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son; but the best flattery, the flattery down in black and white, the expewhich stimulates most and intoxicates dient seems rather despicable. The quickest, is given unconsciously. The explanation of most small sins can flattery of the crowd is never inten- only be adequately studied under tional, but it is tremendously power- temptation. One thing may be said ful. It would be interesting to know for certain: those people who have how many successes and how many never in their lives felt the temptation failures in the life of any given great to flatter, who have never longed to man were due to it. Without doubt give pleasure or soothe pain, obtain it strengthens to action; without doubt regard or excite high spirits, by a few it is liable to unsteady the reason. words of friendly exaggeration, are Dutch courage, however, may be as unlovable people

as inhuman as those good as any other courage at a pinch. whose cheeks have never glowed from For all that, courage is always lost by the generous draught. the drunkard in the end.

The result of a moderate amount of Thousands of ordinary men who flattery upon the ordinary man is to suffer agonies of self-distrust are saved increase his faith in himself. The danfrom actually succumbing to this ger is lest it should increase that faith defect by the flattery of their wives. to credulity, or even to fanaticism. Perhaps it is wrong to call such a When a man begins to boast it is a thing flattery, but it is difficult to call pretty sure sign he has had too much unreasoning and undeserved praise by flattery. It is a mere question of any other name, whether that praise manners whether or no we openly and be constantly spoken or constantly aggressively over-value our possessions, suggested. Children, while they can but for a man blatantly to over-value be brutally truthful, are also uncon- his opinions and recount the occasions scious adepts at flattery. The kind of his verbal success is as a rule a quesspeech of a child will often elate the tion of his metaphorical sobriety. There hearer to the pitch of hilarity.


are, one must admit, certain persons day he or she goes under the influence who would seem to be born drunk. They of a delicious stimulant, well knowing, are always full of themselves, and the very likely, that the words though stranger who is not familiar with their sincere are untrue, yet buoyed up by habitual condition imagines them to an unreasonable conviction that love be full of new wine, the new wine of is a greater thing than truth. Perhaps flattery. As a rule, however, states the only occasion when conscious of blatant self-sufficiency are shortflattery may be excused is when it is lived, and go off with a headache. Indeliberately made use of by mature toxication by flattery does not, we hasmen and women who are trying to ten to add, exhibit the same symptoms strengthen some young person whom

in all cases.

In some it engenders a they see to be in need of a moral or silent and happy superiority, a blissmental fillip. It is often very much ful state which only the very critical more efficacious than censure, and has would grudge, but which is nevertheless serious after-effects, besides the less a dangerous state, one in which fact that it does not endanger affec- any man may fear to take an imtion. Some otherwise worthy persons portant step. make use of a little flattery as an It is, we think, true to say that antidote to be offered to those who women have better heads for flattery suffer habitually from the worse in- than men. On the other hand, flattery toxication of unreasonable anger. Put is not offered to them in so many


kinds. Ordinary women are subjected not made unselfish by money, but it to flattery only while they are young. would be more true to say that some They are flattered for their beauty or people's generosity is but a manifestatheir charm. The effect of the intoxi- tion of their natural extravagance. cant upon them is like the effect of Money goes to their heads; they canchampagne--it is soon gone. Very not keep it, and lest they spend it on few women are flattered on the score themselves they give it away. It is of their abilities—partly perhaps be- easier far for a man of the spending cause they flatter themselves unduly temperament to force himself to generupon them. An able woman is not osity, and so reconcile his financial ingenerally very much admired on the sobriety to his conscience, than to score of her talent either by her own force himself to money moderation. or by the opposite sex. Marked intel- This is especially true of those who lectual or artistic talent is not so make money easily or who make it very common among women.

George with trouble and pain out of nothing. Eliot, it is true, was said to be hab. However vain a writer may be, he itually "the worse" for flattery. Miss seldom altogether loses the sense of Austen received less, and it certainly pleasant surprise which comes had no effect upon her head. The him when he first gets golden money whole acting profession seems to out- in exchange for his ink and paper. siders to live in a chronic state of un- They are more susceptible to the exnatural exhilaration due to flattery. citing influence of money than those The luxury of the ordinary world is who make it by merchandise or come the necessity of “the profession.” It into it by inheritance. There is a is impossible to say what they would great joy, however reprehensible the be like without flattery. An actor or moralist may consider the sentiment, an actress suffering from what is vul- in money intoxication. We do not garly called “the want of it" is, know if millionaires ever feel it to the we

understand, a very depressing full. We feel pretty sure that men of sight.

