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Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir. The material that you have there is simply a publication which is put out by our Office of Public Affairs.
TOTAL COST OF DISSEMINATING STATEMENT ON FOREIGN POLICY
It is designed to acquaint the American people with the facts that underlie the foreign-policy decisions, including those which have gone into the presentation before the United Nations.
Chairman McKELLAR. You go a little further than Mr. Hickerson, is that right?
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir.
Senator McCARRAX. The copy that I have in my hand is marked in pencil on the outside "200,000" which I take it would mean the 200,000 copies that were circulated, and after that a comma, and "Cost, $20,179."
Mr. SARGEANT. That is correct, sir.
Mr. SARGEANT. This is the first time that such a pamphlet has been prepared, Mr. Chairman. In fact, this pamphlet was written in response to a request made by the Committee on Appropriations in the House. They have asked us to try and develop some material which will be understandable to people such as high-school students, labor groups, and others, which would be popularly written, so that there will at least be some opportunity for a great deal of recirculation. That, in fact, has happened with this pamphlet because it was printed in its entirety—that is, reprinted in its entirety by the Machinist's Monthly Journal that I refer to, and substantial parts of it were carried in newspapers in this country, including the St. Louis PostDispatch, the Christian Science Monitor, and so forth.
Our intention, Mr. Chairman, is not to develop great quantities of publications by which we hope to reach millions of people. We hope that with a limited quantity of publications we will reach the people who are the middlemen, who will take these, rework them or reprint them, and reach the particular groups that are their own constituents.
Senator McCARRAN. Are any of these people whom you have employed or intend to employ engaged in an effort to influence Congress into a larger information program?
Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir; there are none.
UNESCO RELATIONS STAFF Senator McCARRAN. I notice that you have in your justification here an item under "UNESCO relations staff," conduct of diplomatic relations with international organizations. How much goes into that out of your department? How much money?
Mr. SARGEANT. For UNESCO relations staff, Mr. Chairman, we are asking for the same number of positions that we have this year, as we pointed out, 42 positions. The amount of money that we are requesting for the fiscal year 1952 is the same as for the present year. namely, $209,945.
Senator McCarrAn. Is not that largely under Mr. Hickerson?
Mr. SARGEANT. This particular operation is not under Mr. Hickerson, because the UNESCO relations staff, although engaged in the conduct of relations with the international agency, UNESCO, has a second function, which is authorized in the act, by which we participate in UNESCO. That is Public Law 565 of the Seventy-ninth Congress.
That act authorized the Department to supply a secretariat to the United States National Commission for UNESCO which is made up of 100 leaders in this country in the fields of education, science, and culture. That staff performs many functions and services as a secretariat. In addition to that, it does have functions of relationships with the international agency; but because our office deals so much with the American public, it was thought in the beginning that it more appropriately belonged with us.
Senator MCCARRAN. Now, do you call yourself a policy-making department ?
Mr. SARGEANT. No. The Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs is not a policy-making official. It is his duty to bring to the attention of policy-making officials such things as public-opinion factors.
Senator McCARRAN. Then why do you put out publications if you are not putting them out for the purpose of establishing policies?
Chairman McKELLAR. That is foreign policy, to the public.
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir-but I would like to make this distinction clear: Our Foreign Policy is the best presentation we know how to make of the foreign policy that has been laid down. It is not a policy that the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs has himself evolved.
Senator McCARRAN. I am sorry. I do not follow that.
Mr. SARGEANT. Let me make this clear, now. In a sense, we are the arm of the Department of State that explains to the public what the policies are. But we are not any more a policy-making body than would be the case if you were running a business, Senator McCarran, and you had a public relations director and your public relations director would say that the policy of the firm is so and so. It would be the general manager or the board of directors that would have laid down that policy.
Senator McCARRAN. Let me put it to you in another way, in a rather homely way. If the policy as such is made by Mr. Hickerson's department, is it your duty to sell that to the public?
