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The Secretary also read a second note, reign of Queen Elizabeth, with a view of describing the opening of four ancient the Tower of London across the river. In British barrows in South Wilts. One of a catalogue of the pictures at Hatfield, in these barrows contained a skeleton, with the Beauties of England and Wales, it is the fragments of a large urn of the usual stated to represent a Meeting of Henry description, which had apparently been VIII. and Anna Boleyne, a country fair disturbed at some distant period. Three somewhere in Surrey, within sight of the of these barrows were situated near Win. Tower of London. The date of the picterslow Hut, but the fourth is on the Down

ture appears

on the drawing, 1590, just within the Deer-Leap of Clarendon. although it has been painted over in the This last is seventy feet wide, but on cut. original. The costumes also are sufficient ting a trench from the base to the middle to show that the date must be much later a heap of calcined human bones was alone than Holbein ; and Mr. Corner considers discovered.

that the picture represents a fête given by These two last communications have some of the rich Flemish refugees, who at just appeared in full in the xxxvth volume that period colonised the neighbourhood of Archæologia.

of Horslydown, of whom Mr. Corner W. D. Saull, esq. F.S.A. then read a gave some interesting notices. The size note describing the present state of the of the original picture, which is exceedCastle of Berkhampstead.

ingly well painted and full of well-grouped May 11. Rear-Adm. Smyth, V.P. figures, is about 40 inches by 30, and the

R. Redmond Caton, esq. F.S.A. exhi. name of the artist was discovered by Dr. bited a bronze penannular ring, found Diamond, Mr. Thoms, and Mr. Fairholt, while digging for the foundation of a house who, accompanied by the Treasurer of the at Lincolo.

Society of Antiquaries, paid a visit to Richard Cull, esq. presented engravings Hatfield for the purpose of seeing this of two objects of antiquity ; one, a bronze interesting picture. It is inscribed G. vessel in the form of a pail, found in 1828 Hofnagel, a name well known for his very below the surface of the soil upon Caslyr interesting views of Nonsuch and other Hill, near Cambra, a small town of the English palaces. Mr. Corner added some Tyrol to the north of Trento, on the rim potices of the history of Horslydown, of which were four Etruscan inscriptions, part of the metropolis of which but little -two in the inner, and two on the outer account has hitherto been given by the edge. The other object was a small sta- local historians and topographers, and extuette of an armed and galeated figure hibited in illustration of his paper a very standing on a base, the edge of which was curious plan of Horseydown (as it was also inscribed with Etruscan characters. then called,) belonging to the Governors Both these objects are preserved in the of St. Olave's Grammar School, dated Museum at Trento. In a letter which ac- 1547. companied this exhibition, Mr. Cull ob. May 18. Viscount Mahon, President. served, that Etruscan antiquities were William Wansey, esq. F.S.A. exbibited likely to be found in the locality mentioned, an interesting collection of Etruscan vases since the people of the Rhætian Alps were, and other vessels in pottery and glass, according to Livy (lib. v. c. 33), of Etruscan procured during his stay at Naples in the origin.

winter of 1852-3. These objects are said The Rev. Thomas Hugo, F.S.A. exhibited to have come principally from the tombs a bronze statuette of Hercules, found in at Cumæ, in which such extensive excaNew Cannon-street, London, at the point vations have been made by the Count of of its junction with St. Paul's Church- Syracuse. Mr. Wansey also laid upon the yard.

table two numbers of a publication entitled The Secretary then read a letter from “Monumenti Antichi posseduti da sua G. R. Corner, esq. F.S.A., suggested by a Altezza Reale il Conte di Siracusa, dedrawing made for the Society some years scritti e pubblicati da Giuseppe Fiorelli." ago, being a copy of an ancient oil-paint- Fol. Napoli, 1853; containing an account ing belonging to the Marquess of Salisbury, of the earliest results of the excavations at Hatfield House. The picture has been undertaken at Cumæ toward the close of thought to be by Holbein, and an inscrip- 1852. tion on the frame states that it repre- K. R. H. Mackenzie, esq., F.S.A. exhisents an entertainment given by Cardinal bited several small objects of ancient art, Wolsey to meet Anna Boleyne : and the namely, a human hand in Egyptian basalt ; scene is supposed, at Hatfield, to be the a small figure of a Satyr found in Calabria ; meadows opposite to the old palace of and a portion of a statuette of Cinquecento Richmond. Mr. Corner, however, be- work in silver. lieves that the picture represents a rural The Secretary then read an extract from fête in the fields of Horslydown, in the a letter addressed to him by Mons. Free


Antiquarian Researches.