solid fortune seldom do. They get less Flattery, when all is said, is not acute delight out of money than any. more of an intoxicant than money, one. A very little money serves to thongh more people are able to with- get delightfully drunk on, if such a stand its effects. We do not need to rough word may be used even in a be millionaires in order to feel its metaphor to express the exhilaration heady influence. There are tempera- which comes of the knowledge that ments to whom economy is impossible. one has something to spend-someThey may be scrupulously honest, but money, we mean, which is not a mere when they are flush of money they token representing bread or bills. must spend it. Occasionally the ef- Who will say that life is not worth fect of influx of money, even having while he can eat with an appethough the amount be small, is per- tite, buy, even on the smallest scale, ceptible in its effects upon the whole without calculation, and give to please, man. The workman when he gets not to relieve? his wages is not exactly the same man Oddly enough, work acts as an inhe was the day before, even though toxicant on some temperaments. Some he be a teetotaler. One often hears

are enamoured of their work. it said—it is a most unjust generali- They become obsessed and excited by zation—that extravagant people are

it. We know they have been overmean. No doubt selfish people are

working not because they look dull



or tired, but because they are un- no matter from what class we draw naturally energetic and bright. We our leisured man. We doubt if a see that they have had too much of talkative tramp would prove worse some stimulant, but they do not know company


his hard-working it themselves. A short life and a busy brother. Work, we do believe, imone is their motto. Length of days proves the judgment and develops is perhaps not the greatest of their many valuable qualities, but it is not sacrifices. No leisure means no

as necessary either to brain or characfriends. Leisure would seem at times ter as is commonly supposed. When to have intoxicating qualities. We leisure intoxicates, the fancy runs riot are told in our youth that those who —the emotions prevail against the reawill not or need not work become dull son—and the sense of proportion disand devitalized. Our instructors com- appears. “Fullness of bread and pare such persons to cabbages. Many abundance of idleness" is still the of us believe this wholesome teaching largest cause of folly. Many men, all our lives, and pass it on to our however, can stand a very great deal children. But when we come to look of leisure without apparent detriment at our own experience, does it carry to their mental or moral health, esout this generally accepted theory? pecially when they get used to it. The Too much leisure may, it is true, im- same thing is true of flattery. Unforpair the powers, but we would main- tunately no man is a judge of his own tain that it very seldom dulls the mind, "head.”

The Spectator.


I am not what is called an early riser. On the other hand, I sit up late at night. It seems to me just as human and meritorious a proceeding, although the copy-books give one no credit for it. It has always been a custom to sneer at the man who lies abed while the rest of the world is up and doing; but the merits of the man who remains up and doing while the rest of the world is snoring under blankets have never been sufficiently recognized. Such is the force of inherited prejudice, however, that I feel no pride in my nightly feat of sitting up reading or talking till the small hours, whereas, if by any chance I do get up fairly early in the morning, I am filled with an unwonted sense of virtue and heroism, and behave as if I accepted all the conventional superstitions-that man who rises early has a sense of buoyancy and clarity of mind, and

inspires in these early hours a store of energy lasting throughout a long day. The truth with me is exactly the contrary. If I sit up till two in the morning and rise at nine, I feel fit and well and have as much appetite for work as it is possible for me to have, and a zest for any kind of amusement that the day may bring which is, I am glad to say, unfailing. If, on the contrary, I go to bed at half-past ten and get up at six I spend the night in stark wakefulness, and go

out into the world with sense of heroism, it is true, but also with slight sense of dissipation. I have a faint burning sensation in the eyes, feel strangely languid and drowsy, am incommoded by the sensation that I have swallowed and am carrying about with me a smouldering coal, have no appetite whatever for breakfast, and probably doze off into an uneasy slumber




about 11 A. M. Mere early rising-get- was that London, at any rate in the ting up before other people, that is to West End, goes back to her more innosay—seems to me an overrated virtue, cent ways in these early morning chiefly esteemed as a means of getting hours. Motor-cars are almost entirely the better of other people. We all absent, hansom-cab drivers, milkmen, know the proverbial breakfast of the dustmen and costermongers alone OCearly bird. Well, I do not want the cupying the thoroughfares, and there is fattest worm; I am more than content peace and silence, and a taste of the that someone else should have it; and old thrill of a more sober, spacious, and a little bit of quite a lean one will do dignified London. for me, provided that I am let alone to My destination was Covent Garden, choose for myself what I think desir- for I had never seen Covent Garden in able, and to fix the standard by which the early morning; that being one of I shall measure my own wisdom or the many exciting and agreeable folly.

