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COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

WILLIAM L. DAWSON, Illinois, Chairman CHET HOLIFIELD, California

CLARE E. HOFFMAN, Michigan JOHN W. McCORMACK, Massachusetts R. WALTER RIEHLMAN, New York JACK BROOKS. Texas

GEORGE MEADER, Michigan L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina

CLARENCE J. BROWN, Ohio PORTER HARDY, JR., Virginia

FLORENCE P. DWYER, New Jersey JOHN A. BLATNIK, Minnesota

ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan ROBERT E. JONES, Alabama

GEORGE M. WALLHAUSER, New Jersey EDWARD A. GARMATZ, Maryland

ODIN LANGEN, Minnesota JOHN E. MOSS, California

JOHN B. ANDERSON, Illinois JOE M. KILGORE, Texas

RICHARD S. SCHWEIKER, Pennsylvania DANTE B. FASCELL, Florida

F. BRADFORD MORSE, Massachusetts MARTHA W. GRIFFITHS, Michigan HENRY S. REUSS, Wisconsin OVERTON BROOKS, Louisiana ELIZABETH KEE, West Virginia KATHRYN E. GRANAHAN, Pennsylvania JOHN S. MONAGAN, Connecticut NEAL SMITH, Iowa

CHRISTINE RAY DAVIS, Staff Director

JAMES A. LANIGAN, General Counsel
MILES Q. ROMNEY, Associate General Counsel
HELEN M. BOYER, Minority Professional Staff

J. P. CARLSON, Minority Counsel

MILITARY OPERATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE

OHET HOLIFIELD, California, Chairman EDWARD A. GARMATZ, Maryland

R. WALTER RIEHLMAN, New York JOE M. KILGORE, Texas

F. BRADFORD MORSE, Massachusetts MARTHA W. GRIFFITHS, Michigan

EX OFFICIO
WILLIAM L. DAWSON, Illinois

CLARE E. HOFFMAN, Michigan
HERBERT ROBACK, Staff Administrator
EARL J. MORGAN, Chief Investigator

PAUL RIDGELY, Investigator
ROBERT J. McELROY, Investigator
DOUGLAS G. DAHLIN, Staf Attorney

CONTENTS

Hearing held

Pago

Tuesday, August 1, 1961.

1-44

Wednesday, August 2, 1961.-

45–94

Thursday, August 3, 1961.

95–132

Friday, August 4, 1961.-

133–165

Monday, August 7, 1961.

167-205

Tuesday, August 8, 1961.

207-262

Wednesday, August 9, 1961...

263-374

Statement of—

Corsbie, R. L., Deputy Assistant Director for Civil Effects, Division

of Biology and Me ine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission...

138

Devaney, John, Director of Systems Analysis, Office of Civil and

Defense Mobilization...

82

Dunham, Dr. Charles L., Director, Division of Biology and Medicine,

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission..

133

Ellis, Frank B., Director, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization;

accompanied by Edward A. McDermott, Deputy Director; Charles

A. Kendall, General Counsel; Ralph E. Spear, Director, Program

and Policy; and Charles Brewton, Assistant Director, Resources and

Production

47, 95

Gouré, Leon, RAND Corp-

263

Hanunian, Norman A., economist, RAND Corp-

207

Hill, Dr. Jerald E., RAND Corp.

344

Kahn, Herman, Hudson Institute...

167, 361

Lemnitzer, Gen. Lyman L., U.S. Army, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of

Staff

14

McNamara, Hon. Robert S., Secretary of Defense-

5

Minshall, Hon. William E., a Representative in Congress from the

State of Ohio.---.

45

Mitchell, H. H., M.D., RAND Corp--

330

Quindlen, Eugene, Deputy Assistant Director for Federal-State Local

Plans, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization.--

Roth, Capt. Eli B., Commanding Officer, U.S. Naval Radiological
Defense Laboratory---

258
Strope, Walmer E., Associate Scientific Director, U.S. Naval Radio-
logical Defense Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif.

