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leading personage is represented as Loos gesprochen, der euch hieher geführt, gifted with qualifications almost super- der euch gewürdiget hat, die Schröckliche human; strength, beauty, activity, and Engel seines finstern Gerichtes zu seyn!

Entblöset eure Haupter! Kniet in der of self-defence; courage and sagacity, knien]. Die Raüber, act iv. scene v. perfect acquaintance with all the arts

Staub und stehet geheiliget auf! (sie resolution and endurance, together with the command of an inexhaustible Before, however, Schiller dismisses purse, making up the wondrous com- his hero from the stage, he takes care position. It does not escape the ob- to represent him as abjuring his crazy servation of one so richly endowed that aspirations and bewailing his empty poetical justice is not always meted self-conceit. In the last scene he reout in this world, but that the ungodly signs the captaincy of the band, and not unfrequently flourish like a green this dialogue then ensues : bay tree, while the virtuous are obliged to put up with poverty and contempt; hoch fliegende Plane!.

Raüber.--Ha muthloser! Wo sind deine

Sind Saifenand, being of a hot and impatient tem

blasen gewesen, die beim Rauch eines perament, the hero cannot wait for

Weibes zerplazen ? the final distribution of rewards and

R. Moor.-0 über mich Narren, der punishments, but, taking on himself ich wübnete die Welt durch Greuel zu the duties he deems Providence to verschönern, und die Gesetze durch Gesetzhave neglected, sets forth as a self- losigkeit aufrecht zu halten. Ich nannte constituted avenger and benefactor, es Rache und Recht. Ich masste mich an, and endeavours, not unsuccessfully, to

O Vorsicht, die Scharten deines Schwerds remove the inequalities, or as he terms auszuwetzen, und deine Partielichkeiten it the injustice, of the divine dispensa- da steh ich am Rand eines entsetzlichen

gutzumachen -aber-O eitle Kindereytions. In the novel of Mathilde we find a

Lebens und erfahre mit Zahnklappern

und Heulen das zwei Menschen wie ich hero of this kind-here, however, only den ganzen Bau der sittlichen Welt zu in the bud; but in the Mystères de Grund richten würden. Gpade, Gnade Paris he once more makes his appear- dem Knaben, der Dir vorgreifen wollte ! ance and this time full-blown as Ro

Dein eigen allein ist die Rache. [Die dolph Prince of Gerolstein. In the Raüber, act v. scene ii.] Comte de Monte Christo again we have a remarkably fine specimen of

It is much to be wished that M.M. the same genus, and the character is

Sue and Dumas, having copied so apparently so much a favourite with much from the German dramatist, had both the writers we have named, that also followed him in this particular; we doubt not those better acquainted but we are sorry to say that their heroes with their works than ourselves, will leave the field with flying colours, and call to mind more than one other in- the impression left on the reader's stance. We submit, however, that the

mind is that a person playing a rôle of idea is anything but new, and that the

this kind is not merely useful but alsire and prototype of these numerous

most necessary in the drama of life. worthies may be found in our old It may, however, be said that this friend the Karl von Moor of Schiller. conception was not new even in the We will cite one passage out of many

hands of Schiller, but that he took the which exhibits the lofty views and as

idea from the knights errant of the pirations of that interesting enthusiast.

middle ages; and in his preface indeed He is addressing the band of robbers

he terms his hero der seltsame Don of which he is the captain.

Quixote. He has, however, so much Das hat euch wol niemals getraümt,

developed and embellished the original das ihr der Arm hoherer Majestäten seydi design that it may be looked on as der verworrene Kneul unsers Schicksal

almost a new creation of his hands-a ist aufgelöst. Heute, heute hat eine un- praise to which his French successors sichtbare Macht unser Handwerk geadelt! are certainly not entitled. Betet an vor dem, der euch dies erhabenen

