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it contains his secret instructions to his Guarnisson la famille Royalle et le Ministry in the event of his death or Tresort Sont Inseparables et vont capture by the enemy. The copy is a toujours ensemble il faut y ajoutér les literal one.

Diamans de la Couronne, et L'argen“ Instruction Secrete Pour le Conte terie des Grands Apartemens qui en de Finkenstein. Berlin le 10 de Janv. pareil Cas ainsi que la Veselle d'or 1757. Dans La Situation Critique doit etre incontinent Monoyée. Sil ou se trouvent nos affaires je dois arivoit que je fus tué il faut que Les Vous donnér mes Ordre pour que dans affaires Continuent Leur train sans la tout Les Cas Malheureux qui sont moindre allteration et Sans qu'on dans la posibilité des Evenemenns s'apersoive qu'elles sont en d'autres vous Soyez autorissé aux partis quil Mains, et en le cas il faut hater serfaut prendre. Sil arivoit (de quoi le ment et homages tant ici qu'en prusse Ciel preserve) qu'une de mes Armées et sourtout en Silesie. Si javois la en Saxse fut totallement battue oubien fatalité d'etre pris prissonnier par que Les Français chassassent les Hano- l'Enemy je Defend qu'on fasse La vryeins de Leur païs et si etablissent Moindre reflextion sur ce que je pou. et nous menassassent d'un Invassion rois écrire de Ma Detention. Si pareil dans la Vieille Marche, ou que les Malheur m'arivoit je veux me Sao Russes penetrassent par La Nouvelle crifier pour L'Etat et il faut qu'on Marche, il faut Sauver la famille obeisse a Mon frere le quel ainsi que Royale, les principeaux Dicasteres Les tout Mes Ministres et Generaux me Ministres et le Directoire. Si nous reponderont de leur Tette qu'on offrira somes battus en Saxse du côté de ni province ni ransson pour moy et leipssic Le Lieu le plus propre pour que lon Continuera la Guerre en pousLe transport de La famille et du sant Ses avantages tout comme si je Tressor est a Custrin, il faut en ce Cas n'avais jamais exsissté dans le Monde. que la famille Royalle et touts cidessus J'espere et je dois Croire que vous noméz aillent escortéz de toute la Conte Finc n'aurez pas bessoin de faire Guarnison a Custrin. Si les Russes usage de Cette Instruction mais en cas entroient par la Nouvele Marche ou de Malheur je vous autorisse a L'Emquil nous arrivat un Malheur en Lusan, ployer, et Marque que

Une il faudrait que tout se transportat a

Mure et saine Deliberation Ma ferme Madgebourg, enfin Le Dernier refuge et Constante Volonté je le Signe de est à Stettin, mais il ne faut y aller Ma Main et la Muni de inon Cachet. qu'a La Derniere exstremité. La



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THE MAP OF LONDON A HUNDRED YEARS AGO. THE extension of the metropolis It has occurred to me, however, that of the British empire is one of the mar- the extension of London may be better vels of the last century; and its still shown than by a declaration, that its poincreasing population has already pulation has attained to the enormous reached an amount sufficient for a amount of two million souls; and, that state in itself, and exceeding many of by setting forth the space of land which the smaller continental governments has been swallowed up, in providing for in that particular; whilst it enormously the shelter of the ever-increasing bulk transcends them in wealth and influ- of its inhabitants, during the last cenence. But it is difficult, by mere num- tury, à more impressive notion of its bers, to convey an idea of its import- size may be obtained. I am led to this ance. Figures are too abstract, and by the contemplation of an old map of our enumeration soon fails in ideas of London and its vicinity, published in extension. It requires eyes practised 1762, but with improvements to 1766. and accustomed to large masses of The title is worth recording, it is as population to imagine 100,000; and a follows:million is perhaps beyond the scope of A PLAN OF LONDON on the same scale the mind,-a mere idea of vastness. as that of Paris. In order to ascertain Gent. MAG. VOL. XLII.


the difference of the extent of these two on; there are fields on each side. It was rivals, the Abbé de la Grive's Plan of projected in 1756

and opened for traffic Paris, and that of London by J. Rocque, in 1761. The New Road appears as have been divided into equal squares, where London contains 39, and Paris but in consequence of an Act of Parliament

an addition on the map; it was formed 29, so that the superfice of London is to that of Paris as 39 to 29, or as 5455 acres

passed in 1756, to unite Islington to to 4028. London therefore exceeds Paris Paddington, and was violently opposed by 1427 acres, the former being 81 square by the Duke of Bedford, who thought miles, and Paris only 67. By J. Rocque,

it came too near to his house. But, chorographer to his Majesty, in the Strand, with exception of a few habitations at London, 1762, with new improvements to Bagnigge Wells and about River Head, the year 1766.

