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sion whenever Sweden, or any other comment we could find on this honeyed Western power, may think it text of amiable and philanthropic and cessary" or advisable. Certainly not pacific loving-kindness! at the Norwegian Alps, for they can We now proceed to the work of a be “ turned " both from the north and Finlander, in reply to the pamphlet of the south. Certainly not at Zeeland Professor Hwasser, and open the clear or at Bergen, not at Edinburgh or at and eloquent but somewhat extreme London; for

pages of the pseudonymous Pekka There lies a world beyond!

Kuoharinen, first published in StockAnd as to this so very particular

holm in 1838.* Professor Hwasser

asserted, that Finland was an inde“ suitability" of Finland, more than any other line, for a "natural" north

pendent state, with a fully exercised west border, we know nothing of it.

free representative constitution. Pekka

Kuoharinen, in the eagerness of his reIt is notoriously open to invasion along all its shores; only from within, by a

ply, went too far, and declared that

Finland has no constitution, and was nation who will live and die free, can

a it be defended. And as to aggressive simply a conquered province. In 1841 measures, from 1703, when it was first

appeared on the stage yet another founded, up to 1809, Petersburgh re

anonymous writer, also a Finlander,

and in a brochure,f full of the warmest mained secure, never really alarmed at whatever forces could be brought calmest self-possession, demonstrated

patriotism, singularly united to the against it by a country so compara

that the truth lay between these two tively poor and so thinly peopled as Sweden and Finland. In fact, and in it did not exercise, undoubtedly ought

combatants; and that Finland, although one word, the very position of the country, which has been for so many solemn oaths, the free constitution of

to enjoy, as entitled by law and by centuries heart and hand Swedish, is

which Professor Hwasser had boasted that of a bulwark or shield of its

80 much. We shall make free use of mother-land, not that of an advanced the statements of these two last writers; camp of Russia. Indeed we cannot for they are full of talent and logical comprehend what reasons, except those of the wolf in the fable, an unprinci- acumen, and display an exact acquaint

ance with all the documents required pled state-code of insatiable and overreaching ambition, could ever have

for deciding this important question. been discovered for seizing on a coun

In fact, Olli Kehäläinen may be contry like Finland, inhabited by a totally

sidered as a necessary appendix to his different race, speaking a totally dif- countryman, supplying his omissions ferent language, and professing a to

and amicably correcting, whatever tally different religion, from that of might have been extreme in his poli

tical views. Russia Proper, or any of its provinces.

Pekka Kuoharinen thus, with a As to the final peace" now gained master's hand, demolishes the castle by Sweden through the cession of of cards built up so ingeniously by the Finland, the thing is ridiculous. Russia never committed herself to any such

Upsala metaphysician :

The Russian army marched into Finfolly. She merely. “ bides her time."

land at the close of February, 1808, in The immense fortifications and enor

order, as the words run in the proclamamous garrison daily accumulating on tion of its commander-in-chief,“ to take the islands of Aland, the nearest point the country under his protection and into to Stockholm, and only a few hours' his occupancy, and procure proper satissail therefrom, are perhaps the surest faction, in case his royal Swedish majesty

Finland och dess Framtid. I anledning af skriften Om Allians-Tractaten, &c. 3dje öfv. Uppl., jemte erinringar vid en sednare skrift Om Borgä Landtdag, &c. Af Pekka Kuobarinen. (Finland and its future Prospects. In reply to the work “On the Treaty of Alliance," &c. 3rd Edit. corrected. With Notes on a later Pamphlet “On the Diet in Borgä," &c. By P. K.) Stockholm, 1840. sm. 880. pp. 104.

+ Finlands mwarande Stats-författning. Ett försök att forena de stridiga asigterna hos Herrar Hwasser, och P.K. Af oui Kekäläinen. (The present Constitution of Finland. An attempt to unite the conflicting views of H. and P. K. By O. K.) Stock bolm, 1841. sm. 8vo. pp. 52.


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army of

continued in the resolution not to accept although it should not have been done the reasonable conditions of peace offered without design (for the conqueror was in a him by his majesty the Emperor of France, foreign land, and among a people as yet his under the mediation of his majesty the enemies); we merely mention it as con. Emperor of Russia."*

nected with the idea of a "separate peace." It thus constituted an execution,” which had to carry into By a proclamation issued in Abo, May effect the resolutions of other united 28th, by Count Buxhoevden the Russian powers. Sweden was to be forced to commander-in-chief,f the inhabitants of join the “ Continental System,” and

