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supported by American and English decisions may be said to divide all merchandise into three classes. Of these classes, the first consists of articles manufactured and primarily and ordinarily used for military purposes in time of war; the second, of articles which may be and are used for purposes of war or peace, according to circumstances; and the third, of articles exclusively used for peaceful purposes. Merchandise of the first class, destined to a belligerent country or places occupied by the army or navy of a belligerent, is always contraband; merchandise of the second class is contraband only when actually destined to the military or naval use of a belligerent; while merchandise of the third class is not contraband at all, though liable to seizure and condemnation for violation of blockade or siege. (5 Wallace, U. S. Supreme Court Reports, 49.)

Mr. Balfour's opinion in 1904.--Even at present a satisfactory classification of contraband does not seem to be established. Mr. Balfour, in a reply to the Shipping Deputation on August 25, 1904, said:

I could not give a list of things which are or are not contraband of war, nor could any international lawyer fulfill any such demand. But the principle we have laid down as, we believe, in absolute conformity with the laws and practice of nations is that warlike stores carried to a belligerent are undoubtedly contraband of war; that coal carried to a belligerent for the purpose of aiding him in his warlike operations is undoubtedly contraband; that food stuffs carried to an army in the field or to a beleaguered fortress, or carried to a foreign country to aid the troops or fleet are contraband; but we do not accept the doctrine which is apparently laid down—and I lay stress on the word "apparently"-because there is some ambiguity about it. We do not accept the doctrine apparently laid down in the Russian notification that coal, food stuffs, cotton, and many other things are absolutely contraband of war, and that the mere fact that they are found on board ship justifies the seizure of the goods and, in certain circumstances, the capture and retention and confiscation of the vessel. (The Times, August 26, 1905.)

Treaty specifications in regard to contraband.—The United States has certain specific treaty agreements in regard to contraband. The treaty with Bolivia, 1858, article 17, provides that under the name contraband shall be comprehended:

1st. Cannons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunderbusses, muskets, fuses, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabers, lances, spears, halberds and grenades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things belonging to the use of these arms.

20. Bucklers, helmets, breastplates, coats of mail, infantry belts, and clothes made up in the form and for a military use.

DECLARATIONS ON CONTRABAND,

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3d. Cavalry belts, and horses with their furniture.

4th. And, generally, all kinds of arms offensive and defensive, and instruments of iron, steel, brass, and copper, or any other materials, manufactured, prepared, and formed expressly to make war by sea or land. (Compilation of Treaties in Force 1789–1904, p. 93.)

The treaties with Brazil in 1828, with Haiti in 1864, and with Italy in 1871 are practically identical. So also is that with Colombia of 1846, except that it has an additional category, “5th. Provisions that are imported into a besieged or blockaded place.” Some of the earlier treaties show the development of lists. The treaty with Sweden in 1783 enumerates the following:

ART. 9. Under the name of contraband or prohibited goods shall be comprehended arms, great guns, cannon balls, arquebuses, musquets, mortars, bombs, petards, granadoes, saucisses, pitch balls, carriages for ordnance, musquet rests, bandoleers, cannon powder, matches, saltpetre, sulphur, bullets, pikes, sabres, swords, morions, helmets, cuirasses, halberds, javelins, pistols and their holsters, belts, bayonets, horses with their harness, and all other like kinds of arms and instruments of war for the use of troops. (Compilation of Treaties in Force 1789–1904, p. 746.)

The treaty with Prussia in 1799 provides that

All cannons, mortars, fire-arms, pistols, bombs, grenades, bullets, balls, muskets, flints, matches, powder, saltpeter, sulphur, cuirasses, pikes, swords, belts, cartouch boxes, saddles, and bridles, beyond the quantity, necessary for the use of the ship, or beyond that which every man serving on board the vessel or passenger ought to have, and in general whatever is comprised under the denomination of arms and military stores, of what description so ever, shall be deemed objects of contraband. (Compilation of Treaties in Force 1789–1904, p. 639.)