[July, deric Troyon, in which,

-after alluding to large collection of objects, discovered in an important discovery recently made at that city during the progress of excavaMulen on the lake of Zurich, where the tions for new sewers. They consist of subsidence of the waters of the lake has knives of various descriptions, shears, exposed to view some ancient habitations, spoons, padlocks, keys, weapons, buckles, within which are calcined stones, charcoal, leaden signs, rings, and some other oband animal bones, a great number of jects, the uses of which have not been utensils in stone, and the debris of pottery, ascertained. The knives appear to range accompanied by a single object in metal, from the 14th to the 17th century, and namely, a bronze ring, --he states that he were mostly for personal use ; but some has just received intelligence of a similar appear to have been the implements of discovery on the borders of the lake of curriers and cordwainers. The keys are of Bienne, in the canton of Berne ; but, various forms, but the latch-keys are the instead of instruments of stone, there have most remarkable of them. The leaden been found celts, knives, sickles, a sword, tokens or signs differ from examples and other objects, all in bronze. It ap- hitherto met with ; one represents St. pears from these discoveries that the water- Michael, but without his characteristic levels of some of those lakes have been arms ; another is a star within a crescent, sensibly raised since the period to which or the badge of the royal household ; and the primitive habitations thus exposed may the third the figure of a preacher in a be referred.

pulpit, surrounded by a legend. The formation of a railroad in the en- A memoir by Samuel Birch, esq. F.S.A. virons of Lausanne has led to the dis- was read, on a vase, which has on it the covery of the skeleton of a woman interred

representation of Perseus receiving the five feet deep from the surface of the persea tree from Cepheus king of Æthiopia. ground, without any appearance of a The paper entered into an elaborate detail tumulus ; the skeleton placed on the bare of the adventures of the hero Perseus, as earth. On the finger was a bronze ring, represented on the various works of anand on the arms bronze bracelets. It is cient art, and especially on those scenes worthy of remark that all the sepultures selected by the vase-painters for the subof the age of bronze in, the Canton de ject of their pencil. Vaud are found under the surface of the June 1. Mr. Ouvry in the chair. soil without any trace of tumulus, and The Rev. T. Hugo exhibited a Roman that these graves differ in material respects fibula found in Bridge Street, Blackfriars ; from those of the Merovingian period, and Mr. O'Neill rubbings from a cross at while in German Switzerland the graves Monasterboice. of the same epoch are tumular.

W. M. Wylie, esq. F.S.A. communiAnother communication was made by cated an account of a further discovery the Secretary in a “ Note upon the Angon of relics in the Anglo-Saxon cemetery described by Agathias, introductory of of Fairford, Gloucestershire, including some remarks and drawings of that weapon, several fibulæ, beads, a sword, the umbo of which specimens are preserved in the of a shield, and three spicula, the blades museums of Worms, Wiesbaden, Darm- of which were, as usual, of unequal surstadt, and Mayence." These drawings face, for the purpose of producing a bad been forwarded by Herr Ludwig rotatory motion when hurled. Lindenschmit, keeper of the Museum of Mr. Walmisley exbibited a miniature Mayence. They are extremely curious, portrait of Sir Philip Sydney, painted by as showing that the description of the his- Isaac Oliver ; purchased at the sale of torian is correct as to this formidable Addiscombe House, the seat of the first weapon, while they suggest that it was an Earl of Liverpool, and said to have been arm peculiar to the Ripuarian Frank, one of several curious articles transferred to since examples are never found in the Addiscombe from the palace of Nonsuch. graves of the Salic Franks, of which many John Henry Parker, esq. F.S.A. read a have been recently explored in France. further description of the churches in the

The President laid before the Society a South of France, which he illustrated by translated extract of a Report to the Go- the exhibition of a number of drawings of vernment of Guatemala, containing an ac- remarkable examples. He remarked that count of a visit made in 1848 to the ruined consecration crosses, in the form usually city of Tikal, the remains of which were called the labarum of Constantine, are described, with several statues in stone common in that district. At Moissac he and wood.

found an inscription recording the dedicaMay 25. Frederic Ouvry, esq. Treas. tion of the church in 1063. in the chair.