Mr. SARGEANT. No; I would not put it that way. I think it is our duty to see that the public has the facts that were available to Mr. Hickerson when that decision was made. They may or not agree when they have the facts that the decision was corerctly made. If they don't, that is another reason for our provision of a staff to obtain their views.
Senator McCARRAN. Pardon me?
Mr. SARGEANT. I was going to say that in the event they do not agree, once they have the facts, it is through the Office of Public Affairs, in many instances, that we get the reaction. We get the reactions from organizations and from individuals. They say, "We have read your statement on such and such an issue in that publication, and we want to say that we don't agree with you, and here are our reasons.” In that event they may participate in one of the meetings that we have with representatives of organizations, and Mr. Hickerson would be invited to meet with that group and to give them any further information or try to answer their quesions.
Senator McCARRAN. You would not put out anything that would run counter to Mr. Hickerson's policies, would you?
Mr. SARGEANT. Well, I do not know how to answer that, Mr. Chairman. I think that in many instances, we would, in the sense that if there were a controversial issue you would find not only the policy that has been adopted by the Department has been reflected, but you would find ample evidence and testimony given before congressional committees, or public statements by other people, which actually oppose that particular policy.
Mr. WILBER. Mr. Sargeant, is it not true that you do not evaluate policy, you merely publicize the circumstances and that the actual policy is established by Mr. Hickerson?
Mr. SARGEANT. Or other policy makers in the Department. That is correct.
QUESTION OF ENORMOUS COST OF PUBLICATIONS
Senator McCARRAN. What I am getting at is this. There is this enormous bill for publications—here is one publication that cost $20,000 alone. I do not know how many more you have; there are quite a number, as indicated by the statement that you are going to offer for the record here. It must run into an enormous amount of money. Now, I am trying to find out what that does, and what the object and purpose is. That is the reason for my questioning.
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir; I understand. Let me make it clear, though, that Mr. Wilber's statement, I think, is an accurate one, and I do not want to continue to confuse the committee, Mr. Chairman, by having them believe that the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs makes foreign policy or evaluates foreign policy. It is our job—and this I conceive to be the purpose of our operation—to see that foreign policy decisions which have been taken are presented, that they are presented in such context as will make people understand what the facts were, both for and against that policy.
Senator McCARRAN. Do you not in that try to make the people believe in that form of foreign policy?
Senator FEGRUSON. You try to make them swallow that?
Senator FERGUSON. I know you do not like the word "swallow" but we all know what it means.
Mr. SARGEANT. Let me put it this way: We have the obligation, in performing the presentation of these foreign policy matters, to present as clearly as we can the position that has been taken by the Department of State and by the administration. We do not conceive that it is our duty to falsify or to omit essential facts. We feel that it is our duty to present the background of the facts surrounding that situation so that the American public will have those in its thinking.
EXAMPLE OF CHANGE IN POLICY UNDER PRESSURE OF PUBLIC OPINION
Senator FERGUSON. Can you give us an example of where public opinion has changed our policy?
Mr. SARGEANT. I am sure that there are such examples.
Senator FERGUSON. Would you get them and make them a part of the record ?
Mr. SARGEANT. Senator Ferguson, I will be glad to see what can be done on that.
(The information referred to follows:) One of the principal purposes of the Department's analysis of public opinion is to provide an indication of that opinion concerning a particular area of policy during the time that the Department is formulating its position. The Department makes every effort to ascertain the nature of the views held by various elements of the public prior to the final determination of policy. This is done in order to prevent a situation arising where a policy, determined without regard to public opinion, might later have to be changed or reversed because of adverse opinion.
An instance of this general practice is the development of the Marshall plan for foreign economic aid. Secretary Marshall raised the problem in his speech at Harvard. A great deal of public discussion followed. The President appointed a committee of prominent representatives of the public, headed by Averell Harriman, to study the problem. The results of all this were available to officers of the Government in formulating final recommendations.
Another instance of public opinion making itself felt in policy formulation was the inclusion of a provision giving the UN a role in the Greek-Turkish aid program.
