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of course to be taken too literally. akin to Arabic, and it is not the lanSwitzerland, for instance, is ' unquesguage of the Empire. Nevertheless it tionably and in every sense a nation, was for many years the exclusive although three official languages are language of the law courts, it was allowed in the Parliament at Berne, optional in the Council, and Sir George and on occasion not less than five have Cornewall Lewis made a determined been known to crop up in the excite- effort to establish it as the sole lanment of debate. But as a rule it re- guage of education. Until Mr. Chammains true that few influences are berlain brought his vigorous common more subtle, more moulding, more sense to bear on the question, a British separative in their effects, or harder subject in the nominally British colony to sbake oil, than the influence of lan. of Malta was tried in Italian, his evigriage; and a people which has once dence was translated into Italian, his foregone and then recaptured the use lawyer pleaded in Italian, and the of its own tongue is raised insensibly verdict for or against him was delivto a higher pitch of self-consciousness ered in Italian, In Canada, strongly and virility. There may even be hope against the advice of Lord Durham, for the Koreans now that the mission- and in South Africa we have adopted aries, after four hundred years of dis- the same policy of fostering a pluuse, are reviving the Korean lan- rality of tongues on a far larger scale guage.

and, of course, with much more exThe Catholic prelates of Austria, in cuse. Time may justify it and discouncil assembled, once declared that close compensations that will more “all differences of language were the than offset its palpable drawbacks and consequence of sin and the fall of inconveniences; and in any case there man,” and as such, presumably, could can be no question of reversing it. not be put a stop to too soon. Whether But it is worth noting that it is not that be good theology or not, many the policy of any other Imperial Governments have convinced them- Power and that the Boers themselves selves that it is good politics. In Great never practised it. They absorbed the Britain, however, and throughout the Huguenot refugees in a generation by British Empire we have acted

making them learn the taal and by quite opposite theory. We have made stamping out the patois of the new the tender preservation of the tongues settlers with the directness of Rusof such alien white peoples as sians attacking Finnish. Alone of govern one of the principles of our the leading nations we make no official Imperial policy. We have even carried atteinpt to propagate or insure the suit at times to a point where states

premacy of our own language in our manship has been submerged in own dominions; and if the United gush of philological enthusiasm. The Kingdom were to act on the suggesprivileged position so long enjoyed by tion of certain statesmen and convert Italian in Malta is conspicuously itself into a sort of administrative and case in point. Italian never had any legislative heptarchy, what was once logical standing in the colony at all. Great Britain might become almost as It is not the language of the natives, polyglot as Austria-Hungary. who speak an incurable vernacular

Sydney Brooks. The Outlook,

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BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

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A book for quiet hours and endur- admirably to melodrama, and vital ing appreciation is “The Hand or situations enough for half a dozen difPetrarch," by T. R. Sullivan. It is a ferent stories, Rex Beach always collection of short stories and the first avoids the crudely sensational. In tells of the love which a goldsmith of his most exciting moments there is an Bergamo in the 14th century felt for element of restraint. His descriptions the poet Petrarch. Here we find pure of glaciers and great rivers and storms emotion, the joy of craftsmanship, and are vivid and stirring, but the descriplove of the beautiful expressed in a tions never get in the way of the narmanner that makes us follow a story rative, which is rapid and absorbing. of times long past with complete ab- The book is a worthy successor to the sorption. The other stories touch a author's other well-remembered stories variety of people and variety of heroic men who conquered great of places; from French actress obstacles. Harper and Brothers. to Roman cabman, from the seclusion of a small New England Thomas Nelson Page has named a town to a Paris banking house. The collection of short, unrelated stories stories have this in common:

an in

"The Land of the Spirit.” It is his sight into moods and events which the belief, stated in the preface, that durordinary observer would pass as insig- ing the last decade the universal mind nificant, but which the author under

has been drawn more forcefully than stands as the very fabric of true ro- ever before to things of the spirit, mance. They are cosmopolitan in and that the new moral movements their breadth, and finished with the

have shown men that the kingdom of most minute care. The reader who heaven is here and now. Therefore skims will find little to hold him in

each of these stories, whether it deals these stories, but one who is willing

with a party of commercial travelers to approach them in a leisurely way at an old Southern Hotel, or with the will find a wealth of interest, of feel- Inn at Bethlehem, emphasizes the ing, of delicious humor, and of wis

value of spiritual over material things. dom. Houghton Mifflin Co.

