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theatre of the story, a Greenwich occasional phrases from Virgil, Village, New York, shabby lodging- venial offence in Tudor and in Stuart house, still showing signs of former days. The appendix gives the probsober splendor, is presented with much able date of printing the text as the detail, and no exaggeration of any Folio of 1623, and adds the list of kind. The reader may find it pleasant, emendations adopted by the Camwhen he comes to the end of the story, bridge editors, and their suggestion to make a calculation determining the that the Folio may have been printed name of the President who plays the from the author's original manuscript. god from the car at the decisive in- About twelve pages, giving citations stant. Little, Brown & Co.

from some thirty authorities, are given

to the date of composition, twice The latest volume of "A New as many as to the source of the plot: Variorum Edition of Shakespeare" and about thirty to passages taken "The Tragedie of Julius Cæsar," is in- from various writers who have scribed “In Memoriam” by its editor, summed up the characters of Cæsar Horace Howard Furness, Jr., with and of Brutus. Under the head of the proud but melancholy line from "criticisms" may be found French, “Henry VI,” “Methinks, 'tis prize English, and German opinion, and enough to be his son." Dedication among them Voltaire's judgment, unmore felicitous is unimaginable, but rivalled as a piece of misunderstandthe closing paragraph of the preface ing. The English division of the heightens its effect, and must be "Stage History of the Play" begins quoted: "My most just and severe with Betterton, at the Theatre Royal, albeit, my

most tender-critic has in 1684; the American division, with passed beyond my inadequate words the record of a performance at Charlesof gratitude. He to whom I owe the ton, S. C., in 1774, and gives little deepest obligations, the inspiration of space to any but those in which actors all my work, is no longer by my side of especial eminence have taken part. with ever-ready help and never-failing In the section treating of "dramatic and invaluable counsel. The rest is versions” of Cæsar's career, are a full silence." The contents of this im- account of Chapman's “Cæsar and posing new volume of 480 pages in- Pompey," and brief descriptions of clude not only the “tragedie,” which, Muret's "Julius Cæsar” and Grévin's with its array of footnotes, occupies “Cæsar.” Daniel's work and that of the 278 pages, but also “The Tragedy of Cowden-Clarkes are summarized unJulius Cæsar," by Sir William Alex- der the head of "Time Analysis," and ander, Earl of Sterline, published in with this ends the book. Sixty-eight 1607, and here reprinted from its final editions by various hands are cited and authorized version of 1637. This in the textual notes, and so closely gives the reader so disposed an op- has space been economized that by portunity to divert himself with the ingenious devices the necessity of odious comparison, both of methods naming single books every time that and of matter, for the Earl was not they are quoted is obviated and arbicontent with basing his drama on trary signs indicate the attitude of North's Plutarch, but incorporated critics towards one another. To put with it part of the substance of a it briefly, this single volume gives its tragedy of Jules Grévin, whose play owner all the advantages which he was founded on the Latin of Muret, could derive from a great library. J. and further enriched his text with B. Lippincott Company.

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The Death of Satire. By Herman Scheffauer.




No. 3601 July 12, 1913



The Changing of the Balance of Power. By J. Ellis Barker.

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Chapter XI. By Alice Perrin. (To be continued.)



Thomas Hardy. By Charles Whibley.




Opium: An Unsettled Question. By Theodore Cooke Taylor.

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The Wind. By Frances Tyrrell-Gill
The Bed. By Sandys Wason.






FOR SIX DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage, to any part of the United States. To Canada the postage is 50 cents per annum.

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They ride upon the wind at night,

And on the stirrups of the dawnThe souls of whom he would have

sight, The souls from whom he is with

drawn, They parley with him at the gate, He calls them friend, he claims them

kin, But still his hearth is desolate,

And still they may not enter in. For one walks by him night and day, With silver voice and beckoning

eyes; Ever sbe leads him far away,

From where the key of entrance lies. He cannot choose, he cannot choose

But follow in her rainbow track; He can but weep such joy to lose,

He can but look with longing back. And where she leads he knows too

well, The stones, the loneliness, the dark; But hers is the eternal spellThe viewless goal, the unshot mark.

