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PROPAGANDA DISSEMINATED ABROAD BUT NOT AT HOME Mr. SARGEANT. Let me put it in these terms, if I may. I would say quite honestly to this committee, that I believe that we are in the business of propagandizing people abroad. I think we are trying to influence them psychologically toward the national objectives of this country.

Senator McCARRAN. Yet when I put that question to you a while ago, you took exception.

Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir; because that, Senator, deals with the second part of our operation, where we were talking about our activities in this country. I took exception to saying that our operation was designed to propagandize the American people. We believe very strongly that we are not in the business of propagandizing the American people.

Senator FERGUSON. But the foreign people?

Mr. SARGEANT. We admit quite freely that we are in the business of propagandizing and persuading foreign people.

Senator Ferguson. Well, now, will you tell me how you can separate your activities here, that is, domestically, with all of the newspaper services and all of the foreign reporters in this country, how can you separate what you are doing at home and what you are doing abroad?

Mr. SARGEANT. Well, first, the things that we do abroad, other than centralized operations, such as the Voice of America, which originates here, are performed by people who are not in the United States. They are our Public Affairs officers, our press officers, our cultural attachés in the different countries abroad. You and Senator Green saw them in your recent trip and have seen them on other trips.

Now, the impact of what we are doing is totally abroad in the overseas program. The impact of what we are doing with the item we have before us today is primarily here in the United States, and on the people located here in the United States.

Senator FERGUSON. Do you actually use any agencies to get propaganda out or facts out?

Mr. SARGEANT. Again, may I ask a question for clarification?
Senator FERGUSON. Yes.

Mr. SARGEANT. In order to distinguish clearly between things that are done in the United States and those done abroad, do you mean in this country?

Senator FERGUSON. I am talking about what you do here.
Mr. SARGEANT. In the United States?
Senator FERGUSON. Yes; are you working through any agencies?


Mr. SARGEANT. We are working through many agencies, in the sense of these 400 or more national organizations and the 700 or more regional organizations to whom we are sending publications and whose representatives are coming, at their own expense, to meetings with officers of the Department in Washington, and in the sense of the letters which come to the Department on foreign policy questions, and which are replied to..

Senator FERGUSON. Do you write speeches for certain organization people?

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Mr. SARGEANT. You mean private organizations?
Senator FERGUSON. Yes.
Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. For instance, the one for the organization is, I believe, known as the Committee on the Present Danger.

Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir; we have not.

Senator FERGUSON. Do you write any speeches at all for that kind of organization!

Mr. SARGEANT. For organizations external to the Government; no, sir.

Senator FERGUSON. You do not prepare those ?
Mr. SARGEANT. No, sir.
Senator FERGUSON. You just send out the publications!

Mr. SARGEANT. We send them publications, fact sheets, background summaries, and other items that are published by the Department.

Chairman McKELLAR. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question?
Senator McCARRAN. All right, sir.
Chairman McKELLAR. I note that at page 172 of your justifications

you state:

The Office of Public Affairs plans and conducts programs, the purpose of which is to explain and interpret to the American public the foreign policy of the United States and the significance of world developments in international relations, as well as to keep the Department informed on the trends in American public opinion concerning international relations.

What are the departments that you keep informed? Will you give us the names of them?

Mr. SARGEANT. This means the Department of State.

Chairman McKELLAR. I understand that. I resent that I want to know what the departments are you referred to, who are the men ?

Mr. SARGEANT. I am sorry, sir; I misunderstood your question. This means officials of the Department, starting with—

Chairman McKELLAR. I want to know who they are. It includes the Secretary of State, of course.

Mr. SARGEANT. The Secretary of State, the Under Secretary of State, the Deputy Under Secretary of State, and the Assistant Secretaries for the various regions, as well as the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, the Assistant Secretary for United Nations Affairs, the Director of the Bureau of German Affairs, and the subordinate officials who work with them.

Chairman McKELLAR. You state further: develops and conducts a program of research on American foreign policy and publishes historical studies thereon for the use of the Department and the public; initiates and coordinates the domestic publication policy of the Department; and executes its publication program.

What is the domestic policy of the Department?
Mr. SARGEANT. This means, Senator McKellar-


Chairman McKELLAR. I would like to know what it means in plain English, because you can't tell anything from this about what you spend your money for.

Mr. SARGEANT. I will see if I can make this bureaucratic language a little simpler.

Let me take this paragraph that you have just read.
Chairman McKELLAR. All right.

Mr. SARGEANT. Here is what we are doing, in the simplest terms: I will try to keep the official language out.

This says that Mr. Francis Russell, who is here with me, directs an office which reports to the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. His office has the job of finding ways of telling the American people what are the foreign-policy decisions that are being made and what are the facts that underlie those decisions.

Further, we have the job of keeping in touch with American public opinion, as expressed in editorial comments in our newspapers, by commentators on the radio, by what is said in the Congress, and by what private citizens and national organizations are saying on these issues, and seeing that those American opinions are brought to the attention of these officers that I have referred to in the Department.


In addition, the office collects the basic diplomatic records of our relations with other countries, and publishes them in a series called The Foreign Relation Series. They are books that your committee has used.

Senator FERGUSON. But they are old ones. They are usually published years afterward.

