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suborning and screening assassins. suspects and flogged and tortured a Every penniless politician, disappointed good many Russian secrets out of the courtier, jealous subaltern was sounded, Czar's emissaries. It was one way. It bought, made welcome at Odessa and may have been the only way. But furnished with roubles and a part to what Europe permits a Romanoff to play in the drama. Some worked from do she will not countenance in a Stam. Stamboul, some from Adrianople, bouloff. Confronted with alternative others along the Danube from Kalafat, risks, his master, very wisely, disTurna, Giurgevo or Kalarasi, corre- missed his great but terrible servant. sponded with the Bulgarian messes on This was in 1903. Alexander III., the opposite bank from which they had still implacable, still refusing to deserted. (The brother of one of the "recognize” Prince Ferdinand, died the conspirators has described to me their next year, a young and less Tartar-like methods. I shook the hand of another Czar bad ascended the throne, and the to-day, loyal long since, but then one tension might be supposed to be relaxof the fiercest, bent upon using the ing, and many breathed the knife!)

freely, but not Stambouloff. He knew There were risings organized north, well that the Asiatic Bureau, whom south, all over the little realm. A he had outwitted and defied, never par. limited monarchy protected by the or- dons. dinary law must have succumbed, for

The ex-Premier desired to go abroad, Russia stuck at nothing, but Prince and applied for a passport. It was reFerdinand was served by the greatest fused. This was ominous, and almost man-take him all round-that the at once Russia got her revenge. A Bulgarian race has produced. Stam- gang of miscreants hacked their vicbouloff, the son of a nobody, who had tim to death with yataghans in the

the streets a penniless, bare- street, and escaped under the very legged boy, resigned his twelve months noses of the police! A royal personof regency to be the First Minister of age, not a Bulgarian, nor in Bulgaria, Ferdinand, as he had been of Alexan. is credited with the mot that la mort der. Hero, patriot, statesman, brute, de M. Stambouloff c'était une nécessité this man would have been a prime politique. Well might an English pubforce in any age and in any nation. licist, who knew the minds and morals Without any question be saved his of European statesmen, say that the master; he saved the State from the late Lord Salisbury, at the Congress clutches of Russia. Himself he could of Berlin, must have shuddered at the not save. He would have claimed company in which he found himself. that he only played the game. Whilst Stambouloff dead, the bureaucrats of M. Hitrovo, Russia's minister at the Asiatic section permitted Nicholas Bucharest,

organizing armed II. to "recognize" Ferdinand as Prince gangs and despatching them across of Bulgaria, and the era of alarums the Danube, was he to maintain the and excursions was closed, and that of Habeas Corpus? When his friend and peaceful progress begun. The last of colleague Beltcheff fell dead in the the New Nations which had clambered street at his side, riddled with bullets, painfully out of the pit of slavery and when M. Petroff, another minister, was massacre only to find itself betrayed knifed in broad daylight, was it a time by its "friends," and enmeshed in war,

а to be squeamish? He struck right conspiracies, assassinations and the and left, and hard and often: he estab- police methods of Moscow, settled lished fear. He filled the prisons with down to educate itself, civilize itself,



build, plant, beautify itself, and to when Ferdinand assumed the kingly master the difficult art of representa style Austria hotly resented his pretive government under the responsible tensions. When at King Edward's ministers of a constitutional sovereign funeral Bulgaria's monarch, no longer (an art at present unlearned by Ger- a prince, rode among kings as a king, many and undreamt of upon the Neva). and the Archduke, representing the Three of the Powers had found by this aged Emperor Franz Josef, was placed time that the Bulgarian meant to be behind him, there was a pretty to-do. master in his own house, and could de- The insulted Austrian refused to eat fend the same at need. Abdul Hamid or sleep in Great Britain; it was ho! remodelled his army and fortified his for special train and boat for a deeply frontier. The new Czar was aware offended Serenity, and off he went in that his oaf father had played the fool, dudgeon the same afternoon—which and attempted to regain Bulgaria's may have consequences anon. But confidence, The "good brown land" there was one happy man at Windsor, between the Danube and the Ægean for by that day's ceremonial Ferdinand will never be a Russian province, as of Saxe-Coburg and Bulgaria had been Nicholas knows. So does England, recognized as king by the eldest reignsomewhat slow at the uptake, and has ing House in the world, and a king he laid aside the Disraelian jealousy of remains. What next? Bulgarian expansion. Not so Vienna:

