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mirrored; the characters are our very one novel entirely on this plan—"Jude selves, the voices are our own, the the Obscure,” though many of his thoughts and feelings belong to the shorter stories in “Wessex Tales" and tissue of our lives. And the novelist "Life's Little Ironies” are constructed can go even further than the play- on the same obnoxious principle. Comwright in compelling us to realize the pare “Jude" with such a novel pangs of tragedy with intolerable "The Woodlanders" to see the differforce, for he is not restricted to what ence between the painful and the is said and done; he is at liberty to tragic. The one has actuality, the represent hidden and unspoken agony. other is true. To quote a crucial in. Only as the instrument of moral awak- stavce, what is the chief blot upon ening and social insurrection can his great masterpiece, "Tess of the such torture be justified: it has noth- d'Urbervilles"? Surely the discordant ing whatever to do with art. Ibsen's actuality of the police officers in the prose dramas thrilled at first by dint solemn theatre of Stonehenge, and of the novelty and illegality of their that excruciating incident where the form; but they never give the un- lover and the sister catch sight of the mixed satisfaction of perfect art. black flag above the gaol, signalling It is now becoming recognized that the the execution of Tess. Great tragedy true Ibsen he of the poetic leaves us not thus, in a state of revolt dramas, upon which he expended and disgust, of criticism or questionmuch less labor, but poured forth his ing, but reconciled by our sense of a genius into a suitable mould. I have justice somewhere-perhaps in our cited only one of the numerous plays hearts—inspired with a sense of hu. that Ibsen's example has called into man nature's greatness and capacity being, Mr. Galsworthy's “Justice." to endure. A sure touchstone of the No one is likely to deny that this is tragedy that is not pure art is that it rather a pamphlet than a tragedy. leaves us in rebellion, challenging gods Only a great indignation and a long and men, and only too anxious to dising to help put things right could pute the very premises of the playjustify the barrowing realism of its wright's argument. pathos. Mr. Hardy has written but

Ernest A. Baker. The Academy.

was

MANNERS.

If it is manners that make men, Guildford Grammar School so wholethere can be very few in these days. somely the other day. Did not pious One is inclined to ask, do they also William really mean character by make women? We hope not, for, if manners? There was a day when it they do, women must be even rarer would almost have been thought still. If William of Wykeham came wicked to say that it was manners-to judgment now, he would surely in Lord Rosebery's sense—that made have to find a new class for humans; a man. The hollowness of manners as they could hardly be genus homo any a guide to character used to be a more. Yet, if the truth must be told, favorite text; illustrated descriptions we have an idea that William of of polished paragons—the quintessence Wykeham's text had no strict rele of elegance and formal courtesyvance at all to Lord Rosebery's theme whose hearts were black. The inno. when he was lecturing the boys of cent, indeed, starting through the

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world was practically told to suspect the mischief worked by Brummels and a blackguard in every gentleman. D'Orsays if we could get back the Good manners were a disguise. We manners of their age; not that it was have very Little of this now-even at all the high-water mark of manpopular novelettes, we understand, are

If the Hebro-American plutocnot now peopled with elegant villains.

our day were to assume Naturally, for there is no elegance to courtly manners, we would promptly be warned off. The deceitful heart is become bull purchasers of moral now wearing the mask of the hoyden stock. But we do not look for any and the romp, the hooligan and the immediate rise. street arab. A much more skilful dis- Lord Rosebery did not attempt guise--for polish was never believed definition of manners. He would have to be spontaneous, hardly natural, in been very silly if he had. He would Englishmen, and as something arti. have left the boys without any idea ficial it put people on their guard. But what manners were or what he meant horse-play argues an untutored mind, by them. Every definition breaks so that in the young men and maidens down. If one says it is the expression of to-day you see just the simple of character, numerous examples (sometimes noble) savage, necessarily spring up to refute us. If we say it honest for want of sophistication. So is the bearing of a gentleman to a they can deceive with much more suc- gentleman, one knows of many gencess than their polished ancestors. It tlemen who have bad manners; and undoubtedly is the popular view that we are bound to add, quite as many as we have sloughed off manner ladies. Moreover people of any class have taken on honesty. One is asked can have good manners. A king may to tolerate good-humoredly and even have no manners; a slum child or a to admire the young things' high peasant may be a model. We all spirits as all so natural and simple. It agree that the quintessence of ill. may be natural and it may be simple, manners is pretence, especially the especially as simple is sometimes syn- pretence of fineness. Yet spontaneity onym for fool. But where is the con. does not make good manners; the solation in a man being natural if he lower classes have always shown this, is naturally offensive? Why should and to-day the higher classes are drivwe like a woman the more for being ing this truth home with energy. simple if she is simply vulgar? This Neither will reality hold as test, apology for the casting off of good though often put forward. A roughmanners does not appeal to us at all.

