« PreviousContinue »
MR. URBAN,—Permit one of the oldest Mr. Edward A. Freeman requests us to of your living correspondents to ask if any mention that Dr. Thurnam and he hope, of your readers can produce a copy of a in the course of the month of July, to pamphlet of 1717, attributed to Defoe, open a very remarkable tumulus on Uleywhom we all know, or to Paterson, the bury near Dursley, in Gloucestershire. It founder of the Bank, less known as a was opened about 30 years ago, and was writer than he deserves. Its title is, Fair found to contain a giant's chamber with Payment No Sponge; and a copy of it is thirteen skeletons, one of them in a sitting said to have been sold in London at posture. It is thought, however, that a Messrs. Sotheby's within two years. The more scientific examination than was then subject is the redemption of the National possible is highly desirable. It will proDebt, which it advocates. It was a re- bably take place shortly after the Camjoinder to a pamphlet of Broome, entitled, bridge Meeting of the Archæological InNo Club Law; a title suggested by Pater- stitute, when Mr. Freeman hopes to be son's book in defence of Walpole's Sink. able to announce the exact day. He will ing Fund. The last-mentioned work was be very glad of the company of any perentitled, Proceedings of the Wednesday's sons interested in such matters. Some Club in Friday Street ;-which contains further notice of this matter will be found the best account extant of the formation in our Report of the last monthly meeting of the Bank of England, and some ab- of the Archæological Institute. struse calculations in favour of the mea- At the meeting of the Archæological sure of redeeming the National Debt. Institute held on the 5th Nov. 1852 (see The object of the present inquiry is to our vol. XXXVIII. p. 621), attention was complete a collection, now in the Press, drawn to two sepulchral effigies of the of the writings of Paterson.
14th century, supposed to represent memYours, &c. S. BANNISTER. bers of the family of Cheyne, which were MR. URBAN,—There is a trifling point removed from the Church of Chenies, co. connected with Shakspere's Taming of Buckingham, at a repair some years since, the Shrew, which, so far as I am aware, and bad been discovered by the Rev. Mr. has hitherto escaped remark. It is clear Kelke in the beer-cellar of the adjointhat in the sixteenth century the word ing manor house. Viator now informs us shrew was pronounced as if written shrow: that on a recent visit to the spot he indeed at the present day the people of was sorry to find these effigies still in Shropshire always call their county town the same lamentable position, much deShrows-bury. This manner of pronunci- faced from the damp of the cellar, At ation will give the closing lines of the the same time that they were removed drama the merit of forming a rhyme, and from the church, the like bad taste seems they are so singularly weak in themselves to have suggested the separation of all the as to stand in need of every advantage stones bearing brasses from the graves to they can fairly lay claim to.
which they belonged, and their assemblage The lines will then run as follows :- together in one group in the centre of the Hor. Now go thy ways : thou hast tam'd chancel. The consequence has been, that a curst shrow.
they have suffered very considerably from Luc. 'Tis a wonder, by your leave, she the frequent treading that has passed over will be tam'd so.
them. The monuments of the Russell So also the closing lines of act iv. scene 1. family at Chenies are in good condition ; He that knows better how to tame a shrow,
but the preservation of memorials of a Now let him speak, 'tis charity to shew.
more ancient date has not been regarded.
Some armorial bearings in the eastern And again, in the widow's speech to window of the south aisle are in a confused Katharine in the last scene :
and disordered state. Your husband being troubled with a shrow, Measures my husband's sorrow by his woe. ERRATA.-Vol. xli. p. 552, col. 2, for
I may remark, before I conclude, that Sorby read Sotby. the same peculiarity is observable in the P. 553, for Rochford Town read Rochword show, which, though written in. ford Tower. differently as shew or show, is always pro- P. 668, col. 2, line 13, read Sir Matthew pounced as show. Yours, &c. F.'J. v. Wood, Bart.
THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF FINLAND. Note. This paper was written twelve years ago for one of the great English reviews, for which the author had composed several articles on Northern literature, &c. It was intended as a warning to England, an appeal for Finland and the North, and for the holiest interests of Great Britain and the West. But the apathy in England at that time, and the belief in the “ magnanimity of the Czar," were universal. The article was rejected.
I have just re-discovered it among a mass of old papers, and it may now interest the British reader.