Two of the stories, “The Old Plant

ers,” and “The Trick Doctor" are il Alaska; a railroad built in spite of the vein by which Thomas Nelson tremendous obstacles; the strife of two

Page is most widely known and adbig-brained men, the one unscrupu- mired, for they deal with Southern life lous and the other honorable; the love

and people. Others, “The Stranger's of a young newspaper woman for Mur

Pew," "The Stable of the Inn," and ray O'Neil, the “Irish Prince," who

“The Shepherd Who Watched by wrought his dreams into steel bridges

Night,” are mystical and allegorical. and iron tracks; this is the "stuff" of

The remaining stories, "The Bigot" which Rex Beach makes his new novel and “The Outcast," are strong studies “The Iron Trail." Everything is on a of human nature. All are told with large scale here, and from the steam

the charin and old fashioned gentleship wreck in the first chapter until ness and literary distinction which are the final page the interest is intense. characteristic of the author's work. With material which would lend itself Charles Scribner's Sons.

8EVENTH SERIES

VOLTA. }

FROM BEGINNING

No. 3612 September 27, 1913

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VI.

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CONTENTS
1. Referendum or Republic. By Pierse Loftus.

BRITISH REVIEW 771
Realistic Drama. III. By W. L, Courtney. FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 575
III. The Strength of the Hills. Chapter III. The Choice.
By Halliwell Sutcliffe. (To be continued.)

TIMES 786 IV. The Irish Farmer. By George A. Birmingham.

OUTLOOK 793 V. The Faith of Dostoevsky.

TIMEB 797 Jobn Cope's Year at Oxford. (Concluded.)

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE 801 VII. The New Journalism,

EOONOMIST 813 VIII. A Local Boss.

SATURDAY REVIEW 816 IX. A Debt of Honor.

Punol 819 X. The Mexican Crisis.

OUTLOOK 821 A PAGE OF VERSE XI. The Emigrant. By John Masefield.

770 The Wind-Bell. By E. Hamilton Moore.

OUTLOOK 770 XIII, The Whistler. By E. M. Cook.

BOOKMAN 770 XIV. Youth and Age. By Edward Storer.

770 BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

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XII.

PUBLISHID EVERY SATURDAY BY

THE LIVING AGE COMPANY,

6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION For Six DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage, to any part of the United States. To Canada the postage is 50 cents per annum.

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Single Copies of THE LIVING AGE, 15 cents.

THE EMIGRANT.

Going by Daly's shanty I heard the

boys within Dancing the Spanish hornpipe to Dris

coll's violin, I heard the sea-boots shaking the rough

planks of the floor, But I was going westward, I hadn't

heart for more.

It whispers like a hidden rill,
That tinkles down a ferny hill,
Haunt of the honey-loving bee,
Beside a sunlit, summer sea.
And when the twilight falls, I think
Of inland lakes, with lilied brink,
Where lateen sails go skimming by,
Silent as wide-winged butterfly.
And silver sweet the music swells
Of red and gold Pagoda bells:
'Tis but a toy a Japanee
Made in a town beyond the sea.

E. Hamilton Moore.
The Outlook.

All down the windy village the noise

rang in my ears, Old sea boots stamping, shuffling, it

brought the bitter tears, The old tune piped and quavered, the

lilts came clear and strong, But I was going westward, I couldn't

join the song.

THE WHISTLER.

dn't Beside the doorway of a country inn

There were the grey stone houses, the

night wind blowing keen, The hillsides pale with moonlight, the

young corn springing green, Tbe hearth nooks lit and kindly, with

dear friends good to see, But I was going westward, and the ship waited me.

John Masefield.