F. V.

13

SUPPRESSION OF FEMALE INFANTICIDE IN INDIA. IT is a favourite remark among the the ceremony of the mala was disconhalf-educated natives of Bengal, that tinued by common consent. A revoif the British empire in the East were lution in manners ensued fatal to the suddenly brought to a close, the only independence of the gentler sex. A memorial of its former existence would warrior disdained to owe his wife to be found in some thousands of empty aught but his own strong arm and bottles encumbering certain low shops trusty steel. He won, but he wooed in the bazaar. Until very recently not. By force, or by wile, he carried this bitter taunt was not altogether off the maiden he had learned to desire, devoid of truth ; but now we can and his captive became at once his proudly point to monuments more en- spouse and his slave. during and more useful than those of In all parts of India a false delicacy marble or bronze. Not only can we has rendered the position of father-inboast of our roads, canals, colleges, law, or of brother-in-law, one of reand other material improvements, but proach; but among the Rajpoots such we may also take credit to ourselves for was especially the case, because the the suppression of Thuggee, the aboli. daughter, or the sister, was little better tion of the barbarous rite of Suttee, and than the domestic drudge of her conthe marked diminution of the crime queror. It may be easily imagined of Female Infanticide. On the last that a proud and sensitive race would named subject a few observations may chafe under such a terrible stigma, and not be unacceptable to the general would seek to avoid the disgrace. Nor reader, although the topic is no longer should we be surprised if the unhupossessed of the recommendation of manized barbarian scrupled at no novelty.

means, however atrocious, to free himOf all the indigenous peoples of Hin- self from the chance of such a calamity. doostan, the Rajpoots are pre-eminent The most obvious and the most effecfor martial prowess, lofty pride, chi- tual way of escape was by destroying valrous bearing, and a certain degree the innocent cause of his anxiety at of barbarous refinement. Their early her very birth. And thus female inachievements have been so eloquently fanticide became a practice, an ordichronicled, their manners and customs nary and recognised mode of removing so amply illustrated by Colonel Tod, an anticipated evil. that it would be a work of supereroga- In justice, however, to our common tion to do more than refer to the Annals nature, it must be stated that it was of Rajasthan compiled by that dis- not without a struggle that the Rajtinguished officer.

poots submitted to what they deemed The besetting sin of the Rajpoot is a necessary evil. We learn from their a morbid and selfish vanity, that goes historian that they were often heard to far to neutralise his many noble qua- exclaim,"Accursed be the day wherein lities. For the sake of popular ap- a woman child was born to me!" and plause, of being greeted with the accla- a more modern writer tells us that the mations of a mob of minstrels, jugglers, late Rajah of Mynpoorie was always and vagabonds, of being celebrated moody and restless when the crime in the monotonous and interminable was to be committed in his fort, and chants of the bards, he will bestow an that he would strive to hush the still enormous sum of money on his daughter small voice within

him, by bestowing as her marriage dower, and squander presents upon the Brahmans,-money, the remainder of his wealth among the a horse, or an elephant. motley crew assembled at the solemnity. It is true that the sword, the shield, In ancient times the Rajpootnee dam- and the spear are no longer the arbiters sel selected her lover from the many of wedlock, and that the Rajpoots have suitors for her hand who came together ceased to use violence as a preliminary for that purpose on some appointed to matrimony. But the false position day. But on a certain occasion a feud of the woman, and the inferior social arose, and a fierce civil strife cost the position of the father-in-law, remain tribe so much of its noblest blood, that unchanged to the present day. The

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latter is in every thing subservient to keenly felt, and among them has likehis son-in-law, can refuse him nothing, wise been the greatest destruction of and may claim from him no service in female children. In many clans not return. Until within the last few a single instance has been known for years his daughter's betrothal was the centuries of a female infant being forerunner of his own ruin and degra. allowed to survive. Hundreds of years dation. He was impoverished by her have passed away since the gloomy dower, and insulted by her husband. walls of the native fort at Mynpoory It needed, therefore, no ordinary ten- have been gladdened by the bright derness of feeling, no common degree smile of the babe, or have re-echoed of moral courage, to nourish and bring the ringing laugh of the merry girl as up the puling babe that was to cause she toyed with her mother, her little so much vexation and sorrow; and in brother, or her nurse. And this is no India marriage is a necessity. The solitary instance. Death was the rule unmarried woman is almost an outcast –life the rare exception. Unable to from society. It is an opprobrium to find wives from classes of equal rank herself and her family if she be not and purity, the nobler Rajpoots have betrothed at the age of puberty, which, been compelled to marry the daughters in that climate, is usually attained be- of humbler tribes, compensating the tween the years of nine and twelve. inferiority of birth by the magnitude Female infanticide bas consequently of the dower.