H. M. Wallis. The British Review.



achieve a result worthy of the occasion. The pilgrim in search of popular But, having said so much, and addfestivals may well be tempted to make ing thereto that both Rothenburg and comparisons between the annual cele- Stratford are now in the second generbrations at Rothenburg and at Strat- ation of their existence as festivalford-on-Avon, especially if-as in the givers, the comparison is at an end. present year of grace—the opportunity Stratford, a placid, lavender-scented, bas fallen to him of witnessing both imperturbable English country town, within a month of one another. But celebrates Shakespeare-a national he must resist the temptation; for the hero and a household word. Rothencomparison is short-lived, superficial, burg, rugged, war-worn and embattled, and altogether barren. Of course, all does honor to a local worthy of the local festivals have a certain atmos- early seventeenth century who, alphere in common; a desire to com- though he was forced to consent to memorate somebody or something that surrender his native city to the overought not to be forgotten in a partic- mastering forces of the Catholic ular neighborhood, ambition to League, saved it by his prowess from widen the circle of interest around the a fate so dire as the wholesale mascentral object of veneration, and an in- sacre at Magdeburg. The festival at tention to carry out the festivities Stratford is one of poetry and peace; with as much attention to detail and the pageant at Rothenburg revives expenditure of public and private memories of siege and heroism and funds as shall appear. requisite to at- sacrifice. Shakespeare lives, a master of tract an ever-growing audience and to deathless words: Nusch, the senator of


Rothenburg, lives, the doer of a single the assassination of the Town Guard deed, the quaffer of a potion so his. and the capitulation or Rothenburg to toric that it has gained for him the the children of the tribes. (local) immortality of Juliet herself. I do not know to what town of your

acquaintance you may liken Rothen. II.

burg, for I have seen none quite like Leaving then all comparisons (“odor. it in Europe or elsewhere. It has ous" and otherwise) aside, come with something of Quebec in it, if the old me to Rothenburg for Whitsuntide and French town were clustered round the share in the romantic pleasure of a citadel; something of the proud aloofFranconian holiday. You shall enjoy ness of Edinburgh Castle, but without yourself to the full, if the society of a modern city for its footstool; much simple-minded and warm-hearted peo- of Nuremberg in architecture and feel. ple, the atmosphere of the most per- ing, yet unspoiled by factory chimneys fectly preserved medieval town in and other hateful indications of indus. Europe, the cleanest of hotels, the trial activity. Now pass within the plainest of good fare, the sincerest of walls and surrender yourself, a willing historical pageants, are to your liking. victim, to the spell of Rothenburg. Its You must expect no Ritz Hotels nor wayward streets all cobble-stoned, restaurants as in Paris, nor those that its half-timbered houses, its lovely frequent them; no pageantry such as wrought-iron balconies and carved turyou have seen at Oxford or at Fulham; ret windows, the stencilled motto and no music to compare with Bayreuth; cunningly wrought trade-sign over no lavish display of wealth to dazzle

every dwelling-house and shop; these or amaze you. These things I tell you things must arrest your eager footsteps before hand, for I will not have you and prove an effectual barrier to prog. deceived nor shall you be disappointed.

It matters nothing which street On the day after leaving London you you choose to follow; each one is an will reach Würzburg at 9 A. M. and

of architectural loveliness, change there into a train which brings decked out at Whitsuntide with gay you to Steinach, where you join a little Howers in the latticed windows and local railway whose destination is young birch saplings making a green Rothenburg. In front of you rises the portico for every door. And the joy city, built upon a crescent-shaped rock of it all lies here that your every whose horns retreat from you-a hive walk leads you through, or to, some of red-tiled roofs, of towers and spires, thing worth your admiration: to a dominated by the Rath-baus and the fountain or a statue or a blossomCathedral, and all encircled by a wall laden garden or a gorgeous view across of indescribable age and beauty. As we the valley of the Tauber. Mark, too, walk up the hill together, I may as how unconsciously and yet how perwell tell you that the Jews of the fectly all things living harmonize with twelfth and thirteenth centuries be- these artistic scenes: the old yellow lieved, from its general situation and maii cart, driven by an ancient in appearance, that Rothenburg bore a the blue and silver livery, glossy hat very near resemblance to Jerusalem; and spotless breeches, of earlier and and for that reason a considerable set- cleaner days; the shaky cabriolet that tlement of the chosen race lived there brings the farmer and his wife into until, according to tradition, a CON- town; the wandering bands of lightspiracy was discovered which had for hearted students in Tyrolese attire, its object the poisoning of the wells, singing their songs in chorus as they




swing down the street like a regiment; the revels until you have entered into the wrinkled old burgher standing in the spirit of the town and have athis doorway and smoking his long- tuned your temperament to the key of stemmed pipe as he watches the weary your surroundings. Come now; it is the oxen drawing the tumbril home from vigil of Whitsunday, and by the time the fields outside the walls. Nor will your full afternoon of sightseeing is you be in the least astonished if you passed, you will have noticed unmis. see the watchman on the lofty tower takable signs that something unusual of the Rath-haus keeping a sharp look. is afoot. A sort of municipal springout for fires within the city; nor if you cleaning is going everywhere: hear, from the same lofty eminence, sweeping, scrubbing, brushing-up in German chorales being trumpeted at every hole and corner, until the streets noonday. On the contrary, you would and houses look more than ever like expect just such sights and customs as ' an important exhibit of "old Gerthese in a place like this, but you many" at Olympia or the White City. might perhaps be a little taken aback Then, as you return to your hotel if, on the occasion of your wedding, for supper, you will hear a proces. gentle reader, the door of your abode sion of farm-carts rumbling up the old was assailed with old pots and pans, Schmiedgasse, each laden with chiland if your street was made to re-echo dren and their mothers laughing and with the sound of verses sung or re- singing in anticipation of their annual cited in your praise. Yet this is a treat. You will perhaps see

a few ritual which, possibly, you may come patrols of Bavarian boy-scouts marchacross whilst walking in Rothenburg, ing from the station to their allotted and it ends with the presentation of a quarters with banners flying and wedding wreath and veil to the pros- drums beating. . You will certainly enpective bride from her friends.