In thus giving it to the press I do not change one word.* I would only add, that the Russification of Finland during these fourteen winters has been rapidly increasing, and that the peril to the rest of Europe is consequently so much the greater. We have not a moment to lose in restoring that noble Duchy to our Northern alliance against the great oppressor.
SOME four or five thousand winters in the history of mankind. Thus agone, the world was as fair, though by rapid sweeps spread they their not so delved and digged, as now. dominion, and in the limit of their Game abounded in the forest, fish sway was included a large portion, leaped in the stream, and the laughing perhaps the majority, of our present landscape invited the wandering war- Europe. rior to pitch his tent amid its glories. The names of these our primitive Then, from the cradle of the human European settlers have undergone race, the high table-lands of Central many changes in proportion as they Asia-that bright point where all the bave inspired hope or fear in the lines of earliest poetry and mythologi- bosoms of other hordes their neighcal tradition find their common centre bours; but we see their descendants -issued tribes and clans destined to still among us, and know them as Laps rough-hew the path of a future loftier and Finlanders in their own speech, civilization, chiefs trustingly led out Suomalaisen), subdivided into many into the wilderness by the hand of stems, and still stretching from the Providence to colonize, and clear, and eternal snows of the most northern cultivate. Northward, and westward, north, down in a belt of settlements to and southward flowed they on, land the east and south of the Baltic as far after land occupied by their peaceful as Hungary. hordes. First came FLINT-using tribes But these first tribes possessed menof huntsmen and fishermen, the sharp- tal features peculiarly contrasted to shooters or back-settlers of the great those of their Keltic, and Gothic, and occupation; then the COPPER-armed Thracian, and Slavic after-comers. races of an advancing, mastership They were not robber-races nor sword: over the earth; and lastly, kindreds wielders; nor were they driven by a whose hands could smelt and smithy thirst of blood and conquest to gain or IRON, that most important of all metals regain settlements in more fortunate
* We have found some compression and omission necessary from regard to our available space:-Edit.
climes. Though brave, they were yet and burned Sigtuna, the ancient capital backward; to him who asked, gave of Sweden, and murdered Johannes they ; before him who took, they re- the archbishop;t and in 1198 Abo, tired. A certain mild melancholy, a the capital of Finland, was plundered certain consciousness of inward quali- by a Russian force. But, omitting all ties far outweighing any outward ad- mention of intervening incidents, we vantage, and an indomitable patience, would merely observe that Finland hardihood, and industry, have always was yet again conquered by Russia in been their characteristics. Thus, with 1741, and was only recovered by the some few exceptions, when their innate influence of diplomacy. heroism has flashed high and burned Thus even the most
careless observer bright against their foes, they have will perceive that the importance of retired step by step northward, north. Finland for the political aggrandizeward, northward, sometimes battling ment of Russia was felt from the earwith, but more frequently giving way liest times. This was particularly and before, the decrees of fate, until we most prophetically understood by that now find them in their final home, great king and illustrious hero, Gusbusily moss-draining and fire-clearing tavus II. Adolphus. When the victories as their fathers before them, and re- of Jacob de la Gardie had enabled that calling in their mythological songs the monarch in some degree to dictate the mighty men of old and the spirit of terms of peace to be granted to that
power which he characterised as St. Eric the Ninth, King of Sweden, of them bearing an innate hatred to excited thereto as much by the neces- every foreign nation, and upblown with sity of putting a stop to the plundering pride,"S he thus wrote to his mother incursions of the North and East Baltic and the council :heathens as by motives of religion, commenced the colonization and Chris- Jama, Kossorie, and Ivangorod [on whose
The fortresses of Kexholm, Nöteborg, tianization of Finland about seven
possession he continued to insist as a sine centuries ago. The force of Paganism quâ non for the establishment of a settled and the bravery of the inhabitants understanding), were as it were the keys rendered this a difficult task; but the of Finland and of Lifland, and shut out measures taken for that purpose were the Russ from the Baltic: should the Russ mostly of a mild character, and within gain back Nöteborg or Ivangorod, or both, a not very long period we find the and afterwards come to know his own Finlanders believers in Christ, and sin- power, the convenience of the sea, and the cerely attached to the Swedish rule. many advantages to be derived from the By degrees letters and civilization streams, and lakes, and shores, which he
has never yet considered or properly emwere spread among the people, and the various clans and district govern
ployed, he could then not only attack
Finland at every point, and yet better in ments (kihlkunnat) of the native Fins summer than in winter, which he had never rapidly subsided into one extensive yet understood, but also in consequence province, the most valuable of all the of his great force he could fill the East possessions of the Swedish crown. Sea with vessels, so that Sweden would be
But almost coeval with these events in perpetual danger : the king, on his we find the Russians endeavouring to journey to Neva, had himself examined spread their power to these north the possession, and had found how neces. eastern Baltic lands, and disputing with sary it was to obtain a safe border against Sweden the right of conquest. As
Russia.ll early as A.D. 1042 Wladimir Jarosla- And again, in his speech to the Diet vitsch, Prince of Novgorod, led an after the peace in 1617, he thus exexpedition against the Jemer (Hämä. pressed himself :läiset), a Finnish tribe to the east of
It was not one of the least of those Lake Ladoga.* In 1187 the Karelians, benefits which God had shown to Sweden, instigated by the Russians, plundered that the Russ, with whom we had lived of
* Finland's Forntid. Af G. Rein. Helsingfors, 1831. Part i. p. 3. + Idem, p. 6.
