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politics Alfred Lyttelton did lasting tion of sweating-no honest cause was work. His famous despatch of April denied his interest and support. His 20th, 1905, suggesting the develop- friends and colleagues were in all ment of the Colonial Conference into an parties, for 'he cared little for the poImperial Council, has provided in litical game and much for his country. effect the basis for recent develop- He did all things well, many things ments of our common Imperial ma- brilliantly, but he was bigger than chinery, and his work in connec- what he did. That is the tragedy of tion with the tropical dependencies, his loss. Others may take up his more especially West Africa, has been tasks, but such a personality comes not adopted and amplified by his succes- again. He was of the tribe of the sors.

Sons of Consolation, always busy helpHe had to face some stormy scenes ing lame dogs over stiles, ever ready during his term of office, and on one with advice and help, giving of his rich occasion for more than an hour he ad- humanity to needy and shivering souls. dressed an Opposition which had made His enthusiasm warmed the world for up its mind to shout him down. But his friends, and it is a grayer and the rough-and-tumble of

politics

poorer place since he has gone. It will neither soured nor narrowed him. He not be easy to forget the cheery greetwas a good fighter, firmly convinced ing which was almost a caress, the inof the justice of his cause, but he never fectious laugh, the whole impression believed that to dissent from him in as of a being extraordinarily good and opinion involved the lunacy or the happy and wise. He was the loyalest moral obliquity of the dissenter. No of friends and the best of companions. man showed less bitterness in party

The charm of his talk would be hard to warfare. He was no mugwump, and exaggerate, for there was never the integrity of the Union and the falsetto note. He would debate keenly, Church had no stouter defender, but for he loved an argument, and he had he could recognize the honesty of an

an endless fund of good stories and opponent, and he never allowed public happy reminiscences, which he would enmity to sever private friendships. reproduce with perfect imitations of Mr. Asquith could speak of a friend- voice and manner. And over all there ship of thirty-three years, “which no was a kind of glow, that intimate and political differences were ever allowed

inexplicable charm which comes not to loosen or even to affect." He had from the head but from the heart. begun life on the other side, and he

His friends will cherish the memory used to say that the most terrifying

of the long, loose, manly figure, the moment of his career was when he eager face, the judicial pent-house had to tell Mr. Gladstone that he could

brows beneath which twinkled his not follow him on Home Rule. His boyish eyes. No kinder eyes have ever mind was of the Whig cast, warmed been sealed by the dust of death. It and broadened by the early influence is some small consolation to reflect that of Maurice and Ruskin. From the be- these splendid powers of his suffered ginning of his life in London he inter- no decay. He died young in the truest ested himself in social work, and took sense, carrying to the grave untara foremost part in those practical nished and unimpaired the honor and schemes of reform which are still, ardor and hope of his youth. For him happily, outside the blighting sphere the best epitaph is to be found in the of party propaganda. Town-planning, words of one who also died in the plen.' the co-operative movement, the preven. itude of his strength.-"Death has

The American Commission on Agricultural Organization. 439

not been suffered to take so much as an illusion from his heart. In the hot. fit of life, a-tiptoe on the highest point of being, he passes at a bound on to the other side. The noise of the mal

let and chisel is scarcely quenched, the trumpets are hardly done blowing, when, trailing with him clouds of glory, this happy-starred, full-blooded spirit shoots into the spiritual land."

The Spectator.

THE AMERICAN COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL

ORGANIZATION.

can

The time of year is in some ways zation of society. Hitherto individualunfortunate for the visit of the Ameri- ism has run riot in economics. Every can Commission on Agricultural Or

man has been for himself. Everybody

has been so Americanly independent ganization to this country. This is

and high-spirited that America may with us a season of many preoccupa

be said to be the country of personalitions, when time is scarce with most

ties par excellence. Its civilization of us and "space" with the Press.

has been individualistic. It exulted It is therefore more than likely that in being the country of free men. The the Commission may receive less at- individual was allowed the greatest tention from the general public and possible freedom to develop, and as a

natural result the most powerful perthe newspapers than it ought to at

sonalities in industry have secured contract. It is to be feared that the ob

trol over a great part of the wealth of ject of its inquiry is still but vaguely

the United States. It has been stated understood in England. Nevertheless

that some fifty men between them conthe visit of more than a hundred Com.