a line drawn from the near end of the The latter part in italics was an City Road to Middlesex Hospital, addition to the original plate. The formed the extreme boundary of the map is dedicated to the Duke of houses. All north were fields; known by Montague.

the name of Lamb's Conduit, and White The extreme length of London, re- Conduit Fields, the Foundling Hospital presenting a dense mass of inhabited standing alone within the former. Two houses

, unseparated by fields, was, at aristocratic mansions, Montague House this time, contained within Whitechapel and Bedford IIouse, with their gardens, and Hyde Park. At the river side it was formed the boundary at this part. The somewhat longer, reaching to a line former of these was then the residence parallel to Stepney at one end, and to of the nobleman to whom the map is Tothill Fields on the other. On the dedicated, and its high gables spoke of Surrey side, it extended from Rother- the era of Louis XIV. It was in fact hithe to the then projected bridge of constructed by an architect sent from Blackfriars ; the road from which to France—the former mansion having St. George's Fields was planned but been destroyed by fire. This noble not yet executed. There were a few mansion, known so well as the British houses at the foot of Westminster Museum, has now passed away like its Bridge, but Lambeth and Vauxhall former tenants, but its name is prewere as yet outlying villages. The served by the adjoining street. width varied : north of the Thames a Taking the line of Oxford Street few hamlets were approached, -Hox- from the corner of Tottenham Court ton, Bethnal Green, and Spitalfields; Road, we find a tolerably compact and Mile End Road, on the north side, mass of dwellings reaching to Marylewas built on continuously, but Hackney, bone Lane, and the village of that Homerton, Newington, Dalston, were name is connected with it. A few scattered villages, or hamlets, contigu- houses are also clustered about the ous, but not yet united to each other, corner of Tottenham Court and Hampand in the midst of fields and gardens. stead Roads. One of these was the Islington was equally detached, and old manor-house of Tottenham Court, formed a long street of dwellings, which gave name to the locality, an reaching from the Angel Inn to Canon- indication of which is yet preserved bury House; and extending about half in two massive imposts of stone, that distance down the branch called the remains of an entrance. Here the “ Lower Road.” Between this and also was the Adam and Eve public Hackney was an undisturbed range of house, and the scene of Hogarth's fields, and gardens, a mile and three “ March to Finchley.” But beyond quarters across in a direct line. Isling- were nothing but fields all the way to ton has now a population nearer to Hampstead ; and the “Mother Red 100,000; but in a Gazette, published in Cap” was a solitary house of resort 1751, it is stated to have contained for cockney excursionists, at a junction nearly “ 700 houses, including the of the road leading to Kentish Town. Upper and Lower Holloway, three It is now entirely surrounded by a sides of Newington Green, and part of dense mass of buildings, and retains Kingsland, on the road to Ware.” very faint traces of ever having been There could therefore scarcely have honoured as a suburban retreat. been more than 5000 inhabitants. The The following account of the walk City Road is marked out, but not built from Oxford-street to Tottenham Court, written just fifty years ago by cottages intervened between this and the Joseph Moser, esq. (which, we think, Adam and Eve, Tottenham Court ; and has escaped the researches of the au

still fewer from the latter to Mother Red thor of the Hand-book of London,) is Cap’s.-European Magazine for March,

1804. graphic, and not a little interesting: Rathbone Place was built soon after

Returning to Oxford Street, and purSoho Square. I can still remember when suing our course westward, we find the street terminated where the old build- that, in 1766, the north side, from ings now end. At this place there were Marylebone Lane to Edgware Road, rails and iron gates, beyond which was a had just been built on; but bebind, all large pond surrounded with walks, a good are fields up to the village of Paddingdeal resembling the reservoir in the Green ton. The map, however, marks a very Park; at the upper end of which was the significant indication of the change same kind of sluice. Fronting this, a house much celebrated for the manufacture being found immediately in the rear of

about to take place, the word “kiln" of Bath buns and Tunbridge water-cakes, these houses. which was connected, by a row of large and venerable elms, to another famous for

Pursuing our imaginary walk round conviviality, called the Cock and Pye; the metropolis 100 years ago, we will from which ingenious combination, the

cross the Park from 'T'yburn to Knightsidea of which was originally Gallic,* the bridge; and we observe, that the latter back fields had their dominination.t In the hamlet is hardly united to the end of garden of this mansion the busts of the Piccadilly, and that Brompton, Kenfighting-men, cast in plaster of Paris, and sington and Chelsea, are hamlets and curiously coloured, were exhibited. I do townships, divided from each other by not mean those of Alexander, Hannibal, fields, but as yet in no way united to Cæsar, and such kind of fellows, but per. the mass forming London. Crossing sons considerably more innocent, as they the river to Battersea, we find ouronly hurt each other, viz. George Taylor, selves upwards of three iniles, in a Broughton, Slack, and a long train of their satellites, who displayed their skill direct line, from the nearest of those in the adjacent booth-i believe I should suburban hamlets, connecting with call it amphitheatre—at Tottenham Court. London by the Borough of Southwark.