| Idem, p. 6. s Geijer. Svenska Folkets Historia. Orebro, 1832-6. Vol. iii. p. 105. || Idem, p. 108.
old in an uncertain state and most dan. unhappy obstinacy of the honourable gerous position, was now obliged to aban- and unfortunate Gustavus IV. Adoldon for ever that den of plunder whence phus-a king betrayed by his own he has before so often disturbed us. А most dangerous neighbour was be; bis nobles-against the great tyrant and
house, by his court, his army, and his possessions stretched from the Baltic to
his Milan decrees, threw him, unsupthe Northern Ocean and the Caspian Sea, and approached the Black Sea itself. He ported, into the claws of the northern had a powerful nobility, plenty of peasants, eagle. Alexander, as ally of Napoleon, and populous cities, and could send great but without any declaration of war, armies into the field. Now, however, this nay, in the midst of professions of enemy could not put a boat into the Baltic peace and security, invaded Finland, without our permission; the great lakes took possession of its capital, bought § of Ladoga and Pejpus, the river Narva, the impregnable Sveaborg, Finland's thirty Swedish miles of broad morass, and Gibraltar, and with eager
hand placed strong fortresses, part us from him. Russia is shut out from the East Sea, and I hope of “The Grand Duchy of Finland."
upon his brows the glittering diadem to God that over that brook the Russ will
Since that memorable event, a sucnot hop so easily.*
cession of stirring incidents at home Yes! at that period the ground on and abroad, a feeling of profound which stands Petersburgh, that army- melancholy and despair at the loss of garrisoned capital
their " dearest shield," and the policy where now wide earth of the Swedish government in holding It's mortgag'd crowns all humbly sendeth,t out the politically valuable quasi acwas then the soil of Swedish Finland, quisition of Norway as an ally as inand on the border Gustaf raised a stone finitely more valuable than the rewith the national arms, the Three covery of Finland as an integral part Crowns of Sweden, and the inscrip- of the kingdom, have all concurred to tion :
bring about in Sweden and elsewhere
a long trance of inactive regret as to Huc regni posuit fines Gustavus Adolphus Finland and all its concerns. But this Res Suecorum, fausto Numine, duret opus.I
period has happily come to an end : Alas, for Sweden and for Europe! public attention has once more been Gustaf fell, and the boundary-stone of directed to a subject so important, and the great liberator is now replaced by we are now assured that it will be the palace of the Czar, the guard- allowed to sleep no more. encircled halls of the King of Poland, The individual who has the principal of Finland, of Moldavo-Wallachia,- merit of having broken the ice on this the gate-keeper of Germany, Scandi- question is Israel Hwasser, a medical navia, Persia, Turkey, China, and of professor in Upsala, and in past years British India !
long resident in Finland. This gentleBut it is not here our intention to man entered upon his task with his enter into all the details of Finno- customary energy, zeal, talent, and Russian affairs. We have not to do originality. Possessed of a fine imawith the past, but with the present; gination and great reasoning powers, and shall therefore take up the question he produced a work abounding in from a point of view quite near at
and which will always band.
remain a monument of his genius, high The consequences of the last ruin- principles, and commanding views.ll ous campaigns in Finland are well But unfortunately this work was danknown. The premature resistance and gerous, in its tendency, to the very
* Geijer. Svenska Folkets Historia. Orebro, 1832-6, vol. iii. pp. 108, 109. † These two lines are from Teguer's beautiful poem Axel."