Declarations in regard to contraband.The following declarations have been made in recent years in regard to contraband:

UNITED STATES. — The term contraband of war comprehends only articles having a belligerent destination, as to an enemy's port or fleet. With this explanation, the following articles are, for the present, to be treated as contraband:

Absolutely contraband. -Ordnance; machine guns and their appliances, and the parts thereof; armor plate, and whatever pertains to the offensive and defensive armament of naval vessels; arms and instruments of iron, steel, brass, or copper, or of any other material, such arms and instruments being specially adapted for use in war by land or sea; torpedoes and their appurtenances; cases for mines, of whatever material; engineering and transport materials, such as gun carriages, caissons, cartridge boxes, campaigning forges, canteens, pontoons; ordnance stores; portable range finders; signal flags destined for naval use; ammunition and explosives of all kinds; machinery for the manufacture of arms and munitions of war; saltpeter; military accouterments and equipments of all sorts; horses.

Conditionally contraband.--Coal, when destined for a naval station, a port of call, or a ship or ships of the enemy; materials for the construction of railways or telegraphs, and money, when such materials or money are destined for the enemy'ş forces; provisions, when destined for an enemy's ship or ships, or for a place that is besieged. (General Order, No. 492, avy Department, June 20, 1898.)

SPAIN.—Under the denomination contraband of war, the following articles are included:

Cannons, machine guns, mortars, guns, all kinds of arms and firearms, bullets, bombs, grenades, fuses, cartridges, matches, powder, sulphur, saltpeter, dynamite, and every kind of explosive, articles of equipment llke uniforms, straps, saddles, and artillery and cavalry harness, engines for ships and their accessories, shafts, screws, boilers and other articles used in the construction, repair, and arming of war ships, and in general all warlike instruments, utensils, tools, and other articles, and whatever may hereafter be determined to be contraband. (Article VI, Spanish Decree of April 23, 1898.)

The continental position has usually been to maintain two classes of goods only, i. e., contraband and noncontraband.

The Japanese proclamation of February 10, 1904, follows the British and American practice of making a distinction between absolute and conditional contraband:

Art. XIII. The following goods are contraband of war when they are destined to the enemy's territory or to the enemy's army or navy:

Arms, ammunition, explosives, and materials (including also lead, saltpeter, sulphur, etc.), and machines for manufacturing them; cement; uniforms and equipment for army and navy; armor plates; materials for building ships and their equipments; and all articles to be used solely for hostile purposes.

Art. XIV. The following goods are contraband of war in case they are destined to the enemy's army or navy, or in case they are destined to the enemy's territory and from the landing place it can be inferred that they are intended for military purposes:

Provisions and drinks; clothing and materials for clothing; a horses; harnesses; fodder; wheeled vehicles; coal and other kinds of fuel; a

a The words in italics were added to the regulations by an amendment of February 9, 1905.

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timber; currency; gold and silver bullion; materials for telegraph, telephone, and railroad.

ART. XV. The destination of a vessel is generally considered as also the destination of her cargo.

The Russian rules in regard to maritime prizes were approved by the Emperor on March 27, 1895. These rules are full, containing 93 articles. The general provisions are as follows:

DISPOSITIONS GÉNÉRALES.

ARTICLE 1. Les dispositions du présent règlement sont applicables à tous les cas de prises, sauf ceux qui sont régis par des règles spéciales résultant de traités passés avec la Russie.

Remarque.- Des règles spéciales sont applicable à la saisie des objets appartenant à l'ennemi lorsqu'ils se trouvent sur la côte.

ART. 2. En vertu de la déclaration de Paris du 4/16 avril 1856, les règles suivantes sont observées dans l'application du présent règlement: 1° des lettres de marque ne sont pas délivrées au nom des particuliers; 2° le pavillon neutre couvre le chargement ennemi, sauf la contrebande de guerre; 3° les marchandises neutres, sauf la contrebande de guerre, ne peuvent être confisquées sous pavillon ennemi; 4° le blocus, pour être considéré comme obligatoire, doit être effectif, c'est-à-dire appuyé de forces militaires suffisantes pour empêcher l'accès de la côte ennemie.