trol three-quarters of its industrial missioners, representing every State in activities. No nation dispense the American Union and three Proy- with organization in its social and inces of Canada, to Europe in order to economic life, and if the people are not

ideal to

already inspired by some study the new rural civilization and rural economics of the older world is

which all voluntary effort tends, then

the organization of industry will be an eyent of remarkable interest and of

imposed on them from above by the the deepest importance to this country.

great captains of finance, and for a The full import of the Commission's

quarter of a century we have heard investigation has been well put by that rumors in Europe of a discontent in brilliant writer on rural development, America with the operations of their Mr. George Russell:

great industrial organizations or trusts.

The workers in agriculture have sufIt is she writes] a very remarkable

fered as much as any people from the inquiry. It is a search for a new basis

lack of democratic organizations for of their civilization. The genius of production, distribution, and finance Alexander Hamilton had already sup

controlled by the farmers; and agriplied America with a political organi

culture is the greatest of human in. zation which was so powerful

dustries, the foundation of national moulder of national unity that half a

wealth, and America has come to realcentury or so after he had induced an

ize that in this respect the Old World unwilling union between the States,

is far ahead of it. millions of men were found ready to die to prevent the breaking up of that

Mr. Russell's wish for the Commisunion. But what America has never

sioners is that they may “come back discovered is the fundamental idea from the Old World with a wisdom which should be applied to the organi- which will enable them to create the

а

440 The American Commission on Agricultural Organization.

democratic forms which will be the year, might justly claim that the Comright expression of the democratic mission is a result of suggestions of. spirit.” This may sound tall talk in con- fered by him to Mr. Roosevelt and nection with an investigation confined other American friends. The instructo a particular method of doing the tions to the Commissioners are practi. commercial business arising out of a cally identical with a scheme of insingle industry. It will undoubtedly quiry suggested in his book, The Rural seem so to those who have given no Life Problem of the United States. He thought to the country-life movement was consulted by those who originated which is fermenting throughout the the Commission on the scheme of its civilized world. But if the essential work, as well as by the President and character of rural industry both as the the two ex-Presidents who have shown source of wealth and the source of such a deep interest in it. It is known health be considered, it may perhaps that his assistance has been invited be realized how truly it is the basis in adapting to American conditions the of civilization; how its decay may in. principles he has so successfully apvolve the destruction, and its resus- plied in his own country. It may be citation effect the salvation of society; that the recognition which his life's how its organization may well be the work has received from a foreign first essential step towards a better though kindred nation will lead to the social order for every human commun- better appreciation of that work by ity.

those under whose eyes it has been It is this view of the country-life done. movement which has impressed the The Commission has been visiting greatest thinkers of America, though the various Continental countries in it has been missed in this country at which agricultural co-operation has any rate by the leaders of political made progress. Naturally the greater thought who chiefly fill the public eye. part of the days which are being deMr. Roosevelt has written of the task voted to the United Kingdom will be of the Commission as being to deal spent in Ireland, which can claim to with "what is probably the most vital be the first of English-speaking counneed of this country." Dr. Woodrow tries to adopt the new system. It is Wilson and Mr. Taft have publicly ex- only in Ireland that the complete pressed equally high estimates of its mechanism of rural development as function and value. Co-operation, adapted by Sir Horace Plunkett from which is the basic principle of the Continental models can be studied. country-life movement, has for that For it must be remembered that the reason been regarded in America as a Irish Department of Agriculture, with subject of research worthy of univer. its peculiar constitution, is a part of sity endowment and the professorial that mechanism and Sir Horace's chair.

creation no less than the Irish AgriTo us, and particularly to Irishmen, cultural Organization Society. Perit should be a source of gratification haps the chief service which Sir Horthat American thought has been ace has rendered to the cause he has turned towards the new rural econom- made his own has been the study of ics by one who is a British subject and the co-operative institutions which an Irish patriot. Sir Horace Plunkett, have struggled into existence in many who in his earlier life resided for ten lands in spite of mistakes, opposition, years in the United States and usually and misapplied encouragement, his de spends a short holiday there every duction therefrom of a system, and his