These walks were a very pleasant pro. This is Newington, but between this, menade 1 for the inhabitants of the neigh- however, lie, by the water-side, Vauxbourhood, &c. as they were planted with hall and South Lambeth. A few scattrees and gravelled. On their sides, par- tered houses are on the roads between ticularly on the east, a very large space of them. Walworth and Newington join ground was laid out in gardens adorned in each other; but Camberwell and Peckthe rus in urbe style, with Chinese and ham are distant suburbs, quite enother summerhouses, tents, leaden Mer

circled with pleasant fields and garcuries, wooden Venuses, cockle-shell walks, fish-ponds, &c. according to the taste and dens; whilst Deptford, and Greenwich, opulence of their tenants. These delight.

are towns at a distance sufficient to be ful retreats, in which after the toils of pronounced perfectly distinct from traffic or mechanical exertions our ances

London. tors reposed, or rather luxuriated, were Before I enter into a minute considivided by lanes and allies, the intricate deration of the changes that have taken meanders of which it almost required the place, and which are presented in the skill of Dædalus, or the clue of Queen modern map of London and its enEleanor, to develope.

virons, I cannot refrain from pointing However, one way this labyrinth brought out an indication of the social condition you to Tottenham Court Road, and the of the metropolis 100 years ago as ex• other to a field in which was a pond much celebrated for duck-hunting, and other

emplified in the map before me. metropolitan aquatic sports, which had

The insecurity of the roads about the appellation of the Little Sea. This, I the metropolis, previous to the introthink, was the very spot whereon White- duction of a more efficient system of field's Tabernacle now stands. A very few police, and of the brilliant gas-lights

* Il est là comme un coq en pâte.

† Mr. Peter Cunningham gives the Cock and Pye Fields as the old name for Seven Dials : which, according to the text, is a site too far to the south-east.

“When Tottenham fields with roving beauty swarms.Gay to Pulteney.

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although now a matter of tradition, one of these dreary appendages hangwas to our fathers and mothers, and ing over the river side. This was still more to a previous generation, a questionless for those convicted of painful and very annoying fact. But murder and piracy on the high seas. the mounted highwayman has so long We will now consider the changes disappeared that it is only by history, that have taken place on the north or from the narratives of grey-headed of London, between the boundaries octogenarians, we are acquainted formed by the New River and Edgewith the exploits of Dick Turpin or ware Road, as it comprises the most of Jerry Abershaw. Legislation has important part of the additions for the been long too fond of the in terrorem accommodation of the population. principle, but in 1766 our map tells us. There are those, still living, who rethat the approaches to London were member a clear vista across fields fortified by gallows, the sites of which to Hampstead from Nicholson's disI will point out, as they are drawn tillery in John Street, Clerkenwell ; on the plan in question. At the meet- and a very large portion of the enoring of the Edgware Road with Oxford mous extension of Islington has been Street was the celebrated “ Tyburn made within the last twenty years. Tree," a structure of triangular form, That part, which slopes down the hill probably for extensive accoinmodation to the valley of the Fleet River, by in case of a run of business. Casting Bagnigge Wells Road, is one of the our eyes up the Edgware Road, at most recent. Pentonville takes its Cricklewood, just over Shoot-up Hill, name from the proprietor, and is a a little beyond Kilburn, in a vacant district of great extent, which was space by the roadside, are two gal- commenced at the close of the eighlows. One appears to have a pro- teenth century. But it is to the prejecting arm to it, similar to what the sent generation, that the credit of old ale-house signs display by a coun- seizing upon such large tracts of green try roadside; the other is in the form fields belongs. White Conduit House, of a cross, and, it may be observed, one of the former suburban places of each has its tenant; but this of course entertainment, which were generally in was introduced by the draughtsman green fields, has but very recently lost to shew its purpose. We will now the last vestige of its former character, return again to Tyburn, and pursue and its grounds have been covered our course to Shepherd's Bush. Here, with small tenements. The remains at the point of the green, are two pre- of the conduit, to which it owed its cisely similar to those just described. name, were visible twenty years ago, on It must be remembered these were a bare space of ground opposite; and both on important roads from the me. here, on a Sunday afternoon, was an tropolis, having considerable traffic, unbroken line of holiday makers, going and crossing many lonely commons. or returning, across the fields to CoI may here mention, that there was penhagen House, another rural place another, not indicated in this map; it of entertainment, which then stood was erected in 1759, a little beyond quite alone, a long way distant from Islington, on the road to Holloway; the march of bricks and mortar; but but it may have been removed at the which has, in its turn, recently passed time of our map. On the other side away, and its neighbouring fields are of the Thames, Kennington Common appropriated for the new cattle marwas the place of public execution, and ket which is to take the place of the gallows is in form of a cross. At Smithfield. the corner of Richmond Park, nearest We will return again in the direction Kingston, is one of triangular form; of White Conduit House, but keeping the spot is called Gallows Hill, and was a little to the north of it, directing our doubtless for the felons convicted at steps to a row of tall elms on the side the county assizes at that town. All of the rising ground. It was close by the other roads seem to be free from this spot, that a well-defined Roman these disgusting memorials of a bar. encampment, with deep valla, was to barous legislation ; but for the instruc- be seen. It was a parallelogram, and tion of seamen, a conspicuous and pro- the fosse was from 10 to 12 feet deep, jecting point of the Isle of Dogs has and about 20 fect in width. Specula

