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strength the sentiment of kinship ment. He decided upon equipping a which has hitherto sufficed as an few cruisers and torpedo craft for duty effective bond between the various sec- on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of tions of the Empire.

Canada. His Government went out of Since the anti-Japanese riots oc- office before a single keel had been laid curred in British Columbia, and he down. This was the first chapter of movement against this ambitious race events. gathered strength in Australasia, the Towards the end of last year, British peoples under the Southern Colonel James Allen, the Minister of Cross have been rapidly reaching the Defence in a fresh New Zealand conviction that the enemy which they Government, left for England to conhave to fear is not Germany, or any sult with the British naval authorities, other European Power, but Japan. He stopped on his way to confer with They are ignorant of the political and the Commonwealth Ministers, and strategic principles which govern the reached London determined to reverse defences of a vast world-wide organi- the policy adopted by Sir Joseph zation like the British Empire, and, Ward's administration in 1909, when a brooding over their future, their fears

Dreadnought was offered to the Royal increase in exact proportion as the in- Navy. He gave a clear indication of tensity of their determination to main- his view upon naval policy, and aptain their "all-white" policy strength- parently that also of his colleagues, ens. They are dominated to-day by when Mr. Churchill -announced this the dread of Japan, and they believe spring the intention of the Admiralty wrongly believe—that they are de- to utilize the New Zealand battlefenceless.

cruiser, the Malaya, now building, and The first indication of this movement the three Canadian ships as the nu

a definite formative influence in cleus of an Imperial Squadron, based Imperial politics occurred four years on Gibraltar. Interviewed on the new ago, immediately after the crisis due to

proposal, Colonel Allen did not dispute Germany's naval expansion. Realizing Mr. Churchill's claim that these ships then-if only momentarily—that the could reach any outlying part of the primacy of the British Fleet involved Empire more quickly than any other the security of every section of the European force, but, he added, "we do Empire, the people of New Zealand, in not fear any European force; that is a splendid spirit of higher patriotism, the crux of the matter." It has been offered to contribute a large armored reported that the New Zealand Govship so as to increase the main guard ernment, having given its free consent of the Empire on the frontiers of the to the battle-cruiser New Zealand being Empire's potential enemy. The Gov- retained as part of the main guard of ernments of New South Wales and

the Empire, the Minister of Defence Victoria were animated by the same bas since expressed a desire to revoke spirit of unity in face of a common this decision. danger, but they were checked by the Colonel Allen afterwards left Lonaction of the Commonwealth Cabinet, don for home, travelling by way of which decided to found a navy of Canada. He reached this Dominion its own. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, sitting when the naval controversy was at its his political saddle insecurely, and height between Mr. Borden's Governprompted by party motives, rejected ment, pledged to the presentation of both the policy of contribution and the three Dreadnought ships to the Royal policy of rapid local naval develop Navy, and the Liberal Opposition led

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by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, pledged to the appeared for the first time as the excreation of a local navy. This conjunc- ponent of the Pacific Ocean-or antition of events apparently had a signifi- Japanese policy favored by the Comcant influence on the policy of Sir monwealth Government and Wilfrid Laurier. Before Colonel Allen's lately espoused by the Government of arrival, this statesman had declared New Zealand. himself in favor of the formation of Sir Wilfrid Laurier epitomized the two "fleet-units," one to be stationed policy of the white people of the Paon the Pacific coast and the other on cific Ocean. “Great Britain,” he rethe Atlantic. Sir Wilfrid Laurier in- marked, “in pursuance of her new terpreted the term "fleet-unit" naval strategy, has concentrated her meaning a single Dreadnought ship in fleets in home waters, whereas forassociation with two or three cruisers, merly she had vessels in every sea," and and a few destroyers and submarines. the leader of the Liberal Opposition in He proposed that Canada should build, Canada furthermore added that it arm, man, and maintain two such seemed to him that “defence, like "fleet-units." On May 6th, after the ar- charity, should begin at home." 1 These rival of Colonel Allen in the Dominion, statements apparently reflect the views conveying the views of his own Gov- held by a large proportion, if not the ernment and the Commonwealth Ad- majority, of the peoples of the overministration, Sir Wilfrid Laurier sea Dominions. They have approached addressed a mass meeting in Toronto. the naval problem late in the day, and His speech indicated that his views are necessarily unfamiliar with the had undergone considerable change; strategic basis of British naval policy. his mind by this time had become Throughout these Dominions the policy dominated by the racial problem of of the weak defensive the individual the Pacific. He did not reiterate his local navy—is being preached, and it is demand for a fleet-unit on the Atlantic generally believed by Colonial politicoast of the Dominion, and his speech cians that the White Ensign does not conveyed the impression that he had float in the outer seas in anything like come to the conclusion that such a tbe strength that it did in the past beforce was, after all, unnecessary. He cause the Royal Navy is weaker than remarked:

it was, and that their territories are, "To the man who lives in Quebec therefore, in peril. of the Maritime Provinces the question There is a general impression, which of defence does not appeal very some British politicians in pursuit of strongly. He lives securely. The

different ends have consistently supvicinity of the British Fleet is suffi

ported, that in the past the British cient for him. But, if you go to British Columbia, Australia, or New Zea

Navy "commanded" every sea. This is land in the Pacific Ocean, the question

ar entire misapprehension, the fallacy of defence is one of perpetual consid

of which is completely exposed if we eration. No British subject in British glance back to the last years of the Columbia, Australia, or New Zealand nineteenth century, when the German lives with security. The British Fleet Navy was a force of almost negligible is too far away. Squadrons have been

importance. At that date every battleremoved. He has no protection. At ship except one small one-which was Wellington, Vancouver, Victoria

on the China station-was there is nothing to save the country from invasion. This it is which ap

trated in European waters ready to Deals to me.”

1 If this principlo had been adopted in the

past by the inhabitants of the Unitod KingIn this speech Sir Wilfrid Laurier

dom, what would bave been Canada's late?

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steam outward on the first indication recalled, not for duty in European
of trouble brewing. The main force waters, but to be broken up as useless.
was then stationed in the Mediter- Every naval Power with any apprecia-
ranean, that is, on the frontier of the tion of the fundamental principles of
second greatest naval Power of the naval warfare has abandoned the pol-
world and the potential enemy of the icy of keeping old ships of little or no
British Empire, and a relatively small fighting power-ships that could not
squadron of only half a dozen battle- fight and could not run away-dodder-
ships cruised in the Channel and near ing about the great ocean spaces of
the British Isles, though France was the world, "showing the flag" in dis-
only separated from us by twenty creditable fashion and offering it for
miles. Today the main force is con- insult. Indeed, the construction of
tiguous to the North Sea—that is, on cruisers by all other Powers except
the frontier of what is now the second Great Britain and Germany has prac-
greatest naval Power of the world and tically ceased, and Germany, the sec-
the potential enemy of the British ond greatest naval Power in the
Empire, and relatively small world, has not half as many pennants
force is in the Mediterranean. The flying outside the North Sea to-day as
main guard of the Empire is not in the British Fleet.
"home waters" in order to prevent the The Admiralty have adopted no
invasion of the British Isles, but in “new naval strategy.” The principles
order to be ready to defend the pri- which underlie their action in the dis-
mary sea frontier of the British peoples. position of British men-of-war are ex-
There is only one less battleship in the actly the same as those set forth in
outer seas than there was. That single the memorandum laid before the Do-
battleship was in the Far East for the minion Ministers, including Sir Wilfrid
simple reason that Russia and Ger- Laurier, in 1902. It was then stated
many were rapidly increasing their that “the primary object of the British
squadrons in the China Seas; no one Navy is not to defend anything, but to
could foretell what use Japan would attack the fleets of the enemy' and,
make of her expanding fleet, and the by defeating them, to afford protection
horizon was becoming overcast. To- to the British Dominion's shipping and
day there is not only no British, but commerce.” It is in accordance with
no European battleship outside Euro. this historical principle, by which the
pean waters. Japan is the ally of the whole British Empire has been enabled
British peoples, bound to them by a to live in peace and security, that the
treaty which will remain operative main guard of the Empire is to-day on
until 1921, and which before that date the frontier of the Empire's only poten-
will almost certainly be renewed, be- tial enemy; instead of being in the
cause it reflects Japanese needs, and, Mediterranean it is in the North Sea.
lastly, Russia is a member of the Because Canada may not so frequently
Triple Entente.