Mr. SARGEANT. Senator Ferguson, they are about 17 years behind the current date. We are now publishing the 1934 and 1935 historical records.

Chairman McKELLAR. At what cost?

Mr. SARGEANT. Here is such a volume-one of these books usually costs about $3.

Chairman MCKELLAR. How many have you published !

Mr. SARGEANT. This series started in 1861. We are now down to 1934.

Mr. Thompson, can you give me the exact number of volumes that have been published in that series, since 1861?

Mr. THOMPSON. We have published 162 volumes to date.

Senator FERGUSON. How many personnel do you have in the Department that gets these volumes out entitled “Foreign Relations of the United States, Diplomatic Papers, 1934,” in five volumes?

Mr. SARGEANT. That falls within two of the divisions in the Office of Public Affairs. There is a total of 16 people who are concerned with the preparation of these volumes, and 20 people who are concerned with the publication. That makes a total, sir, of 36 people in all.

Chairman McKELLAR. Now, look at page 170 of the justifications, and tell us under which one of the items that comes under.

Mr. SARGEANT. That, sir, falls under point No. 4, on page 171:

Formulating and directing the conduct of a historical research program on American policy for the use of the Department and the publie.

Senator GREEN. May I ask about these volumes ?
Senator McCARRAN. Yes, sir.

Senator GREEN. What is the circulation of them? How large are the editions?

Mr. SARGEANT. The total edition, Senator Green, is normally about 3,600 copies, of which 350 are placed on public sale by the Superintendent of Documents; 2,797 copies are printed as a public document and are distributed by the proper officers here in the Congress; 500 copies are used by the Department of State and in the United States missions overseas.

Senator GREEN. Are they used?

Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir. We find that they are used. We frequently receive resolutions, as we did in 1950, of such associations as the American Historical Association, the Association of American Universities, the American Political Science Association, and others, urging us to cut down this lag of 17 years that Senator Ferguson referred to, between the time of publication and the events described.

Senator GREEN. That might be because the old ones are not of use, and

Senator FERGUSON. Seventeen years is quite a lag.

Chairman McKELLAR. You would not be influenced by public opinion?

Senator GREEN. I suppose the amount of documents gets larger and larger as the years progress!

Mr. SARGEANT. You are quite right, Senator Green. As the number of documents become greater, it does take more volumes to produce the historical record for any given year.


Senator McCARRAN. Just what does it cost to put out one volume, the circulation and all ?

Mr. SARGEANT. I would have to supply that for the record.
Mr. THOMPSON. The average cost is $11,200 per volume.
Senator FFRGUSON. That is printing and binding?
Mr. THOMPSON. Yes; printing and binding.

Senator FERGUSON. You have 36 people working in that Department.

Mr. SARGEANT. Thirty-six are concerned.
Senator FERGUSON. And they are 17 years behind in this work?

Senator GREEN. Have all of the documents that appear in these volumes been published before?

Mr. SARGEANT. Eighty percent of those documents have been for the first time declassified and made available to the public when they are issued in this series. That is one of the reasons why this historical record is so valued by people who are students of foreign policy, international lawyers, teachers in universities, and people who analyze the conduct of foreign relations.


Senator GREEN. You say that 350 are placed on public sale?
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir.
Senator GREEN. How many of those are usually sold?

Mr. SARGEANT. The record shows that the sale is cumulative and that within about a period of 3 years 80 percent of the stock for public sale has been exhausted. Within a period of about 5 years the more popular volumes are out of print.

Chairman McKELLAR. What do you sell them for? How much to you get for them?

Mr. SARGEANT. Roughly $3.
Chairman McKELLAR. What do you do with the money when you
Mr. WILBER. That goes into the miscellaneous receipts.
Chairman McKELLAR. Goes into the miscellaneous receipts?
Mr. WILBER. Yes; the miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

Chairman McKELLAR. I wish you could give us the amount involved.

get it?


Senator GREEN. Who distributes them? You say they go to the Congress?

Senator GREEN. Who distributes them?

Mr. SARGEANT. They are distributed by the folding rooms at the request of various Members of the Congress. Oftentimes you will find constituents of Members of Congress very much interested in these volumes, and each Member of Congress has a quota for distribution.

Senator FERGUSON. Each member has a quota of these?
Mr. SARGEANT. Yes, sir.
Senator FERGUSON. I have never seen it for my own office.

Senator GREEN. I have asked for some, and they have said that they were unavailable.

Chairman McKELLAR. While you are distributing these, I think you ought to furnish some for the Senate, because I have not had any given to me.

Senator GREEN. I suppose we ought to have them for our own employees.

Mr. SARGEANT. Senator, I am sure that copies are available here.

Senator McCARRAN. We have wrestled with this proposition before, and when we cut it down there is usually a barrage of objections that comes to us.

Senator Green. Do you not think we ought to find out how much it costs, for our own information?

Senator McCARRAN. We have the item coming up again under a different heading. We will have it all up again.

Senator GREEN. I would like to know, just to satisfy my curiosity, how much it does cost.

Senator McCARRAN. Go ahead. We are interested. We want to know what it costs.

(The information follows:)

Estimated cost of compiling, editing, printing and distributing a volume in the Foreign Relations series, $31,000.

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