Finland were ordered to give up all arms for that purpose one of its provinces the same within the space of one week,

of every kind, and he who did not perform was invaded. Finland was considered as a limb of the Swedish national

was not only to be subject to heavy fines,

“but would also be regarded as a rebel to body, not at all as a land for itself, or

be capitally punished by military law, its inhabitants as a separate people, being, according to circumstances, either with whom separate treaties or agree- hanged or shot." These orders were ments were to be made. It is therefore executed with such harshness, that even very clear that those who were then the rifles of the finest bore were taken from enemies of Finland had no intention the peasantry. Thus was that country from the beginning to regard it as a

completely disarmed, which was afterward state with which a separate peace

to make peace and alliance with its conwas to be entered upon and concluded.

querors, on its own account. We shall afterwards see whether or

On the 5th of June, 1808, was issued no they had any such idea at any later respecting the incorporation of Finland

his Imperial Majesty's gracious manifesto period.

with the Russian empire. $ It opens as On the 22nd of May, the High Court of follows: " According to the decision of Abo received a communication from the

the Most High, who has blessed our arms, Russian commander-in-chief, and in con- we have united to the Russian empire for sequence hereof it issued, on the 27th of ever the Province of Finland. With satisthe same month, a circular, which pro

faction have we heard, that the inbabitants claimed that as soon as it could possibly of this province, as a pledge of their be accomplished all landowners should be fidelity and eternal attachment to the assembled at the usual assize-halls, there Russian Crown, have taken a solemn to take the oath of_allegiance graciously oath.” It is further mentioned, that "the commanded by his Russian majesty ; but inhabitants of the now conquered Finland if notwithstanding, and as was not to be have from this time forward taken their expected, any such landowner or other place among those peoples who obey the person from any cause whatsoever did not Russian sceptre and constitute with them wish protection for life or property, he one empire." could on this condition refuse to take the oath in question.”+

In this manner was Finland, step by At about this time or a little before, all step, transformed into a Russian proemployés and persons of the middle or

vince. higher classes were commanded to take With these and further details Pekka the same oath of allegiance; and with such Kuoharinen has triumphantly demoseverity was this carried through, that lished the whole argument of Professor even school boys and gymnasium-scholars, Hwasser as to the independence of provided they had completed their 15th Finland, and the "separate peace" it year, were compelled to go through the made with Alexander. The importsame ceremony. It occurred also on this occasion, for instance in Tavastehus, and documents, will be immediately per

ance of this reply, supported by public in Borga, that Russian cannons, probably ceived when we consider that it lies at however by a mere accident, happened to be drawn up outside the church-doors, the bottom of the whole theory of the while the ceremony of allegiance was impossibility of any restoration of Finbeing performed within. It is not our land by Alexander in 1812. As to the meaning to blame this circumstance, even hindrances asserted to have existed

* Bulletiner under kriget imellan Sverige, Ryssland och Danmark, Aren 1808 och 1809. Stockholm, 1812. p. 2, 3. + Samling af Placater, förordningar, Manifester, m. m. Vol. I. Abo, 1821. p. 8.

Bulletiner under Kriget, aren 1808, och 1809. Stockholm, 1812. Sheet 14. § Samling af Placater, &c. tom. I. p. 9.

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against this same re-union, on the rally known. Even the magic influence ground of the dislike of the Finlanders which drew all to Alexander, disappeared to “sacrifice all!" for that purpose, in his absence like a blue mist before the Pekka Kuoharinen continues as fol- antique love of country, and the old lows:

Swedish recollections. Alexander was

loved with a warm heart, but every one A sacred feeling unites two peoples, in his inmost bosom felt himself a Swede. who have lived for centuries under the Nor was this treachery, or a deceitful same government. They have shared with hypocrisy. It was the new attachment each other weal and woe, glory and reverses, struggling with the ancient national feelvictory and defeat; they possess remem- ing. It was, if one so will, the young brances in common, and a common history. storm of the moment battling to overturn They have grown up as foster-brothers the lofty oak whose roots held fast in the who, after the old northern custom, have rock below. mingled blood with each other, and have The author of this work was in Abo in avenged mutual sufferings and injuries. 1812 when the treaty was concluded there. Such a foster-brother community is like a He was employed in the highest executive tree in whose crown the genii of past ages court in the country, and was thereby whisper, and whose roots have pierced enabled to ascertain the opinion of both down to the inner earth. Such a feelin the men of influence and of the people in is deep, serious, and holy; and if ever the general, and he must give his testimony sword should cut asunder the tie which that there was but one voice among all united the inhabitants, it yet cannot blot classes for a re-union with Sweden. This out memory and love from the hearts of was by no means meant as dissatisfaction the separated peoples. These cannot be with the actual supremacy of Russia, for changed as one changes the one garment no cause had then been given for this for another; they are not altered by an feeling; it was the expression of the old oath of fidelity, as a tree is clipped or its national attachment subsisting in every stem hewn down.