233

Winter, Sidney G., Jr., RAND Corp----

303

Yarmolinsky, Adam, special assistant to the Secretary of Defense;

accompanied by Cyrus R. Vance, General Counsel; Rogers Cannell,

Stanford Research Institute, consultant to Office of Civil and De-

fense Mobilization and the Department of Defense; Maj. Albert K.

Stebbins III, Defense Atomic Support Agency; also Carey Brewer,

Executive Assistant to the Director, Office of Civil and Defense

Mobilization; accompanied by Ralph E. Spear, Director, Program

and Policy; G. Lyle Belsley, Resources and Production; John F.
Devaney, Director of Systems Analysis; and Eugene Quindlen,

Deputy Assistant Director for Federal-State Local Plans -

96

Letters, statements, etc.; submitted for the record by-

Corsbie, R. L., Deputy Assistant Director for Čivil Effects, Division

of Biology and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission:

Excerpt from a statement on application and limitations of the

t-1.2 decay rule, by Dr. Samuel Glasstone, editor, “Effects of

Weapons”

160

Letters, statements, etc.; submitted for the record by-Continued

Corsbie, R. L., etc.—Continued

Excerpt from report of the National Academy of Sciences-Na Page

tional Research Council re radiation..

152

Figure C-1.-Nuclear effects versus weapon yield.

142

Figure C-2.-Relative degree of weapon effects for various burst

conditions..

145

Protection against nuclear effects afforded by an underground,

corrugated metal arch shelter..

150

Thermal dose at 1 to 10 miles from 1 to 10 megaton surface

bursts in calories per square centimeter..

151

Initial radiation doses in REM at ranges of 1 to 10 miles

from 1 to 10 megaton explosions...

152

Overpressures in pounds per square inch at ranges of 1 to

10 miles from 1 to 10 megaton surface bursts.-

152

Department of Defense: Comments re construction of shelters.

106
Ellis, Frank B., Director, Office of Civil Defense and Mobilization:
Excerpt from Executive Order No. 10952.-

65, 67
Excerpt from the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950..

65
Funding for nonmilitary defense --

77
Griffiths, Hon. Martha W., a Representative in Congress from the
State of Michigan:
Excerpt from statement of Adm. Arthur Radford, former Chair-
man, Joint Chiefs of Staff, re civil defense.

18
Excerpt from statement of Frank B. Ellis...

71

Gouré, Leon, RAND Corp.:

Excerpt from a current Soviet civil defense handbook -

265

Figure G-1.-Organization of a Soviet self-defense group..

266

Figure G-2.-Soviet city civil defense organization.

267

Figure G-3.-Soviet civil defense training chart (Caption reads:

"In an anti-air raid defense group You will find out

You will learn") -

269

Figure G-4.-Illustration from Soviet training manual (types of

protective clothing).

271

Figure G-5.--Illustration from Soviet training manual (indi-

vidual decontamination packet, IPP-5)

272

Figure G-6.-Illustration from Soviet training manual (indi-

vidual decontamination packet, IPP-3) --

273

Figure 6–7.-Sketch of Soviet civil defense shelter (deep shelter) - 275

Figure G-8.—Sketch of Soviet civil defense shelter (heavy air-raid

shelters)

276

Figure G-9.-Sketch of Soviet civil defense shelter (detached

shelters).

278

Figure G-10.-Soviet civil defense shelters..

279

Figure G-11.-View of Moscow subway station...

280

Figure G-12.-View of entrance to Moscow subway station indi-

cating concealed blast door in floor.---

281

Figure G-13.- View of entrance to Moscow subway station indi-

cating concealed blast door in wall.--

282

Figure G-14.--Soviet civil defense basement shelter..

284

Figure G-15.-Soviet apartment house basement shelter filter-

ventilation unit...

