millions of dollars to spend and account for, and he said it was a large sum.

I said, "Yes, indeed; it is a large sum, but you just stand aside and I will show you something.

So, I put Mr. Smith on the stand here and I asked Mr. Smith: "How many employees have you under you?

He said, “Including myself ?”
I said, “Either way.”
He said, "Sixteen in all. I have 15 under me."

And, since this gentleman talked so much about money, I asked, “How much money does this committee spend under your staff?”

He said, “Do you mean this year?”
I said, "I mean this year.”
The answer was, “Fifty-seven billions of dollars.”

Well, the man testified a little more, but he did not get anyone of the 300 employees he was requesting. He should have cut down from what he did have.

I asked him how he found work for them.

I am almost tempted to ask you now how you find work for these people. I think you must have great difficulty in finding work for 244, and you want 16 more.

Mr. HICKERSON. We are asking here for four, sir. It is true that we do have a request pending for 16 in the Budget Bureau, but that is not in this request here.

Senator MCCARRAN. You are asking for two in this Office of Political and Security Affairs.

Mr. HICKERSON. That is correct, sir.

To answer Senator McKellar: Sir, I have no trouble keeping them busy. They work practically 61,2 days a week, most of them. They give up their leave. Rather than having trouble keeping them busy, I have trouble finding people to do the work which I think is important to be done.

I am deeply conscious of the fact that in these times we ought to economize everywhere we can, and I can assure you, sir, that in asking here for only four people more we said “No” to many people.

Chairman MCKELLAR. The recommendation has been made that we cut down on appropriations in every way possible, and we find these figures confronting us, these figures in your department and in other departments. It is astonishing to me. It is staggering to me.

Mr. HICKERSON. Senator, I can tell you that in this particular office we are talking about now, if we do our job, if we accomplish what we are trying to do, it will enormously contribute to the security of the United States.

Senator McCARRAN. I am trying to find out—and I want you to go back, because I really am trying to help you justify your positionI am trying to find out what you do under the head of Political" and under the head of "Security.” I wish you would go into it again, because, personally, I am not content at all with the answer you have given.

STATEMENT ON ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRAMS Senator FERGUSON. As to the economic and social

programs since you started in the United Nations, that you have advocated, let us see copies of them, what has been accomplished on them, and what it has cost the department to operate.

Mr. HICKERSON. I will be very glad to prepare a statement on that, Senator, and put it in the record for you.

(Information requested, subsequently furnished, is as follows:)

OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE ECONOMIC AND

SOCIAL FIELDS

INTRODUCTION

The United Nations and the various specialized agencies may be said to have two basic objectives: to solve by international action problems that cannot be solved by national action alone; and to create world-wide conditions that contribute to the maintenance of peace.

Many international economic and social problems have been the subject of international action for decades—e. g., regulation of the traffic in narcotic drugs, prevention of spread of disease, and cooperation in navigation, telecommunications, and postal services. Others have become acute in recent years—e. g., relief to victims of aggression, protection of individual liberties, and the advancement of dependent territories toward self-government or independence.

The United Nations system is designed, in the economic and social field, to solve these international problems and to help remove the age-old scourges of mankind-poverty, hunger, disease, and ignorance. To the extent that the United Nations system succeeds in these efforts, it is removing some of the causes of international unrest and tension. Every improvement in economic and social conditions throughout the world is an improvement in political conditions and a contribution to peace. Every victory over poverty, hunger, disease, and ignorance throughout the world is a defeat for the Soviet imperialists who hope to win over the two-thirds of the world's peoples who live in underdeveloped countries. Every such victory adds to the strength of the free world. The fact that the United States cooperates fully through the United Nations and specialized agencies in the improvement of the economic and social conditions of the world makes the contrast with Soviet Union's nonparticipation obvious to all countries. The United States is doing what it can to improve conditions, the Soviet Union's only participation is to obstruct. In the fight to unite and hold together the free world this is one of the best propaganda weapons.

The list below includes many of the outstanding achievements of the United Nations system. It is not intended as a catalog of the accomplishments of the Economic and Social Council, together with its 9 functional commissions and its 3 regional commissions, and of the 11 specialized agencies. This list omits most of the valuable research work undertaken by the international secretariats, the exchange of ideas that takes place in international meetings, and the recom. mendations to governments regarding action which should be taken. The list is focused on concrete, readily defined accomplishments of special interest to the United States Government and of special value to its foreign policy.

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