Thet Svenska i Ryssland Tijo abrs Krijgz Historie. Aff Joh. Widekindi. Stockholm, 1671. 4to. p. 929.
$ Some curious documents have lately been published in Russia relative to this transaction. The writer, the Russian General Michailoffskij-Danileffskij, has been disgraced for his paios.
| Om Allians- I'ractaten emellan Sverige och Ryssland ar 1812. Politisk Betraktelse öfver Nordens nuvarande ställning. On the Treaty of Alliance between Sweden and Russia, in the year 1812. A political meditation on the present position of the North. By Professor Israel Hwasser. Stockholm, 1838, Sm. 8vo. pp. 109.
cause he had undertaken to defend. and suicidical Swedish and Finnish conLoving Finland and wishing its pros. stitution of 1720, in a secret article of perity on the one hand, and carried their alliance of March 30, 1764, and too far by his admiration of the policy in a public article in that of October of Charles XIV. John in 1812 on the 2, 1769. We must remember that in other, he brought forward the extra. this same treaty of 1764 these two ordinary assertion that, in this case, powers had also guaranteed the still "all that is, is best," and that Finland more anarchical Polish constitution, a was now an independent state under political act which was followed, on the protection of Russia, and to be the 5th of August, 1772, by the first come separate therefrom must violate partition of Poland. Nor was a simiits own constitution and the eternal far fate at all improbable for Sweden rights of its Russian chief. This was at that period. It is said that Frederic the dangerous, politically immoral, had laid claim to Pomerania, and doctrine which has given rise to the Russia to Finland, as the groundwork of whole discussion now carried on in this intended first partition of Sweden. Sweden.
Professor Hwasser, and some other Like the dog in the manger, Russia later writers, have begun to render had long been anxious that Finland fashionable what we consider to be should rather be independent (that is simply a cowardly and unmeaning for such a small state, nothing, or worse jargon—that the possession of Finland, than nothing) if it could not be Russian. and especially of its Baltic sea-coast, A hundred years ago the Empress is “ necessary" for Russia as its “naElizabeth, in a manifesto dated Mos- tural border," and that there never cow, March 18, 1742, made the follow- could have been a solid peace in Scaning declaration :
dinavia until this great object was At the same time and from the best gained; while, now that it has been intentions, and as we besides do not wish
accomplished, the happy North need to acquire a single foot of foreign soil, we
never expect to hear the trump of war would willingly permit and would in every again from a power so inimical to way advance the plan that the said Grand plunder, conquest, and astute and spoDuchy of Finland, provided it were in- liating ambition, as the government of clined to free and extricate itself from the all the Russias! Nay, such is the rule and jurisdiction of Sweden, that it language frequently employed about might for the future, as now has happened this said “natural boundary," which through the selfishness of some individuals, the foundation of the modern Petergpreserve itself from the dangers of a de- burgh first rendered really practicable, structive war and the terrible calamities
much less necessary, that we might resulting therefrom, may constitute itself and remain a free country dependent upon
sometimes be almost afraid that the neither, under their own form of govern long and so gallantly defended their
Swedish and Finnish heroes, who so ment established by themselves, and on such a footing, and with such rights, pri- country, were actually and wickedly vileges, and immunities, as may serve to fighting against nature, and opposing their own advantage and eternal defence, the simplest and most express designs as may best suit their own desires, and as of heaven. they themselves may wish it to be. And Accordingly, this is an argument so in this are we willing to protect and sup- sublime, or so ridiculous, that there is port them in this their new undertaking, whenever circumstances may require, to
scarcely any answering it. Province
after province, river after river, disassist them with our troops when and to
trict after district, country after counas great a number as they themselves may ask.*
try, are declared 6
necessary" for the
existence of Russia, as forming its In 1788, when faction had paralysed “natural boundary," and as assuring the campaign of Gustavus III., this to neighbouring nations a most lasting manifesto was again distributed through and most truly solid“ peace !" Where the Finnish provinces. At the same then shall we stop? Certainly not at time Frederic the Great and Catha- Tornea and the Isles of Aland; for rine had guaranteed the anarchical the whole of Finland is open to incur
Om Allians. Tractaten, &c. (Review of) in “Litteratur-Bladet" for November and December, 1838. By Professor Geijer. 8vo. pp. 40. Stockholm, 1838. p. 219.