June 15. J. P. Collier, esq. V.P. The Secretary, by permission of Edward Signor Bonucci, of Naples, was elected C. Brodie, esq. of Salisbury, exhibited a an honorary member; and Major-General Buckley, M.P., James A. Hammersley, deep pits had been found, excavated in esq., and Charles Edward Davis, esq., Roman times in the gravel and natural were elected Fellows.

soil, and containing a remarkable number Mr. Cooper, of Macknee Castle, Ire of curious reliques, pottery, glass, objects land, exhibited a bronze and a silver fibula, of bronze and other metals. In the course the latter of very large size and of the of these researches Mr. Neville found in “arbutus” pattern, of which a fine ex- one of these remarkable depositories a large ample was lately exhibited to the Society hoard of implements and objects of iron by Lord Londesborough.

in very perfect preservation, the mouth of The Rev. Thos. Hugo exhibited several the cavity having been closed over with a specimens of Celtic armillæ, said to have thick layer of chalk, by which means probeen recently discovered in Bucklersbury. bably the iron had been protected from No Celtic remains have hitherto been decay. Mr. Neville produced drawings found in London ; and it was remarkable by Mr. Youngman of Saffron Walden, exthat this gentleman at the same time, hibiting the principal reliques discovered, though in a distinct communication, called which comprise massive chains of most the President's attention to the frauds skilful workmanship, their use has not which he has experienced in the course of been ascertained, anvils, hammers, and his intercourse with the labourers em- other implements of the forge, manacles ployed in excavations in the City.

and shackle-bolts, a great number of K. R. H. Mackenzie, esq. exhibited a scythes, considerably curved, of much Byzantine crystal vase, purchased by him longer proportions than modern scythes, at Constantinople, and since mounted as a padlocks of very ingenious and complicated beaker by a French artist.

construction, and a large pair of shears, W. B. Dickinson, esq. exhibited a fine of unknown use, measuring not less than example of an Anglo-Saxon bronze fibula, 4 ft. 6 in. in length. The metal retains discovered in a gravel-field near Warwick, its elasticity and temper in a remarkable with the remains of a human skeleton. degree. With these interesting illustra

Charles Warne, esq. exhibited a model tions of the mechanical arts and usages of of the Roman amphitheatre at Dorchester, Roman times was found a large iron spear on a scale of one inch in thirty feet. and some blades, which may be the reliques

Hugh Edmondstone Montgomerie, esq. of military weapons. Mr. Neville supposed exhibited an original letter, dated Sept. 4, that this assemblage of objects had been 1688, and addressed to the Sheriff of Stir- deposited for concealment and security, ling, which appears to have been a circular possibly on the occasion of some sudden from the administration which ruled Scot- danger to which the station had been exland under James II. to the Lord Lieu. posed. The perfect condition of the objects tenant or Sheriff Principal of each shire. seems to shew beyond doubt that they It was evidently issued in anticipation of' were not old metal laid aside for the purthe expedition of the Prince of Orange. poses of the smith's shop: the work as

Josiah Goodwin, esq. of Exeter, com- well as the metal had been inspected with municated the discovery of a considerable surprise and admiration by the artificers number of skeletons at Cowick, near that of the craft, who had come from all the city. The interments are evidently of two country round to see the reported disdistinct kinds, but all appeared to be of covery. the Christian period, and some are pro

Mr. Le Keux read a memoir on ancient bably of the Dutch prisoners who died of Crosses in England, including not only the plague temp. Car. II.

church-yard and way-side crosses, as also William Tite, esq. F.S.A. read a descrip- market crosses, but also upright stones of tion of the Roman tessellated pavement, memorial, frequently sculptured. He adrecently discovered on the site of the Ex- verted especially to the crosses of Queen cise Office, in Broad Street, London. He Alianor, and the interesting particulars also communicated a map showing the regarding them found amongst ancient Roman roads east of the city.

records by Mr. Hunter. A large series The Society then adjourned to the 16th of drawings was exhibited, originally comof November.

menced by Wm. Alexander, esq. F.S.A. and

enlarged by Mr. Britton, and comprising THE ARCHÆOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. about 300 examples of various classes. May 5. The Hon, Richard Neville, V.P. Mr. Le Keux stated his belief that one of

Mr. Neville gave an account of a singu- the statues intended to portray Alianor lar discovery which had recently occurred still exists at Leighton Buzzard. It is his in the course of his excavations at Ches- intention to publish a classified series of terford, at a spot just outside the supposed examples of this interesting class of ancient limits of the Roman station, and adjoining monuments. A voluminous collection was the churchyard of that place. Several preserved in the Stowe Library, which, if GENT. MAG, VOL. XLII.


available, might supply valuable evidence spection of the Institute, but had generespecting crosses now wholly destroyed. rously presented it to the Collection of