V. H. Friedlaender. The Academy.

When the earth breathes fast at the

dawn of the year, As she feels the step of Persephone

near; And sweet, and soft, with a fond ca

ress, We waken the flowers from their

dream of sleep; And the birds at our song begin to

pair. Yet the wild storm cry, the strain and

the stress Of recurring tides, bring the sense of

the deep, First rush of things when we were there!

Frances Tyrrell-Gil. The Fortnightly Review.

THE WIND. A wide green space, and an open sky! And the world is only the wind and I, As we fly together over the grass, That sings in its joy to hear us pass. For the runnels are fresh all over the

land, And the tremulous grey gives place to

the blue That the first of her flowers may find

their way From the underworld to the light of

dayHer violets sweet and her snowdrops

white. Now the sea has a whisper'd word for

the sand, For each moment the world is made

anew, And the meadows are all astir to the

light; But we, we were there when the world

was plann'd. For once, ere I came into mortal form, The wind and I, we were brothers. In


THE BED. (Le Lit. De Hérédia.") Hung though it be with linen or

brocade, Sad as a tomb or joyful as a nest, Here man is born, here mated, here

takes rest, Babe, husband, grandsire, grandam,

wife or maid. Be it for bridal or for burial sprayed Under black crucifix or palm-branch

blest, From the first dawn till the last can

dle drest, Here all things made beginning, end

ing made. Low, rustic, shuttered proud of

a pavilion Victorious in gold-leaf and vermilion, Hewn from brute oak, —cypress or

sycamore Happy who lies without remorse or

dread In the paternal bed, immense and

hoar, Where all his folk are born, where all lie dead.

Sandys Wason. The Saturday Review.





Future generations may see in the largely upon the maintenance of the battle on the Ergene River one of the balance of power on the Continent. decisive battles of the world and in Its necessity was well summarized by the war which is drawing to its end Frederick the Great in his Anti-Machia. a milestone on the road of the world's vel in the following words: history. The Turkish War has closed The tranquillity of Europe rests the European career of one of the most principally upon the wise maintenance successful and most dreaded conquer

of the balance of power by which the ing nations. Only a comparatively

superior strength of one State is made short time ago—during the rule of

harmless by the countervailing weight

of several States united among themCharles the Second and Louis the

selves. In

this equilibrium Fourteenth and during the lifetime of

should disappear, it is to be feared Peter the Great, Prince Eugene, the

that a universal revolution will be the great Duke of Marlborough, Sir Isaac result, and that an Newton and William Penn—the Turks monarchy will be established upon held the Continent of Europe in awe, the ruins of those States which were and besieged Vienna. To-day their

too weak for individual resistance and rule in Europe is a thing of the past,

which lacked the necessary spirit to

unite in time. and it is doubtful whether they will

If Egypt, Syria, and

Macedonia had combined against the be able to keep even their Asiatic

Roman Power, they would not have possessions. Turkey's downfall is

been overthrown. A wisely framed significant not only to those who re

alliance and an energetic war would flect upon the past but also to those have preserved the ancient world from who look into the future; for it may the chains of a universal despotism. completely alter the very foundation of It should be remembered that the modern statecraft and of modern polit greatest wars which Europe has witical organization. In consequence of nessed were brought about by the atTurkey's defeat the balance of power tempts of ambitious rulers or nations in Europe, which is the very founda- to destroy the balance of power in ortion of its political, social and eco- der to establish their predominance in nomic life, has begun to change, and Europe. The attempts of Charles the no one can foresee the ultimate conse Fifth, Philip the Second, Louis the quences of that change to Europe and Fourteenth, and Napoleon the First to to the world.