things which all Londoners are supAll the same, as I say, I got up this posed to have done, and many pretend morning and went out to taste the first to have done, but few in fact have done. breath of summer in London streets All the rest of the West End was dethat were strangely unfamiliar. All serted, but in the neighborhood of the houses in my neighborhood were Garrick Street my hansom was blocked shut and shuttered as in the middle of by a line of carts bearing fruit and August; the streets were almost empty flowers and vegetables. Here I met a except for a few pedestrians of an un- friend by appointment, and together familiar kind. A group of house- we strolled for a little round a network breakers were assembling to begin of streets all of which were entirely their dusty job of destruction; a chim- filled with horse-drawn carriers' carts. ney-sweep was wheeling a little hand- Whoever else was asleep, there was cart full of brushes and soot, with the plenty of life going on here, and as yet legend “established 1851" painted on we were only on the outskirts. How the it; and this furnished me with some traffic changes from hour to hour in reflections on the nature of pride, and these narrow London thoroughfares! on how, even in being a chimney- One hour of the day they will be travsveep for three score years and ten, ersed by heavy motor-vans, and those there may be something more than huge wagons that the railway comlabor and sorrow. Cats sat unashamed panies scatter from their stations; at in the middle of roadways which at another hour there will be nothing but other hours are filled with the brim- lines of carriages and motors and taximing tide of wheeled traffic, and there cabs, with shining lamps and varnish, were long unwonted vistas, such as and throngs of liveried servants; but the lion on Dickens and Jones' shop now there was nothing but the smell of in Regent street seen in a perspective flowers and fruit, and brilliant from Park Lane, a suggestion of blue splashes of color, and horses tossing hills filling the opening of Orchard their nosebags, and all the ancient Streetand the spire of Harrow business of collecting and distributing Church standing apparently at the end the fruits of the earth. One was continof Park Street. There were no taxis ually being jostled by people bearing nor motor-omnibuses running, but I pine boxes which might contain any found a hansom which took me at an edible vegetable thing from cabbages agreeable trot along the empty streets. to strawberries, from mushrooms to And the first discovery that I made asparagus; the wilderness had blos


somed like the rose, and the morning carried out. Everything, even the purair smelled like a garden. All the por- chase, seemed to have been settled ters and burden bearers were engaged long ago. It was as if people were on the same business, and knew and carrying out, not a commercial transgreeted each other; but we felt like action of the moment, but a law of naidlers and strangers who had strayed ture as old as mankind. The organizainto a foreign city where we did not tion was perfect; it was not an artifiknow the language. As drew cial or a disciplined organization, but a nearer to the centre of this great com- natural organization. In France or motion of flowers and fruit the throng Germany or America, for example, became denser, and the menace of there would have been policemen and wooden boxes swiftly borne on broad officials at every corner; queues would shoulders became greater. I have said have been formed, and the whole busithat the scene was curiously foreign; ness carried on under the iron hand of and so it was, but only perhaps be- authority. But here the order was cause a Londoner is more familiar natural and spontaneous, like that of with such scenes in foreign places than people long used to seemly and efficient in his own town. There were certainly ways. Out of this great cornucopia a two particularly English characteris- delicious plenty of color and light was tics in the occasion. One was its flowing in immense volume, and in silence. There practically every direction, but, as I said, the orshouting, and not much conversation, ganization was spontaneous; the flood and as the commodities were all being bad not to be kept in by dykes and carried by hand from the market to groins and embankments; it ran in natthe waiting carts in the adjacent ural channels that Time and itself had streets there was little sound of traffic worn, and ran without inconvenience other than of feet on the pavement. or risk or confusion. In any foreign town there would have And now I am nearly falling asleep, been yelling and gesticulating, a carni- having done little justice to my theme. val of sound as well as of movement. For that you must blame this indulEven in Ireland or in Scotland, what I gence in the virtue of early rising, and remember of such morning scenes is the fact that when I should have been that they are accompanied by loud quietly asleep in my bed I was idling shouting. But here the swift streams and dissipating among the flowers. of movement ran quietly, and those The next time I go to Covent Garden I who greeted each other did not need shall stay up all night; I shall then to raise their voices. And the other merely go to bed a little later than notable thing was the extraordinary usual, and rise a little later-a much order and efficiency with which the more orderly proceeding. whole business of transportation was

Filson Young. The Saturday Review.




Two more plays,-Pericles, Prince of Tyre and The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus-are added to the Tudor Shakespeare, published by the Macmillan Company. The first is edited

by Professor C. Alphonso Smith of the University of Virginia and the second by Elmer Edgar Stoll, Ph.D. Each volume has a photogravure frontis. piece and both are fully furnished

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