And thus the most continued to prevail down to our own lowly tribes of all could nowhere obtimes.

tain a mate of Rajpoot blood. According to Colonel Tod, there are Nor was it merely the amount of thirty-six royal races, chatees raj-cúla, dower to be paid with a daughter that each of which is subdivided into nu- caused a Rajpoot father so many merous branches, sacha, and these again anxious moments: he was equally into unnumbered clans, or gotra. obliged to squander an enormous sum Every Rajpoot is supposed to be con- of money amongst the bards, mendiversant with his own pedigree, and to cants, and Brahmans, who attended as be able to repeat his gotra acharya, or unbidden and most unwelcome guests. genealogical tree. Of course very few In former times fabulous wealth was are gifted with this talent, and a bard thus squandered in order to secure the or professed genealogist has become a mercenary eulogies of these dispensers constituent member of a wealthy house- of fame. Colonel Tod quotes from hold. To show the necessity of such a native bard the following signifian appointment, it will suffice to ob- cant verse: “The Dahirna emptied serve, that families of the same tribe his coffers on the marriage of his daughcannot intermarry, though centuries ter with Pirthíraj, but he filled them may have elapsed since their divergence with the praises of mankind.” Even from the parent stock. For instance, during the present century the Rana the Seesodia and Aharya, the two of Oodipore expended nearly 10,0001. grand subdivisions of the Gehloses, in presents bestowed upon the chief became separated upwards of eight bard; and still more recently the hundred years ago, and yet at this bride's father was actually murdered moment an intermarriage would be because he refused the attendant mis. pronounced incestuous. It once hap- creants the amount they demanded. pened that a prince of Boondi married These idle vagabonds would come a a lady of another family, but, a bard distance of twenty to thirty miles, and reciting the gotra acharya, it appeared place themselves at a convenient spot that the bride belonged to a sacha, or by which the procession must pass ramification, of the Chohan tribe, of from the house of the bride's father. The which the Boondi family was also a claim they made was one rupee-an branch. A divorce was declared with English florin-for every one of them. many expiatory rites, and both parties selves, for each of their followers, and were overwhelmed with shame and for every horse, foal, and dog in their affliction.

company; and on the occasion aboveIt was naturally among the highest mentioned the unfortunate parent havRajpoot tribes that the humiliation ing declined to give more than four arising from a daughter was most pice (three halfpence) a head, he was

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put to death with much ignominy and and there seemed no reason why it violence.

should not be equally effectual with An untravelled Englishman, or in the Rajpoots. deed any one accustomed only to the It should be premised that the first usages of Europe, may possibly assert public officer who brought the question that nothing is more easy than to in- of female infanticide prominently betroduce a penal statute, prohibiting fore the Government was Mr. Jonathan infanticide, and rendering unlawful Duncan; but the court of directors these tumultuous assemblages at marri- very wisely rejected his proposition age festivals. No doubt these gather- of taking into their own hands the ings might be prevented, and a recent duty of endowing the Rajpoot maidens. enactment has actually been directed At a later period Mr. R. Montgomery against them. But it would be really exerted himself to the utmost to check impracticable to put an end to the this unnatural crime; but the system murder of female children by any legal he introduced was found to be of too decree. The Rajpoot chieftain dwells inquisitorial a nature, and calculated in a sort of fortified inclosure sur- to give high umbrage to men of a rounded by lofty mud walls. His fol. peculiarly susceptible temperament. lowers reside with him; they practice However, in 1842, Mr. Unwin having the same customs, and are entirely ascertained, while encamped in the devoted to him. They regard the de- Chohan district, that there was not a struction of the female infant as rather single female child in existence amongst a meritorious, or at least as a neces- them, immediately adopted a practical sary act, and no prospect of emolument and judicious mode of inspection. He would induce them to betray their ordered the native watchmen in each chief. Besides, it would be a difficult village to give notice, at the police task to bring home the charge of mur; station, of the birth of every female der. The babe when born is immersed child. An officer was instantly desin a bowl of milk, and its struggles patched to the house to view the infant, cease almost before it has breathed the and the superintendent informed the breath of life. Or a small piece of magistrate. An official report as to its opium is fixed to the roof of its mouth, health was made at the expiration of until it gradually melts, and is ab- the first month, and in the case of illsorbed into the system. Or, yet more ness a trustworthy person was sent to horrible, the mother is compelled to ascertain the exact nature of the rub the nipples of her breast with the disease. These measures so far sucfatal drug, and thus suckle her child ceeded, that a female child was saved to death.