bosom. How far this general wish was Finland had subsisted as a part of Sweden prudent or not is quite another question, for a space of above 650 years. It had and does not now belong to our subject ; received thence its religion, its civilization, to show the emptiness of our author's its laws and its customs. It had enjoyed assertions, it is sufficient that it was there, in common with Sweden all the ad tantages and that it was decidedly pronounced. of a free constitution; it had so grown Everyone who then resided in Abo saw with together with the mother-country, that what delight the people greeted the foreign each individual called himself a Swede. hero [Charles XIV. John, then CrownIn 1812, Finland was a three-years' old Prince of Sweden), with whose person Russian province. By its emperor it was most of them probably attached hopes for treated with all imaginable mildness and the future. We now speak of 1812; since favour ; every possible attempt was made then a new race has sprung up around us, to gain the confidence and the love of the with other household gods. Much has inhabitants, all was done to satisfy it and been changed hereby, but much remains fulfil every reasonable desire. But can the same. The spirit of the past broods the mild rule of three short summers root over the ocean, though innumerable waves out the attachment founded on 650 winters dash themselves thereunder and die away. of enlightened government ? This ques. Nations are the oceans-individuals are tion does not contain any complaint; its the billows that rise and fall.* object is only to explain a fact now gene

(To be continued.)

UNDESIGNED IMITATIONS. Shakspere of Erasmus.-Scott of Hor. Walpole.—Eugene Sue and Dumas of Schiller.

WE have all of us at one time or ite conception. Thus political guidanother had occasion to remark how nuncs discern symptoms of plots and the mind when possessed with an idea intrigues where, to the ordinary underbecomes morbidly acute on that parti- standing, all is fair and above-board; cular point, and forces and distorts while persons whose natures are sensieverything within its cognisance until tive and suspicious detect a sneer in it bends it to the service of the favour- every smile and a sarcasm in every

Finland och dess Framtid, pp. 24-27. GENT. MAG. VOL. XLII.


jest. Those who trace the similarities tharine is somewhat indebted when between authors seem peculiarly ex- advocating the “ awful rule and posed to this tendency, and often find right supremacy” of husbands over food for speculation when the resemblance is so slight as to be invio Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper, sible to all eyes but their own: and Thy head, thy sovereign : one that cares for thee again, where the idea supposed to be And for thy maintenance : commits his body stolen is so obvious as to be all but

To painful labour both by sea and land :

To watch the night in storms, the day in cold; innate. Of this kind were those two

While thou liest warm at home, secure and safe. Shaksperian critics who drew down

(Taming of the Shrew, Act V. Scene ii.) upon their heads the awful indignation of the oracle of Bolt Court, one of et Puella, the

lover thus urges his suit.

Again, in the colloquy entitled Proci them by detecting in the expression “Go before, I'll follow," a translation

Pamphilus. — Saltem illud responde, of the Latin “I præ, sequar," and the

utrum est elegantius spectaculum, vitis other by imputing to Caliban who; palum aut ulmum, eamque purpureis uvis

humi jacens et computrescens, an amplexa after a pleasing dream, says, “I cried

degravans ? to sleep again," a plagiarism from an

Maria.- Responde tu mihi vicissim, ode of Anacreon.

utrum spectaculum amonius, rosa nitens At the risk of being ranked with et lactea in suo frutice, an decerpta digitis these unfortunate gentlemen, we ven- et marcescens ? ture to bring forward some coinci- Pamphilus.-Ego rosam existimo felidences in which we conceive that the ciorem que marcescit in hominis manu, later writers have been influenced, delectans interim et oculos et nares, quam though unconsciously, by an indistinct quæ senescit in frutice, nam et illic futureminiscence of the works of their pre

rum erat ut marcesceret. decessors.

In writing this passage Erasmus eviWhatever may be thought of Shak. dently had in view Catullus's Epithaspere's erudition, and it is likely enough lamium, and we think that it has in its that, compared with Ben Jonson's turn supplied the germ of the well“huge store,” his learning was but known lines in the Midsummer's Night small, still it cannot be doubted that Dream. he had sufficient acquaintance with But earthlier happy is the rose distill'd Latin to peruse a book so easy and Than that, which withering on the virgin thorn, simple in its language as the Colloquies

Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness. of Erasmus, which was indeed written A little further on in the colloquy for the benefit of the little Frobenius,

last mentioned we find this passage :and, being extensively used in schools, Maria. Attamen favorabilis atque not improbably introduced Shakspere plausibilis apud omneis virginitas. himself to therudiments of that tongue. Pamphilus.—Elegans quidem res puella

However that may be, in one of the virgo : sed quid juxta naturam prodigiosius Colloquies termed the Senatulus, the anu virgine? Nisi matri tuæ defluxisset female portion of the community are

flos ille, nos istum flosculum non habererepresented as determined on legis.