Senator FERGUSON. Referring to item No. 3 on page 171, you state “Developing and executing necessary policies pertaining to international information and educational activities to implement United States foreign policy objectives."
You use the word "developing” there. If you develop a policy, you make it, do you not?
Mr. SARGEANT. This, however, again, does not relate, Senator Ferguson, to the appropriation item that we are discussing.
Senator FERGUSON. But you do make those, do you not?
Mr. SARGEANT. We make policy there, but again let us be quite clear that that is different from the kind of policy that is developed when the United States Government take a position with respect to China, where we say "This is the United States Government's position vis-àvis China." We do not do that. We have no part in that, except to give advice on relevant public opinion factors. Our job, however, is to determine a policy—and I am referring now specifically to item No. 3—that is: What shall be the policy by which we present, as information specialists, the decision that has been taken?
Senator FERGUSON. Well, now, when you said $20,000, you only meant the cost of printing and binding?
Mr. SARGEANT. I meant that, but I can give you, sir, the additional costs.
Senator FERGUSON. Can you give us the cost of getting it out?
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir. I have the additional cost here. I gave you the total cost as 12 cents per copy, which included all of the writing, editing, and printing costs. The total cost for 200,000 copies of Our Foreign Policy was $24,692. That includes all costs, personnel, writing, editing, and printing.
Senator McCARRAN. And distribution?
Chairman McKELLAR. In addition to that, it has to go through the mails, and that is an additional cost, of course, because the Post Office Department is in arrears.
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir; it does not include the cost of distribution.
CORRESPONDENCE ENDORSING OR CONDEMNING FOREIGN POLICY
Chairman McKELLAR. Now, I want to ask another thing. Would you be good enough to ascertain from your files how many letters you have gotten from the public endorsing or not endorsing Our Foreign Policy?
When was this booklet published ?
Chairman McKELLAR. Will you get from your files the number of people that have written you, those condemning and those approvMr. SARGEANT. I will be happy to do that, Senator McKellar. (The information referred to follows:)
OUR FOREIGN POLICY
(Department of State publication 3972) Communications received commenting on the publication
502 Favorable comments_
495 Unfavorable comments_-.
7 Press and other media notices which came to the attention of the Department: Newspapers carried an editorial, news story, or serialization.-
25 Magazines reviewed or reprinted it --
10 Major radio networks carried reviews of it
2 TV network carried comments on it.
1 Syndicated columnist referred to it in his column..
? In addition to these communications, we have received approximately 20,000 letters which contained requests for copies. These inquirers made no comment concerning the publication. Such letters are returned to the senders along with copies of the publication since the Department, in the interest of economy, does not maintain filing space for such communications.
The publication was translated into Japanese. Mainichi ran it as a serial in the newspaper, and then issued it as a pamphlet. It was also translated into German and distributed widely in Germany.
The following are excerpts from a few of the letters received : Tennessee
I find our Foreign Policy to be a wonderfully clear and consise statement of the foreign policy of the United States.—LUKE G. BEAUCHAMP, General Board of Education of the Methodist Church, Nashville, Tenn. New Jersey
At present I am superintendent of maintenance in one of New Jersey's large industrial concerns. Your booklet is very valuable and takes care of the need for information from a Government source to the citizens of this country, but we need more and the knowledge of these booklets, and their existence must be publicized.--JOHN F. LANG, 102 Grant Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. Massachusetts
You have done a superb job in setting forth a complex and often confusing but always highly important area of citizen concern. You have done it in a clear and interesting fashion which should go far in helping the average citizen better to understand our foreign-policy objectives, how they are determined, and where he himself fits into the total picture.—MERRILL E. Bush, American Unitarian Association, Boston, Mass.
Our Foreign Policy is inspiring and encouraging. This booklet should be distributed in scores of millions of copies. It should be put in the hands of every laboring man and woman. It should be circulated without stint in business and professional circles, and, among other things, should be put before every high-school, college, trade- and professional-school student in the country.