obtain the mastery of Europe devasThe policy of maintaining an equi. tated the Continent and forced Great librium among States is as old as is Britain to interfere for the sake of her civilization. It was constantly prac- own security. tised by the civilized States of an- Until a recent time only the five tiquity. The balance of power is a Continental Great Powers were firmly device for preserving peace among organized for mutual support. They States. It is a device for restraining formed two groups—the Triple Alliany single State from becoming so ance composed of Germany, Austriapowerful that it can without great risk Hungary and Italy, and the Dual Allimake war upon other States and de- ance composed of France and Russia. stroy the independence of its neigh- Great Britain held aloof from the nabors. The security of Great Britain tions of the Continent. The Triple and the peace of Europe depends very Alliance and the Dual Alliance formed

a very efficient balance of power. The late General Maurice showed in his book The Balance of Military Power in Europe that the two groups of Powers were approximately equally strong on land and on sea. Great Britain had no Continental policy, and she had no need for one.

It was not necessary for her to labor for the preservation of the balance of power in Europe.

Germany put an end to England's policy of non-interference in Continental affairs. Her anti-British policy, which began with the Krüger telegram of 1896, the rapid increase of the German Navy, the anti-British agitation throughout Germany, and official pronouncements such as that contained in the preamble of the great German Navy Bill of 1900_"Germany requires a fleet of such strength that a war against the mightiest naval Power would involve risks threatening the supremacy of that Power"-were manifestations the significance of which could not possibly be misunderstood in this country. The keenness with which, since 1900, Germany be. gan to compete with Great Britain on the seas will be seen from the following figures: Money Voted for Naval Construction In Great Britain In Germany £

£ 1900 9,788,146 3,401,907 1901 10,420,256 4,921,036 1902 10,436,520 5,039,725 1903 11,473,030 4,388,748 1904 13,508,176 4,275,489 1905 11,291,002 4,720,206 1906 10,859,500 5,167,319 1907 9,227,000 5,910,959 1908 8,660,202 7,795,499 1909 11,227,194 10,177,062 1910 13,279,830 11,392,856 1911 15,063,877 12,250,269 1912 13,972,527 11,787,565 In the course of twelve short years Germany's expenditure on naval construction increased by 8,385,0001., or by no less than 247 per cent, whilst

Great Britain increased her expenditure only by 4,184,0001., or by 43 per cent. In 1900 Germany expended on naval construction only about onethird as much as was spent by Great Britain. During the last five years she spent on warship building nearly as much as did this country.

Germany's attitude and policy, the threatening language of her politicians, her professors and her Press, and the ominous increase of the German navy, which remained concentrated in the North Sea within striking distance of Great Britain's shores, compelled this country, as I was allowed to point out in this Review for the first time in August 1902, to seek support with Germany's opponents, and in the first instance with France. The AngloFrench Entente was concluded in 1904.

Russia's defeat in Manchuria destroyed the balance of power in Europe. It made the Triple Alliance supreme. In 1905, immediately after Russia's decisive defeat, Germany brought about the first Morocco crisis. It was well-timed. As crippled Russia could not assist France, Great Britain bad to take her part; for in view of Germany's anti-British attitude she could not allow France to be humiliated or defeated. Furthermore, it became Great Britain's task, as I pointed out in this Reviewo in March, May, and July 1905, in April 1906, and in September 1907, to support Russia against her Western neighbor until she had recovered from her defeats. An AngloRussian Entente was necessary, and it was concluded in 1907. The Triple Alliance was faced by a Triple Entente. The balance of power, which the Russo-Japanese War had destroyed, was thus re-established.

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1 "The Anti-British Movement in Germany.".

2 "The Renewal of the Japanese Alliance"; “The Balance of Power in Europe"; "The Collapse of Russia; "The Future of AngloGerman Relations: a reply to Lord Avebury';

The Anti-British Policy of Germany: a rejoinder to Lord Eversloy."

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