285

Figure G-16.--Soviet apartment house basement shelter emer-

287

Figure G-17.-Soviet civil defense emergency shelters (dugout

and reinforced concrete pipe) --

288

Figure G-18.--Soviet civil defense emergency shelters (covered

trenches)

Figure G-19.-Exits from Moscow

292

Figure G-20.-Soviet civil defense CW detector kits.---

293

Figure G-21.-Soviet civil defense RW detection equipment.-- 294

Hanunian, Norman A., economist, RAND Corp.:
Figure NH-1.-Distribution of U.S. population..

210
Figure NH-2.-Prompt deaths from alternative bombing attacks
(deaths due to blast and prompt radiations)

213

Figure NH-3.—Prompt and total deaths from hypothetical

attacks..

216

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Letters, statements, etc.; submitted for the record by-Continued

Hanunian, Norman A., economist, RAND Corp.-Continued

Figure NH-4.—Percentage of population having ready access to

Page

dwelling basements, by region.

222

Figure NH-5.-Total deaths resulting from attacks on CONUS

military installations (3,000 megatons) -

228

Figure NH-6.— Total deaths resulting from attacks on CONUS

military installations (10,000 megatons) ---

230

Figure NH-7.—Total deaths resulting from attacks on CONUS

military installations (30,000 megatons) -

231

Table NH-1.–Levels of residual radiation --

224

Hill, Dr. Jerald E., RAND Corp.:

Table H-1.-Significant target parameters in the atomic bomb

attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki..

347

Table H-2.-Fire damage in Hiroshima and Nagasaki..

348

Table H-3.— Forest area burned annually and numbers of fires

in continental United States...

353

Table H-4.–Fire spread from thermonuclear weapons.-

356

Holifield, Hon. Chet, a Representative in Congress from the State of

California, and chairman, Military Operations Subcommittee:

Excerpt from statement of Frank B. Ellis-

62

Excerpt from statement of Hon. Robert S. McNamara.

30

Kahn, Herman, Hudson Institute:

Excerpt from a book review by Walter Millis of the book, "Tragic

but Distinguishable Postwar States”.

183, 184, 185

Excerpt of a letter from an extremely intelligent and reasonable

private citizen.

183

Figure K-1.--Some common reactions to civil defense -- 168, 179, 183

Figure K-2.—Tragic but distinguishable postwar states.

171

Figure K-3.-A complete description of a thermonuclear war in-

cludes the analysis of --

174

Figure K-4.—The subtle view of deterrence

187

Figure K-5.-Excerpt from speech by C. P. Snow.

187

Figure K-6.-Five possible attacks.

189

Explanation of chart, counterforce plus avoidance..

190

Figure K-7.-Special counterforce situations.--

192

Question re evacuation, whether or not reasonable or effective- 193

Suggested probable reactions of committee re military superiority 194

McNamara, Hon. Robert S., Secretary of Defense:

Biographical sketch of Adam Yarmolinsky, special assistant to
the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense

34
Excerpt from Executive Order No. 10952.-

5
Information on the roles of Reserve Forces in relation to civil

defense, from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, July 31,
1961.

25
Principles stated by the Secretary of Defense re administration
of the civil defense program..

5

Mitchell, H. H., M.D., RAND Corp.:

Figure M-1.-Photograph showing the copper basin at Copper-

hill, Tenn.-.

334

Figure M-2.-Decrease in percentage of basal cover in the short-

grass type during drought and increase during recovery after

drought

336

Figure M-3.—Dose range in roentgens for effects of possible

ecological significance-

337

Figure M-4.- Radiosensitivity of drosophila .

338

Figure M-5.-Response of dormant seeds to varying doses of

cobalt 60 gamma rays as measured by seedling growth in a

greenhouse

339

Figure M-6.-Percentage of decontamination by removal of crops

and mulches.

342

Table M-1.-Tolerance of various plants to chronic gamma

radiation.

339

Table M-2.–Sensitivity of mammals to radiation.

340

Table M-3.- Percentage of decontamination by scraping surface

soil following various treatments --

342

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