The Rev. Edward Trollope gave an ac- National Antiquities at the British Mucount of a singular bronze collar found by seum, where it will form a valuable addi. a Laplander on a mountain in Finmark, tion to the little group of objects of a and now in the possession of Sir Arthur similar class found in England. de Capel Broke, Bart. Such collars were Mr. Yates gave an account of a Costrell, worn by the Finland wise men or sooth. or vessel of red pottery, found at Gelde. sayers, who pretended to invoke the spirits stone, Norfolk, at a considerable depth, io of good and evil. The length is 25 inches. forming an embankment by the river It is of elaborate workmanship, formed of Waveney. Such vessels received the a large number of pieces, to which are name of Costred, or Costrel, from their appended a great many little bells, resem. use, being carried by a traveller at his bling hawk's-bells of bronze, chains, and side. A similar example is described by other ornaments. Sir Arthur obtained Mr. Chaffers, in the Journal of the Ar. also two very curious silver rings in Fin. chæological Association, volume V.-Mr. land, of spiral or serpent form, and wrought Franks exhibited several moulded bricks with much skill, as shown by Mr. Trollope's of the 16th century, with casts from other drawings. Mr. Trollope communicated specimens in the museum of the Camalso notices of a Roman sarcophagus lately bridge Antiquarian Society, and offered found near Ancaster, where Roman remains some remarks on this class of architectural have frequently been brought to light, and decorations of terra cotta. They have of a mural tomb with a cross-slab of ele. sometimes been regarded, but very incor. gant design, found during recent repairs rectly, as of Roman fabrication.-Mr. at Raunceby church, Lincolnshire. This O'Neill exhibited rubbings from sculpmemorial bears the date 1385.

tures in Ireland, and gave further notices Mr. Way sent a short notice of the dis- of early Christian monuments in that covery of a block or pig of lead on the country. Mendip Hills, near Blagdon, Somerset, The discussion was resumed at some in August, 1853. It was found in plough- length regarding the threatened destrucing, and was brought to the Patent Shot tion of Churches, especially in the city of Works of Messrs. Williams and Co. at London, and the desecration of sepulchral Bristol. This relique of the metallurgical memorials. Mr. Markland made a forcible operations of the Romans in Britain is the appeal to the meeting on this subject, and earliest hitherto found. The form of the cordial concurrence in his views was ex. pig resembles that of all which have been pressed by Mr. Beresford Hope, Lord discovered at various times ; on the top Nelson, Mr. Hawkins, and several memis the inscription, BRITANNIC . . . . AVG. bers who took part in the conversation. F.. by which the date may be fixed as be- It was finally agreed that a deputation from tween A.D. 44 and 48, since Britannicus, the Institute should be appointed, and that who was son of Claudius, appears to have an interview with the Bishop of London received the title of Augustus about A.D. should be requested without delay. 44, and was set aside about A.D. 48 by the Amongst antiquities exhibited were a intrigues of Agrippina. He was poisoned spoon and ligula of bronze, of Roman by Nero in A.D. 50. A pig was found work, by the Rev. T. Hugo ; they were some years since on the Mendip bearing found in Bucklersbury; several iron weathe name of Tiberius, but it has not pons of Anglo-Saxon date, by Mr. Bernbeen preserved. The traces of extensive bard Smith ; a singular little bronze figure, Roman workings on that range of hills finely patinated, from Winchester, by Mr. are well known, and a company has been Greville Chester; impressions of Roman established, by whom the old slag is now coins, part of a large board lately found fused, and a considerable quantity of lead with silver ingots, &c. near Coleraine ; obtained. Mr. Way stated that, having several pavement tiles, part of a floor, of casually heard of the discovery at Blag- geometrical design, found at Thornton don, he had sought to trace this relique, Abbey, Lincolnshire, by the Rev. John the only object, as it is believed, found in Byron, by whom they have been presented England bearing the name of Britannicus. to the British Museum ; a diminutive gold Through the kind and prompt assistance . ring-brooch, lately found amongst the ruins of Mr. Garrard, Chamberlain of Bristol, of Mannin Castle, in Ireland, and bearing and Mr. Wasbrough, of Clifton, the de- an inscription as yet unexplained. sired object was obtained. Mr. Williams, Mr. John Gough Nichols produced the proprietor of the Shot Works, on several beautiful specimens of needlework, learning from them that this vestige of the property of Miss Burr, of Stockwell. Roman industry was an object of interest, They comprised a cap worked in black silk had not only sent it forthwith for the in- and silver thread, supposed to have belonged to Queen Elizabeth ; it was long cists, containing the skeletons of a male preserved at Hockliffe, Bedfordshire: a and two females, were found, placed side worked scapular, supposed to have been by side, the heads to the north. At one worn with the cap; a mantilla, and two side of this group of interments was placed very ancient samplers of point lace, with a square stone chest, carefully constructed, a christening suit of China silk and point with a convex cover neatly fitting into a lace, from the Rectory at the same groove in the sides of the chest, which place.