ART. 3. Pour la validité de la prise, il faut qu'elle ait eu lieu par la force ouverte ou par une ruse de guerre licite, mais jamais par trahison.

Art. 4. Le gouvernemert impérial, tout en admettant l'application du principe de réciprocité aux dispositions du présent règlement limitatives du droit d'arrêter, de visiter, de saisir et de confisquer les bâtiments appartenant à un État ennemi ou neutre ou à ses resortissants, se réserve le droit d'y déroger à l'égard de ceux de ces États de la part desquels on ne peut en espérer l'observation, et il réglera sa manière d'agir en cette matière suivant les circonstances de chaque cas particulier

Art. 5. Sont considérés comme prises: 1° les navires et chargements appartenant à l'ennemi, ainsi que les navires et chargements appartenant aux neutres et 2° les navires et chargements russes, alliés ou neutres repris à l'ennemi, au cas où la capture ou reprise a eu lieu conformément aux dispositions du présent règlement.

In regard to neutral ships it is provided:

Art. 11. Les navires de commerce de nationalité neutre sont susceptibles de confiscation à titre de prise dans les cas suivants: 1o quand ils sont surpris transportant à l'ennemi ou au port ennemi: (a) Des armes à feu et des munitions ainsi que des explosifs en n'importe quelle quantité, (b) d'autres objets de contrebande de guerre en quantité dépassant la moitié du volume ou du poids du chargement, (c) des détachements de troupes ennemies, si, dans tous les cas, il n'est pas prouvé que la déclaration de guerre était restée ignorée du capitaine; 2° quand ils sont surpris violant le blocus et qu'il n'est pas prouvé que l'établissement du blocus était resté ignoré du capitaine, 3o quand ils résistent à main armée à l'ordre d'arrêt, à la visite ou à la capture; 4o quand ils ont participé aux actes d'hostilité de l'ennemi.

ART. 12. Le chargement des navires de commerce de nationalité neutre est susceptible de confiscation à titre de prise: 1o quand ce chargement consiste en contrebande de guerre portée à l'ennemi ou dans un port ennemi et qu'il n'est pas prouvé que la déclaration de guerre est restée ignorée du capitaine; 2° quand le chargement se trouve à bord d'un navire susceptible de confiscation en vertu des paragraphes 2-4 de l'article 11 et qu'il n'est pas prouvé qu'il appartient à des sujets ou à des neutres étrangers aux actes entraînant la confiscation.

ART. 13. La liste des objets réputés contrebande de guerre est portée à la connaissance du public par une déclaration spéciale. Sont exempts de confiscations ceux de ces objets qui font partie de l'armement et de l'approvisionnement du navire de nationalité neutre.

In accord with the above article 13, Russia issued the following rules early in the war with Japan in 1904:

6. The following articles are deemed to be contraband of war:

(1) Small arms of every kind, and guns, mounted or in sections, as well as armor plates;

(2) Ammunition for firearms, such as projectiles, shell fuses, bullets, priming, cartridges, cartridge cases, powder, saltpeter, sulphur;

(3) Explosives and materials for causing explosions, such as torpedoes, dynamite, pyroxyline, various explosive substances, wire conductors, and everything used to explode mines and torpedoes;

(4) Artillery, engineering, and camp equipment, such as gun carriages, ammunition wagons, boxes or packages of cartridges, field kitchens and forges, instrument wagons, pontoons, bridge trestles, barbed wire, harness, etc.;

(5) Articles of military equipment and clothing, such as bandoliers, cartridge boxes, knapsacks, straps, cuirasses, intrenching tools, drums, pots and pans, saddles, harness, completed parts of military uniforms, tents, etc.;

(6) Vessels bound for an enemy's port, even if under a neutral commercial flag, if it is apparent from their construction, interior fittings, and other indications that they have been built for warlike purposes, and are proceeding to an enemy's port in order to be sold or handed over to the enemy;

(7) Boilers and every kind of naval machinery, mounted or unmounted;

(8) Every kind of fuel, such as coal, naphtha, alcohol, and other similar materials;

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