One stood and whistled right melo

diously: He whistled as the birds, scarce

dreaming why, Save that with all fair things his

heart was kin. And as he stood a-whistling, from

within The hostel, oft broke in upon the

song The uncouth voices of a rustic

throng Who marked the tale a wanton churl

did spin, The discord hushed, the melody would

merge. Triumphant, clearer-sweeter than

before,

Until a very rapture smote the ear Of one who trod the long lane's dust

strewn verge: So Love stands, making music at

the door. One lists perchance the rest nor heed nor hear,

E. M. Cook. The Bookman,

THE WIND-BELL. A wind-bell, that a Japanee Made in a town beyond the sea, Hangs on my balcony, to sway To every wind that blows its way. And, as it sways, it doth repeat Its tintinnabulation sweet As call to fairy revelry: My wind-bell, made across the sea.

Some yellow-fingered craftsman

wrought In painted glass his lyric thought, To glad me with its jocund din From morning till the stars begin. Methinks a red-capped muleteer And all his chiming train I hear Climb the long Pass, where, wild and

free, Adventure calls across the sea.

YOUTH AND AGE, Youth asks itself, “How can I ever

die? Only the old into the grave must

fall,” While age is wondering with a gentle

sigh If all its wasted breath was life at all.

Edward Storer.

With iris and chrysanthemum
"Tis gaily dight, and never dumb.
And when the heavy air's aswoon,
Still, through the breathless afternoon,

REFERENDUM OR REPUBLIC.

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9

Probably the most important fact power to check and control the venal in present-day politics, not only in this or futile politicians of Parliament. country, but throughout Europe and The people feel, subconsciously perAmerica, is the growing disillusion- haps, that Parliament does not reprement of the people with Representa- sent the people, that the caucus tive Government. When we look back chine, not the people, controls and to the fervor of 1848—the year of the elects the Parliament; that members barricades—we can measure the dis- pay more regard to their own and their tance we have travelled, the full ex- party's interests than to the interests tent of popular disappointment. Then of the Nation. it appeared that the one necessary ob- We find the same phenomenon in ject for all European peoples was the the United States, where, for two genattainment of representative Parlia- erations at least, the people have been mentary Government. In the eyes of forcing more and more power into the the eager fanatics of all nations, hands of the President. They feel death on the barricades was a small that election to the House of Repreprice to pay for that inestimable boon sentatives or to the Senate is confor their people. Government by a trolled by the party "Bosses," and Parliament elected on a wide suffrage that it is necessary to give one man, was regarded as the sure and imme- directly responsible to the people, diate precursor of the millennium. For power to control the "Bosses," and the this great ideal they gladly suffered nominees of the "Bosses," who form exile, imprisonment and death, with the vast majority of Representatives an absolute and burning faith in the and Senators. efficacy of their ideal which seems in- The examples of France and the finitely pathetic to the present genera- United States are perhaps the most retion, disillusioned with the reality. markable, but in almost every counTheir tremendous sacrifices were not try we find the same strong tendency in vain, because in all European coun. at work. Almost every nation which tries widely elected Parliaments have has possessed for a considerable period come into existence, and in most they the blessings of Parliamentary Govhave absorbed all sovereign powers. ernment is espairingly calling in The golden age of Democracy, as im- some form of one-man power to check agined by the martyrs of '48, has and curb the caucus politicians, the come to pass, yet popular contempt representatives who do not represent. and distrust and dislike of the govern- Possibly there is sub-consciously pres. ing powers is great and increasing. ent in the mind of the people the feel

Few can deny that in France Par- ing that one man is more easily acliament and the members of Parlia- countable for his actions than a vague inent are held in scant respect by the body such as Parliament, that one populace, and that this contempt of tyrant will more readily bow to the the Legislature has increased with popular will than several hundred. alarming rapidity during the last ten But whatever the cause, whatever or twenty years. Therefore, it is no the sub-conscious feeling that animates surprise to find the nation at the pres- public opinion, the fact remains that ent time demanding that the President in all so-called democratic countriesshould exercise his powers to the full. in France and the United States, even They ask that he shall have enough in Greece there is visible to all the

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