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cause copies must also be made for distribution here in the Department of State to the interested parties, showing what the final copy of the cable was, what the wording was that went back to London.

Now, in the Division of Communications and Records, you find that we have there 570 employees. That, of course, includes messengers, people who run duplicating machines, people who run cryptographic machines, incrypters and decrypters, and the various other employees who make up the mechanics who work on a 24-hour-a-day basis, 7 days a week, sir.

Senator McCarrÁN. A 24-hour-a-day basis?

Mr. Wright. Yes, sir. We run night and day every day of the week.

Senator McCARRAN. Every day of the week?
Mr. WRIGHT. Yes, sir.
Senator McCARRAN. All right.

Mr. HUMELSINE. Mr. Chairman, this is one of the divisions I am most proud of. I ran an operation similar to this during the war. and they run a lot more efficient division in the Department of State than we did at the height of the war with all the facilities that we had. They have done, I think , a splendid job.

Chairman MCKELLAR. What does the New York Administrative Office do with 31 employees?

NEW YORK ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE

Mr. WRIGHT. The Administrative Office, sir. I believe you are speaking of, is the Office of the Director.

Chairman McKELLAR. I am referring to the New York Administrative Office.

Mr. WRIGHT. Yes, sir; that is in New York.

Senator McCARRAN. There you are asking for $89,512. What do they do?

Nr. Wright. Those are the people who supply administrative serrices to all the Department of State personnel who are employed in New York City. They recruit personnel. They see that they are properly paid. They provide telephone service and space service as all of the various housekeeping facilities for Department of State employees in New York.

Senator McCARRAN. Are they housed in certain buildings of the:: own in New York?

Mr. Wright. They are in a group of buildings, Senator.

OFFICE OF VOICE OF AMERICA

Mr. HUMELSINE. Senator, one of the main things in New York: the Voice of America. Practically the whole operation of the to: of America is located there. It has over 2,000 people.

Senator McCARRAN. Is the Voice of America involved in this XYork Administrative Office which Mr. Wright is discussing!

Mr. HUMELSINE. They are providing the administrative suppm. for that.

Senator McCARRAN. All right. I want to go back and then we down.

DIVISION OF LANGUAGE SERVICES

You have discussed the Division of the Communications and Records. We come next to the Division of Language Services, central program services.

Mr. WRIGHT. The Division of Language Services performs two functions. They do interpreting and translating.

We do interpreting for all international concerences that are run by the Department of State. We provide interpreters for the White House. We do translating work for the Department of State. That is the translating of these documents that come in in foreign languages. We also do the translating work for the White House.

This Division does nothing but perform a language service because we are dealing with people who either speak or write foreign languages.

Senator McCARRAN. How many have you employed ?
Mr. WRIGHT. We have 48 employees there, Senator.
Senator McCARRAN. What is the Division of Cryptography?

Mr. WRIGHT. Yes; I will come to that. Incidentally, I might add that we work in all of the major languages spoken in the world today either by having people on our payroll or people who are cleared securitywise who are available on a contract basis.

DIVISION OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

The Division of Cryptography is the Division that is responsible for the security of the codes of the Department of State, so that communications with our foreign posts can be carried on in a secure manner, without our messages being read by interlopers.

Mr. HUMELSINE. They actually make up the codes, so that we have secure codes. I might say that the head of this Division was one of the best experts the Navy produced, Captain Park. He retired from the Navy and we hired him to take over this job.

I think you will recall, Senator, that there was a lot of criticism of State Department codes back in World War II. They said that you could get a book at the corner drug store that would enable you to break any State Department code.

We have taken a lot of interest in this and we feel that we have a security code, as secure as there is in the world.

Senator McKELLAR. I want to congratulate you on not asking for more money than you asked for last year, but again I want to call your attention to the fact that our Chief Executive, President Truman, after these estimates were made up a year ago, according to your evidence, has asked for reductions in nonwar expenses. I want you to go over these six items, and give us information as to where we can make cuts. Give us the best places where cuts could be made.

Mr. WRIGHT. I will try to do that, sir.

FURTHER DISCUSSION ON NEW YORK ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE

Senator McCARRAN. All right. We go now to the New York Administrative Office.

Your explanation of that isn't quite clear to me unless we deal with the Voice of America. Unless we put this Division into that in New York, I do not see why this Division should be in New York.

Mr. HUMELSINE. Let me try to clear that up, if I may.
Senator McCARRAN. All right.

Mr. HUMELSIXE. We do not allow the Voice of America to hire their own personnel privately. I mean that all of the personnel for the Voice of America is hired centrally through the Department. Inasmuch as the bulk of this operation is located in New York, we have a small branch personnel office there that is part of this number, which office clears all of these people. They do all of the work incident to putting them on the Voice of America payroll.

Senator McCARRAN. In other words, you clear them for security purposes !

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. You clear all employees of the Voice of America?

Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir. That includes not only clearance from a security standpoint, but as to whether or not they have qualifications for the particular job.

Senator ELLENDER. Why could that not be done just as well in Washington? Is it necessary to have the office there and to pay rent and everything else in New York?

Mr. HUMELSINE. Well, it would actually be true, on the basis of the records, that it would be more expensive to have the office in Washington, because we would have to have people come down here for interviews and you would have a lot of running back and forth where rightfully these people are in New York. Senator ELLENDER. Are those people employed locally?

Mr. HUMELSINE. A great many of them come out of this particular area; yes, sir.

Chairman MCKELLAR. Are they civil-service employees?
Mr. HUMELSINE. Yes, sir; all of them are civil-service employees

TOTAL PERSONNEL OF VOICE OF AMERICA

Senator McCARRAN. We will get into this later, but can you state how many people are employed by the Voice of America?