The American Commission on Agricultural Organization. 441

can

differentiation between the functions than in Great Britain, though the which be performed by State forms adopted are not always the agency and those which can only be best. In the circumstances it is satisfulfilled by the organized and volun- factory to find that Canadians are willtary efforts of the agricultural com- ing to study other forms. There is probmunity.

ably no force which would stimulate No fewer than thirty of those who agricultural development in the Dominare graded either as “Members" or ions so effectually as genuine co-opera“Associate Members" of the Commis- tion inspired by the spirit which has sion are ladies. Their presence will been called into existence by its introdoubtless insure a full study of the duction into Ireland. It is impossible organization known as the United not to regret that the other Dominions Irishwomen, a faithful ally of the Or. did not follow the example of Canada ganization Society, concerning itself and take part in the inquiry. It is with those departments of rural indus- to be hoped that they will follow it try which belong to woman's province carefully and derive from it as much and with the social development which advantage as if they had shared in its is not less essential to rural progress labor. than improved farming and better But it may be that the most im. methods of business. This woman's

portant result of American interest in wing of the Irish movement has been cooperative development so far as we scarcely three years in existence and are concerned will be found in its efhas not yet attained to full strength fect on British thought. It has always and stature; but its system has been been Sir Horace Plunkett's contention so well thought out, its extension --and indeed the point has been proved throughout Ireland so carefully organ- and is no longer disputed—that the ized, and its appeal SO successful neglect of country life has, owing to that its efficiency and future growth causes to be found in their history are assured.

during the last century, become characNothing connected with the Com- teristic of English-speaking peoples. mission is more pleasing than the pres- It has been his repeated suggestion ence of representatives of Canada. that those people should combine to The proposal for a Commission overcome this fatal tendency. Such Committee of Inquiry being unofficial, a combination has actually taken place the Premier of Saskatchewan, the Hon. in the co-operation of the United Walter Scott, asked leave to nominate States and Canada. There can be two delegates from his province to fol. little doubt that the chief obstacle to low the inquiry. Not only was this fuller co-operation between America agreed to, but the Canadians nomi- and the British Empire as a whole is nated have been accorded the same the extraordinary slowness of this status as the American members, and, country to grasp either the importance other provinces of Canada desiring to of the country-life movement as a facbe represented, the number of Cana- tor in the world's progress or its value dians has been increased to seven, one, as a force for promoting the developan "associate member," being a lady. ment of the material resources of the It is probably not generally known Empire. Anything which will move that agricultural co-operation has ta- thought in England on a subject of ken root in Canada, Australia, and such vast importance both to the peoNew Zealand, and is in fact already ple of this country and to the future farther advanced in these Dominions of our race on four continents will

or

render us an inestimable service. Per quate agricultural policy; that an haps, by a sort of reflex influence, the agricultural policy must in these days work of the American Commission begin with co-operative organization; and the action which it is understood and that this first step must be taken is to follow it may accomplish what by the agricultural community itself, the efforts of our own rural reformers inspired to action, if necessary, by a have been unable to effect. It seems voluntary and self-governed propathat we are on the eve of some new gandist body consisting, to begin with, and important departure in land of those agriculturists and agriculturpolicy. There are no three things ists' friends who understand what is more certain than that no land policy required, and including, as it makes can prove successful without an ade- headway, all who accept its teaching The Outlook.

Patrick Perterras.

THE SEASON.

(To a Débutante.)
A few short weeks wherein to dine,
To dance, to flirt, to laugh, to shine

Like some new star;
To wear gay gowns and strange-dressed hair
And hats that make the people stare

Or say we are
Original, as it may be
Yes, that, my dear, for you and me

The Season means;
But for the girls who shape our frocks,
Our headgear (and maybe, our locks)—

Some in their teens
Perhaps, as wethe Season holds
Quite other things. Tucks, hems and folds,

Gauze, silk and lace
They wield for us with close-eyed care,
White-faced and worn, so we be fair

And take our "place";
The weeks drag slow for such as these
Whose backs are bent that we may please.

For us to stitch,
Their fingers fly or else their wheels;
Their very dreams build cotton-reels!

Time's Hurry-Witch
Pursues them with her beating-broom
And cares not for their fading bloom.

Toil, toil, my dear,
The Season spells for poorer maids,
While we, in Fashion's jocund glades,

Have but one fear

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