see obsolescent little ships passing in In line with these developments, and out of her Atlantic and Pacific the number of small craft in the Pa- ports, because there are fewer "bugcific has been somewhat reduced. The traps" cruising among the Pacific Admiralty withdrew a few weak ships islands, the Dominions are not less, because they were no longer required

· The potential enemy changes with the for strategic reasons, and others be- International situation : to-day the potential

enemy is in the North Sea, to-morrow he cause they were a delusion in peace may be in the Mediterranean, and later in

the Pacific, and the ships are moved as may and a danger in war. The latter were be necessary.

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but far better defended than they have frontiers of the Empire will remain ever been before. Against the poten- extremely narrow, and yet, in face of tial enemy—thousands of miles away these facts and despite the admitted from them—there is arrayed a force truth that these frontiers of the British overwhelmingly strong, containing its Empire are the ones which are defiships and preventing them obtaining nitely threatened, Dominion statesmen that freedom of the seas which would are showing an increasing disinclinaenable them to interfere with any in- tion to assist the Mother Country to terests of the Dominions.

maintain the effective defence of ImShips do not directly defend terri- perial interests where they are impertory; they defend water areas, and the illed, and are intent on developing local British men-of-war are moved as the navies, consisting mainly of small danger point varies, To-day the cruisers and torpedo craft, which are British Empire is on terms of friend- intended to defend their territories. ship with all the nations with which Coming fresh to defence problems, formerly it was more or less at enmity, they do not realize that armies defend and the only difficulty of the Admi- land and navies seas, and that the seas ralty, after providing a fifty per cent. are one, as the land is not, and can superiority against Germany in never be. Hence the policy of military near the North Sea—thus giving an dispersion and naval concentration, assurance that no German ship will practised by all the Great Powers, and pass through the net of British defence

to none more essential than to us, and be able to attack the commerce or who are essentially maritime. shipping or territory of any of the What is the root explanation of this British peoples—is to obtain sufficient negation of the fine Imperial spirit force for the secondary strategical which found expression in some of the theatres, and particularly for the Med- Dominions during the naval crisis of iterranean. This sea is one of the 1909? It is apparent that Colonel Alarteries of the Empire, and is becom- len reflected the predominant opinion ing increasingly dominated by the in the great Dominions when he stated navies of Austria and Italy, Germany's that "we do not fear any European two allies. The Mediterranean is a force; that is the crux of the matter." secondary frontier of the Empire of In other words these Colonial statesthe Dominions as of the Mother Coun

are dominated by the “yellowtry-as the North Sea is the primary peril.” Probably not one of them has frontier, and it must be defended. For a thought of making war upon Japan, this purpose the Admiralty regard Do- but they share a feeling that Japan minion assistance in the shape of first- may sooner or later decide to take up class armored ships as essential. Only arms against the policy of exclusion a few weeks ago Mr. Churchill, in adopted towards would-be Japanese reponse to a telegram from Mr. Bor- emigrants to the Pacific countries inden, cabled:

habited, but inhabited very sparsely, "I must repeat that the Canadian by the white man. ships are absolutely necessary for the Everyone who is of the white race whole world defence of the Empire and shares the white man's ideals from the end of 1915 or the beginning must sympathize with these kinsmen of 1916 onwards.”

who are face to face with the great Even with the aid of the Dominion

3 Against the navy of Japan, no combined ships, the margin of strength available

force such as Canada, Australia and New for the, at present, secondary sea

Zealand could equip and “man" could have any chance of soccess in war.

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