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tion has made this the camp of Sue. called Lamb's Conduit Fields, have not tonius, and Battlebridge at the foot of been covered until the present genethe valley the scene of the defeat of ration. In many places little oases of Boadicea. There were but few data uncovered land have remained here for this idea; but some few remains and there, while thick neighbourhoods of weapons have been found in the have grown all around. It seems as vicinity, and not far from Battlebridge if even bricks and mortar could not the skeleton of an elephant was dis- flourish on every soil, and were somecovered. At the period of my first times condemned to a languid existacquaintance with this spot, from the ence. Whilst all about streets were encampment down to the Small-pox flourishing, and sending forth their Hospital at Battlebridge, were nothing branches to encroach stils further upon but brickfields. About three or four adjacent fields, or fading gardens, large years ago, not having visited the neigh- districts between Gower Street and bourhood for many years, I thought I St. Pancras New Church were left unwould endeavour to trace out my re• covered, until the London University collections of the place. It was with seized upon one portion, and Euston some difficulty I could persuade myself Square upon another. Gordon Square of the identity of White Conduit House, has been most unfortunate, and even yet although it still preserves its name. presents a melancholy picture of unBut as to the Conduit, it had dis- profitable soil, or unfortunate speculaappearod ; and every vestige by which tion. This ground was called the Field I could have identified the place was of the Forty Foot-steps, and is the scene utterly gone. I felt interested in the of Miss Porter's novel, so called. fate of the “encampment.” I had seen, On the north side of the New Road, a few years before, indications of two between Battlebridge and Hampstead houses being in course of erection in Road, in the rear of the houses frontthe centre, and occupying the rest with ing it, is for the most part a low neigh. their gardens. But, now that so many bourhood, especially the district called dwellings had arisen on all sides, it was Somers' Town, begun in 1786. At the difficult to find those houses. How- Brill, which leads into this, the imagiever, I caught sight of the row of elm- native Stukeley traced out the site trees before mentioned, and, after a little of a large Roman encampment. The reconnoitring, discovered the range of old parish church of St. Pancras has dwellings, and looking over the garden been rebuilt in the last few years. St. wall saw the deep trenches, which were Pancras was formerly a poor secluded not easily to be effaced. Montfort village, and Norden, who wrote in Place is the name given to the row of the 16th century, speaks of it as a houses, and it lies retired, a short dis- haunt of thieves : " walk not there too tance back from the Barnsbury Road, late," says he. In the first quarter of the about three quarters of a mile from 18th century this neighbourhood was White Conduit House.

little better; the whole line of the New Lamb's Conduit Fields, which lay Road, indeed, was extremely dangerous, between Tottenham Court, and Bag- and the public houses, here and there nigge Wells Roads, were first invaded on its side, had but a questionable reby the Foundling Hospital, which was putation. One may often observe in opened as early as 1745. All the streets, several parts of the outskirts of the north of the hospital, are subsequent to metropolis, certain neglected districts, the date of our map, as well as the whole which seem to take us back to the line of squares, Cavendish Square ex. condition of a primitive civilization, cepted, up to the Edgeware Road. waste patches of soil, seeming as if Opposite Bloomsbury Square was Bed- pushed aside out of the highways of ford House, the residence of the Duke traffic, or, with a knowledge of their of Bedford. It is marked in our map unworthiness, to have skulked aside to as a neighbour to Montague Ilouse, shroud themselves in obscurity. These and was pulled down at the beginning neglected spots are as frequently tenof the present century. The names anted by a class, or race, having but belonging to the family of the Russells little in common with the busy hum are profusely spread about this district about them. Nomadic in their habits, in Bedford, Russell, and Tavistock not exactly living in tents, but in a Squares, &c. Portions of the district, kind of machine midway between a

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