natured person could

achieve If a man or woman cannot be, or, at good manners by mere honesty. To any rate, is not good inside as well as cite the savage is a great mistake; out, we would rather have him good primitive people are always outside than not good either way.

tional and ceremonial. So one takes Who would think of objecting to a refuge in saying that manners, like lunatic that he had a sound body? so many other things which we know Possibly an unsound body would cor- and appreciate as facts, are felt, but respond better with an unsound mind cannot be explained. Good manners and so be simpler; but we never are the manners of a good man is heard of anyone on that account pre- very nearly what Aristotle would have ferring a deformed and hideous luna. said. It sounds a truism; it is not altic to a handsome one. We would be ways true; yet you will not get much quite willing to take our chance of further than that, once you begin an

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alyzing and arguing. A "New Re- that we have left these things helind; public" on manners instead of but with regret. It is only a few after ligion would be very diverting, if Mr. all who rejoice in their gracelessness. Mallock or another Mr. Mallock could The aristocratic lady who sits with do it for us. The key no doubt would both elbows on the table, knife and be found in history rather than in fork in either hand pointing to the philosophy. In our, the European, ceiling (we write of what we have conception of manners there is obvi- seen), would not admire that attitude ously much of knighthood, and that is in her little daughter, and would at bound up with Christianity. The heart prefer the habit of her formal ideal character and his bearing to his ancestress on the wall. The board. brothers and sisters, especially those school girl, who shrieks in groups and less fortunate than himself, is, we doubles up with laughter, is a nuishould say, at the bottom of the sance to passers-by, and "cheeks" Western conception of good manners. her employer, has no manners not But those who know the East tell us from love of bad manners, but no Westerner has any manners; in- because she has never seen good deed can hardly know what manners manners either at home or at school are. The manners of the Oriental we or anywhere. must admire and leave alone; we can- Could we not have a Manners Club not change our skin. After all, our and try to regain some of our lost esWestern feudal conception is a great tate? Make it a social distinction to

We have had good manners. belong to the Club and should Can we not get them back? Old soon be mending our manners. But world courtesy," "old world dignity,” how shall we start it? Where are we "the grand manner"-all these to find the well-mannered men and phrases show that we are conscious women?

The Saturday Review.

one.

we

BOOKS AND AUTHORS

Southhampton for frontispiece. Each
volume has a critical and analytical
Introduction, Notes, a list of Textual
Variants and a Glossary.

Three new volumes have been added to the charming "Tudor Shakespeare" which Macmillan & Co., are publishing. The Second part of Henry the Sixth is edited by Professor Charles H. Barnwell of the University of Alabama and has for frontispiece a picture of the tower of London. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is edited by George Pierce Baker, A. B., Professor of Dramatic Literature in Harvard University, and is illustrated with a photogravure of John P. Kemble as Hamlet. The Sonnets, to which is added A Lover's Complaint, are edited by Raymond M. Alden, Ph.D., Professor of English in the University of Illinois, and have a portrait of the Earl of