alive in that very fort of which we But, although prohibitory edicts have already spoken as so long fatal would prove ineffectual, the same ob- to the sex. Mr. Thomason, the late jection would not apply to a sumptuary lamented Lieutenant-Governor of the law to regulate the amount of dower, North-West Provinces, -than whom if the same could be rendered palatable no man was ever better acquainted to the most influential members of the with the native characterinstantly Rajpoot tribes. The experiment was sent to the Rajah a letter of congratuworth a trial, and it was recommended lation and a dress of honour. The by the fact that, in former times, the good policy of this proceeding was chieftain of Jyepore had endeavoured manifested the very next year, when to regulate the dower and other the number of female infants preserved marriage expenditure with reference increased from 57 to 180. In 1843 not to the property of the vassal, limiting one female Chohan was to be found in it to one year's income of the estate. the district, while in August 1851 It is true that this wise and beneficent there were no fewer than 1263 alive, plan was foiled by the vanity of a from the age of six years and under. Rajpoot noble ; but, nevertheless, it But even then it was evident that foul held out the best hope of success of play had been at work, for the corany that could be suggested. It had responding number of males was 2161. been tried on a small scale in Mairwara, Much had no doubt been done, but it and had succeeded beyond Colonel was reserved for that zealous magisDixon's most sanguine expectations, trate Mr. C. Raikes to give the decisive

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16 Secret Instructions in the Autograph of Frederick the Great. (July, and finishing stroke to the labours of I. well and good; but if the father of any his predecessors.

youth demands more than has been speciOn the 12th November, 1851, Mr. fied in Res. I., we will remonstrate with Raikes invited the Rajah of Mynpoorie him. If he persist, we will put him out and the chief Chohan thakoors of the of our brotherhood, because he has from district to meet him at his camp at

his own avarice brought dishonour to the

father of the damsel. Sumaon, and there induced them to

Resolution III.-Since the insolence of sign the following resolutions :

Brahmans and bhåts, and barbers and Resolutions of Chohan Thakoors concerning others, who abuse decent people for not Marriage Expenses.

spending large sums at marriage cereSince in our tribe, owing to the expenses monies, is a cause of needless profusion, incurred in marriages, many evils have we resolve and promise, when such abuse grown up, we, the undersigned, enter into is offered to us or our neighbours, to the following engagements, and attest the complain at once to the magistrate for same before the magistrate of our district, redress. so that we may act thereupon, and to the Resolution IV. - To prevent needless best of our power induce all of our tribe expenditure in crowded processions, we to do so likewise :

undertake to invite to our family weddings Resolution 1.- We will in future regu. a moderate number of persons only, aclate our marriage expenses by the four cording to the grade we belong to. following grades1st Grade. -For rajahs or thalookdars solemnly ratified on the 9th December

These very sensible Resolutions were the dower to be demanded on behalf of a son from the parents or guardians of a

following by 360 chiefs and leading marriageable daughter shall not exceed men of the Chobans, and up to the rs. 500 (507.), one-third of this sum to be present time their conduct has proved paid at the period of betrothal, one-third their sincerity. Very recently this at the door of the girl's father when the monstrous crime has been detected in marriage procession arrives, and the re- the Punjaub, but prompt measures mainder in the shape of pin money. were at once adopted for its punish2nd Grade.-For zemindars, rs. 250,

ment and suppression. The abolition one-third, &c. as above.

of female infanticide is at least one 3rd Grade. For others in easy cir. honourable monument of British hucumstances, rs. 100, one-third, &c. 4th Grade.-- For all other decent people, tions yet unborn will thank the be

manity and perseverance, and generaone rupee.

Resolution II.-If the father of any neficent conquerors who used their marriageable damsel chooses of his own power to ameliorate the condition of will to give more than is specified in Rcs. the people their prowess had subdued.

J. H.

SECRET INSTRUCTIONS IN THE AUTOGRAPH OF FREDERICK THE

GREAT, WRITTEN ON THE 10 JANUARY, 1757-8. AT the close of 1757 the affairs of letters and those of his sister the MarFrederick the Great were in a most gravine of Bayreuth, which have critical posture. On the 18th June in heretofore been published, * are equally that year he had been defeated by desponding: but a most remarkable the Imperial forces at Kollin on the evidence of the state of the great ConElbe, and there lost 12,000 men. On, queror's apprehensions at this crisis is the 6th Dec. we find Voltaire writing exhibited in the following document, of him to D'Alembert: “ He will lose which was recently communicated to his own dominions, together with the the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. countries he has conquered :” and It was written at the time of his greatagain to D'Argental : " He is beaten, est peril, when threatened on the one and will be ruined, without a new hand with invasion by a French army, miracle." Some of Frederick's own and on the other by the Russians; and

* See The Court and Times of Frederick the Great, edited by Thomas Campbell. 1843,

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