Mr. HUMELSINE. It is over 2,000.
Mr. WILBER. It is a total of 2,500 in New York.

Senator McCARRAN. I do not want to touch on that now. I do not like to listen to it even, but I know we are coming to it pretty soon.

Mr. WILBER. The number there now, Mr. Chairman, is 2,070 for this year.

Chairman McKELLAR. For the Voice of America there are 2,070 employees?

Mr. WILBER. That is right, Mr. Chairman.

Senator McCARRAN. And this Administrative Office, the New York Administrative Office, passes on those 2,070 employees?

Mr. HUMELSINE. It does more than that. It takes care of the administration and personnel and all the various things for that group. We have a passport agency in New York; we have a branch of our Security Office in New York; we have all the shipping that goes out of New York for all of our overseas posts. All of those things are done in New York.

Mr. WILBER. I think I should clarify the record by saying that in addition to these 31 people reflected here, there is a certain number of people who are also paid by the Voice of America under their own appropriation, to handle the work for them, so that this is not the total office. It is the total for the regular activities of the Department.

Senator McCARRAN. That has a certain definite function, though, with reference to the Voice of America ?

Mr. WILBER. Oh, yes, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. Together with the other functions that it performs!

Mr. WILBER. Yes, sir.

Senator McCARRAN. All right, are there any other questions, Senators ?

If not, we will pass on. What is the next item?

MISCELLANEOUS SALARY EXPENSES—DOMESTIC Senator McCARRAN. You are requesting $129,155 for miscellaneous salary obligations. Will you please justify to thee committee your request for this item? Please explain what comes under this item.

Mr. WILBER. There are five types of personal services costs, Mr. Chairman, that fall under the heading of “Miscellaneous salary expenses, domestic.”

Those are part-time employees, those employees who are paid only when they are actually employed, commonly referred to as W. A. E. employees-temporary employees-overtime and holiday pay, and nightwork differentiai.

Chairman MCKELLAR. Will you tell me what the W. A. E. means? I have not learned this new language.

Mr. WILBER. That is the designation that we use, Mr. Chairman, for identifying those persons who are employed largely on a consulting basis or on a project basis by the Government, and who are paid so much per diem for a short period. The “W. A. E.” means #when actually employed."

I might say that the funds for the night-work differential are provided for under the Classification Act of 1949.

We are asking for the same amount of money that we have this year.

While there are some adjustinents between those various categories of requirements, the total estimate is the same.

Senator McCARRAN. What is the difference between a WAE employee and a temporary employee?

Mr. WILBER. Well, a temporary employee is one who is used on a continuing basis, usually on a seasonal basis, but his employment is purely temporary. He does not have permanent civil service status.

Senator McCARRAN. Is it intermittent?
Mr. WILBER. It is intermittent, largely.
Chairman MCKELLAR. Are these employees civil-service employees?
Mr. WILBER. They are hired under the civil-service rules.
Chairman MCKELLAR. I mean, are they civil-service employees?

Mr. WILBER. Yes, they are; but they do not have permanent civil service status.

Chairman MCKELLAR. I don't see how they can be civil-service employees unless they have a permanent status.

Mr. WILBER. Well, they do not have the retention rights of permanent employees. They are employed, however, under civil-service regulations.

Senator McCARRAN. What does the night-work differential mean? That is for overtime, is it not?

Mr. WILBER. No; that is the bonus, you might say, for night duty.
Senator McCARRAN. It is a different rate of pay?
Mr. WILBER. Yes; a different rate of pay.
Senator McCARRAN. All right.

Chairman McKELLAR. I note that as to some of these items you have increased amounts requested while as to others there are decreases. Will you go over these carefully and give us the figures as to where you think cuts would be best, if that can be estimated ?

Mr. WilBER. We would be glad to review it.

Senator McCARRAN. Your footings are the same for this year as for the current year.

Mr. WILBER. Yes, sir.
(The information requested appears on p. 1506.)

NONSALARY OBLIGATIONS—DOMESTIC

AMOUNT REQUESTED

Senator McCARRAN. Under the heading of “Nonsalary obligations-Domestic" you are requesting an appropriation of $2,405,374, an increase of $153,983 over the current year figure. What is the money to be used for?

Mr. WILBER. This item, Mr. Chairman, covers all other than personal service expenses. Included under this head are travel, transportation of things, communications, rent and utility services, printing and reproduction, other contractual services, supplies and materials, equipment and refunds, awards, and indemnities.

The detail of that, Mr. Chairman, is set forth on page 223-A of the justifications.

Senator McCARRAN. Now, do we not have these items elsewhere! I thought they appeared elsewhere as we came along through the various departments. We certainly had transportation of things.

Chairman McKELLAR. We certainly did. Mr. WILBER. That was under the Foreign Service, Mr. Chairman. This item includes all domestic cost for operating the Department.

Senator McCarran. Now, as to communication services, we have just been listening to that at length. Why does that come in here separately?

Mr. WILBER. Mr. Wright was testifying on the personnel required to operate the communication facilities. Under this item, are the utility costs themselves.

Chairman MoKELLAR. What is the utility cost?
Mr. WILBER. Mr. Wright, will you answer that?

Mr. WRIGHT. On communication services, Mr. Chairman, we are asking for $327,700. These are the communication services to operate in the Department, such as telephone services, and so forth.

Senator McCARRAN. Is this the money that is paid out to the telephone companies?

Mr. Wright. This is for telephone, telegraph, teletype, and so forth.

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