Elizabeth Wallace's "Mark Twain and the Happy Island" (A. C. McClurg & Co.) is a delightfuly sunny and interesting record of a personal acqaintance with Mark Twain in the later years of his life, when he spent many happy days in Bermuda, opening his heart freely to all with whom he came in contact and especially to children, and diffusing an atmosphere of mirth everywhere. The book is charmingly written, from the first chapter, which describes Mr. Clemens's

arrival on the island and his cheerful jesting with young Margaret, to the last, which gives some of his letters, and records his death. Altogether, such a record as this is better than formal biography, both because it is more manageable, and because it is more intimate in its disclosure of the real Mark Twain, as his friends knew and loved him. Thirty or more illustrations from photographs deepen the personal impression of the book.

mirable Miss Addams," the modern de mand for “Self-Supporting Wives," and the revolt against the "dual standard” voiced by Miss Milholland and others, and urges in conclusion that the only force equal to so huge a task as the straightening out of the tangles in our affairs,-the unrest among women as well as other forms of unrest—is "the spirit of Christ, working through individuals, and shaping and inspiring our politics." Religion, he insists, is the great agent in pacifying human life and making people content to live it, the only force that can make men wise enough to be men, and women patient enough to be women.

The seven chapters in which Ed. ward Sandford Martin discusses “The Unrest of Women" (D. Appleton & Co.) are written in so cheerful and courteous a temper, and evince so keen an appreciation of present-day political, industrial and social conditions that readers who differ most widely from the author's conclusions can hardly be offended by the manner in which he states them. From his point of view, the unrest of women is part of a general unrest, extending over most of the world, and manifesting itself in many different ways. “There is unrest among women," he writes, “because there is unrest in the air they breathe, but, naturally, it takes its own special forms,” the most conspicuous of which is the aspiration for the suffrage. Mr. Martin does not believe that this aspiration is a wise one, nor that its gratification would work out the best results for women or for society. He is so old-fashioned as to hold that the natural destiny of women is to marry and have children and raise them, that this is the same now that it always has been and always will be, and that for this, primarily, girls should be trained; and he looks with misgiving upon any social theory or industrial compulsion which makes against this. He reviews in some detail and in a whimsical humor "The Disquiet of Miss Thomas," "The Agitation of Mrs. Belmont," "The Ad

"What can Literature Do for Me," is the title of a book by C. Alphonso Smith, Poe professor of English in the University of Virginia. It gives in a popular form the substance of what are undoubtedly some of the author's lectures to undergraduates. In fact it seems intended not for the confirmed lovers and readers of great literature but for practical open-minded people who are seeking to know and to be convinced of the uses of books. Considered as such, the book should be valuable, for it tells definite things which literature does for the individual and illustrates its arguments by numerous examples, thus giving the reader a foretaste of the treasures he may discover for himself. Most of the references are to the familiar house hold poets of America and to the greater English poets and novelists. According to Professor Smith, we should read not for æsthetic enjoyment so much as to build up our moral natures and to acquire a broader outlook which may make us more sympathetic and useful. This book will reach people who would never give time or thought to the ordinary accepted form of literary criticism, and it deserves a large circulation. Doubleday, Page & Co.

SEVENTH SERIES

VOLUME LX

No. 3610 September 13, 1913

FROM BEGINNING Vol. CCLXXVIII

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III.

CONTENTS
1.
The Session of 1913. By Auditor Tantum.

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 643 11. The Perception of Light in Plants. By Harold Wager.

CORNHILL MAGAZINE
The Strength of the Hills. Chapter 1. The Glad September.
By Halliwell Sutcliffe. (To be continued.)

TIMES 660 IV. The Short Story in France. By Una A. Taylor.

EDINBURGH REVIEW 669
V The Balkan War and the Indian Musalmans.
By "An Indian Muslim."

HINDUSTAN REVIEW 678
VI.
Baban Miji. By R. S. Fletcher.

BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE 680 VII. Seagulls. By F. G. Aflalo.

OUTLOOK 691 VIII. The New Milltancy.

Puno: 694 IX. Harvest-Time in the Bible.

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 695 X. The Wages of Hurry. By Vernon Lee.

NATION 697 XI. Games as Mathematical Problems.

SPECTATOR 700 A PAGE OF VERSE XII. London Town. By John Masefield.

642 XIII, The Song of Amergan. Translated by Alfred Perceval Graves.

DUBLIN REVIEW 642 BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

703

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