counter scores of men and boys carrySo much for our lesser occupations ing upon their arms doublets and hose without doors; but, if you would shelter and jerkins, feathered slouch hats and from the rain, there is still plenty for other finery, and shouldering pikes or you to do: fine churches to visit, whose halberds with an air as who should window-glass and wood-carvings are say "Brave deeds shall be performed likely to surprise you; a very charming by me on Monday." Clearly Rothenlocal museum, full of antiquities from burg is pre-occupied: and you will also early Franconian times, and no lack of note the wheelbarrow loads of ancient delightful little inns whose vine-trel- armour, bridles, saddles, and other lised exteriors are not more fascinating fierce accoutrements of war passing than the panelled parlors within. Such down the streets and lanes of the is but a sketchy impression of the dear venerable city. city to which I have brought you, as On Sunday morning all is early å strauger; you will leave it as astir. The little church of St. John is friend.

packed with the faithful for High

Mass at 9 o'clock, and at a later hour III.

the Protestant community (which by But you may say that all the fore- far outnumbers the Catholic) attend going is only a rhapsodical parenthesis St. James' Church for the Whitsunday in praise of Rothenburg, and that you service. Both of these buildings are are not yet the wiser on the score of interesting specimens of early Gothic the Whitsun festivities. So be it; but architecture and are thronged with believe me, you cannot fully appreciate sight-seers from morning to night. At noon the whole town seems to fore- ful country dances, lightly tripped to gather in the market-place to gossip the lilt of futes and drums, engage us and to watch the automatic figures of charmingly for the best part of the General Tilly and Burgomaster Nusch afternoon. What a real Mayday revel! as they appear at the casement win- the youths in their three-cornered hats, dows above the ancient Drinking Hall black jackets, flowered waistcoats and to perform their peculiar movements green breeches, with white stockings when the clocks of the city strike and silver-buckled shoes; the girls in twelve. This rite ended we disperse dainty muslins of diverse colors, wearfor luncheon to the hostel of our ing garlands of flowers in their hair choice: it may be to the pretty little and lace mittens on their hands. All "Meister-trank" in the Kapellen Platz, are dancing for the sheer joy of it; or to The Bear; but I shall take you, yet they are none the less delighted at on this particular Sunday, to The the rapturous applause which greets Lamb Inn, on the market-place itself, them alike from their friends and from This is the headquarters of the Shep the strangers within their gates. herds, a guild that has been held in Alas! how quickly the afternoon high esteem in Rothenburg since the passes: a walk round the city walls, days of the Peasant War, when their so admirably preserved that we can prowess in arms excelled that of all promenade on them from end to end, other sections of the population. To peeping through the countless loopcommemorate their valor there is an- holes pierced for musket-fire and getnually held a Shepherds' Dance on ting a peerless glimpse from each; a Whitsunday afternoon in the centre of visit to the old-world garden at one exthe town, and it is “at the sign of The tremity of the city and a gorgeous Lamb" that they assemble in their pic view of the sunset over the distant turesque costumes for a midday meal hills, and the day is done. But our enbefore the carnival. By two o'clock tertainment is not quite ended yet; for, the balconies and steps of the Town as night falls, the populace saunters Hall are densely occupied by a large out to the green slopes below the walls and expectant audience who have paid for a "grand illumination," and thence a small sum to gain reserved seats, and we see the whole city of Rothenburg, a still larger crowd throngs round spires, towers, and roofs, glowing red the roped-off enclosure in the Square. as though some merciless conqueror An hour later a brave procession of had decreed that it should perish in nymphs and swains issues from The the flames.. And so to bed, perLamb, headed by a band of musicians chance to sleep. But this is difficult; in costume and a number of City wor- for on such a night of nights the homes thies in black cloaks and large white of the people are in the street of the ruffs, looking for all the world as city. The crowds linger, the troops though they had stepped straight out of students march up and down singof a canvas by Frans Hals. Hard ing to their guitars and mandolins, upon their heels follow two shepherds, and the revels continue until it must one leading a fine white sheep deco almost be dawn. rated with pink roses round her neck, and the other carrying under his arm

IV. a fat goose,

whose behavior all · through the ceremony is surprisingly It is Whitmonday

. . and you good. Then come the performers awake to the sound of distant guns. proper: a score of couples whose grace- The city, which has joined the Leip


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