was filled with burnt bones. On the other Mr. Rolls brought a diminutive watch of side appeared a stone chest, measuring 22 very curious workmanship, made by Salo- inches by 15, and containing the skull of mon Chesnon, at Blois ; some ornaments a horse. Mr. Neville mentioned some of iron and bronze; Russo-Greek cru- curious facts in regard to the discovery cifixes, ornamented with enamel; and a of remains of the horse near early intergold ring, set with a cabalistic intaglio. ments. Mr. Scarth described also a curious Mr. Whincopp sent an interesting inven- little group of tumuli on Beaulieu Heath, tory of the household goods of a Suffolk Hampshire ; it comprises two conical bargentleman in 1601, presenting a detailed rows, with an oval mound between them; notion of the domestic condition of a small they are placed close to one another, a squiral residence at that period.-Mr. Tite ditch surrounding each. brought a remarkable little illuminated Mr. Bish Webb communicated a stateMS., a book of prayers written and bound ment received from Mr. L. Clark, calling up in a rhomboidal or lozenge form-a attention to the neglected state of the ruined strange specimen of capricious fancy.-Se- structures and sculptured tombs at Iona, veral impressions of seals were shewn, from the want of some efficient protection especially one of Sir Richard Burley, in to prevent the injuries caused by reckless the reign of Richard II. found by Mr. visitors who come to that island in great Ready amongst the muniments at Queen's numbers. It appeared that a small sum college, Cambridge, of which he is now expended in sustaining the remains of the engaged in copying the seals; and a French cathedral might preserve them from the seal of the fourteenth century, of which decay which has rapidly advanced in recent the matrix was in Mr. Pickering's pos. times. Mr. Westwood made some remarks session. It is a good example, and ap- on the value of the sculptured monuments pears to have been the seal of William de of the western islands of Scotland, and the Says, canon of Le Puy, the ancient capital importance of the endeavour to avert such of Velay.

wanton injuries as had been reported; he June 2. The Hon. Richard Neville, V.P. doubted not that the Duke of Argyll, the

Mr. Edward Freeman invited the at- possessor of Iona, would readily give attention of the Society to the existence of tention to the subject, if it were properly a remarkable sepulchral chamber at Uley- represented to him. bary, Gloucestershire, partially excavated Mr. Hawkins observed that it was an some years since, when some remains appropriate occasion, when the attention were found, now preserved at Guy's Hos- of the Society had been appealed to in bepital. This burial-place has been desig. half of the preservation of ancient monunated as " the Giant's Chamber," and it ments, to advert to the injuries with which, appears to be in some respects analagous as be feared, many of far greater importto the surprising works in Ireland, at ance were actually threatened. He would New Grange and Dowth, on the banks of recall to the meeting the visit of inspection the Boyne. Mr. Freeman proposes to which, at the instance of Professor Donaldbring the subject before the notice of the son, many members of the Institute had annual meeting of the Institute, at their made last year to Westminster Abbey, to approaching assembly in Cambridge, and view the condition of the royal tombs, and to make a careful examination of this re- he believed that the unanimous opinion at markable place shortly after the meeting, that time had been that all so-called restowhen he kindly proposes to request the co- rations were to be deprecated, and must operation of archæologists who take an in- prove destructive of the essential interest terest in such researches. Mr. Dickenson and authenticity of those memorials. He remarked that a similar place of primeval now perceived with great regret, amongst interment existed near Stony Littleton, in the estimates submitted to Parliament, one Wiltshire, which had recently been exca- for no less an amount than 4,7001. for the vated by direction of Mr. Poulett Scrope; repair of royal monuments in Westminster the results would soon be published by Abbey. He would propose that some the Wiltshire Archæological Society. measures should without any delay be

The Rev. H. M. Scarth sent a notice of taken, by petition to Parliament or by a a discovery of sarcophagi near a Roman memorial to the First Commissioner of villa at Comb Down, Somerset. Three Public Works, to avert, if possible, such

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