Quod si, ut spero, non sterile erit lating for themselves, and summoning multas dabimus.

nostrum conjugium, pro unâ virgine a parliament for that purpose. A debate arises as to whether a member In All's Well that Ends Well, Act who, when on her legs, speaks ill of I. Scene ii. Parolles uses similar her husband, is to be deemed out of arguments to Helen. order or no. One of them, Cornelia, Parolles.-It is not politic in the comthen puts in this plea for the men. mon-wealth of nature to preserve virginity. Quanquam autem habemus non paucas there was never virgin got till virginity

Loss of virginity is rational increase, and justæ querimoniæ causas, tamen expensâ rerum omnium summâ nostra potior est

was first lost. That you were made of is quam illorum conditio. Illi dum quærunt metal to make virgins. Virginity, by being

once lost, may be ten times found: by rem, per omnes terras ac maria volitant, non sine capitis discrimine : illi, si bellum being ever kept, it is ever lost; 'tis too incidat, excitantur buccina, ferrei stant in cold a companion : away with it.

Helen.- I will stand for't a little, though acie, dum nos domi sedemus tutæ.

therefore I die a virgin. To this passage we think that Ka- Parolles. There's little can be said in


But sudden see! she lifts her head !

it, 'tis against the rule of nature. To attentively, and in a few moments thought speak on behalf of virginity is to accuse they heard a person singing, but could not your mother's, which is most infallible distinguish the words. [The Princess disobedience.

then opens the window and inquires who Lovelace also had probably read and is there, and the narrative tbus proceeds :] remembered this dialogue, for in an “ I am not here willingly,” answered the Elegiacal Epitaph on the death of Mrs. voice; " but pardon me, lady, if I disElizabeth Filmer, after lauding the turbed your rest. I knew not that I was

overheard. Sleep had forsaken me. I charms of the young lady's mind, he left a restless couch, and came to waste says

the irksome hours with gazing on the apNor were the rooms unfit to feast

proach of morning; impatient to be dis. And entertain this angel-guest.

missed from this castle." “ Thy words And in the colloquy we have the and accents," said Matilda, "are of a me. following:

lancholy cast. If thou art unbappy I

" I am indeed unMaria. - Fortassis alia videbor, ubi

pity thee." morbus aut ætas hanc formam immutarit.

happy," replied the stranger, “ but I do Pamphilus. — Nec hoc corpus, o bona, not complain of the lot which heaven has

cast for me. I am young and healthy. . . semper erit æque succulentum. Sed ego

If I sigh, lady, it is for others, and not pon contemplor tantum istud undique flo. for myself." « Now I have it, Madam," rens atque elegans domicilium : hospitem said Bianca, whispering the Princess, magis adamo.

" this is certainly the young peasant, and, This metaphor, however, is so obe by my conscience, he is in love."... “Speak vious that possibly the resemblance quickly," said Matilda, " the morning may be merely the result of chance. dawns apace ; should the labourers come

We now turn to the Wizard of the into the fields and perceive us,” &c. North ; and in James Wallace, a novel With this scene compare The Lady written by Robert Bage, and edited of the Lake, canto vi. § 23. by Scott, we find that the hero from whom the book takes its name, and

The window seeks with cautious tread ; whose parentage is unknown, is brought What distant music has the power ap with one Paracelsus Holman, under To win her in this woful hour ? the roof of the father of the latter;

'Twas from a turret that o'erhung

Her latticed bower the strain was sung. the disposition of young Holman being rash and perverse, while that of Wal- Here follows the Lay of the Imprilace is steady and modest. The two soned Huntsman, which is too long to young men contract a close friendship; be extracted here, but, if our readers and Wallace going forth into the world will take the trouble to compare it to seek his fortune, and search for his with the extracts we have just given, parents, the story is carried on by they will find the turn of thought in means of a correspondence between the

two to be the same. the two friends, in which the more While we are upon this subject, we rational Wallace takes frequent occa- may remark, that in constructing the sion to admonish and reprimand the plot and drawing the characters of his headstrong and crotchety Holman. The Rokeby, Scott had in view this same resemblance between the plan of this tale the Castle of Otranto. The Manwork and that of Redgauntlet is obvious fred and Conrad of the latter correat a glance; there is indeed one dif- spond pretty closely with the Oswald. ference between the two, that Sir and Wilfred of the former ; the trials Walter has transposed the characters of the Isabella of Walpole are not very of the two youths, and represents the different from those of the Matilda of wanderer as flighty and frivolous, Scott, and the fortunes of Theodore while the stayer at home is steady and seem to have suggested those of Redsensible.

mond O'Neul. Many minor points of In Horace Walpole's Castle of resemblance will occur to those who Otranto we meet with the following have fresh in their memory both the passage :

tale and the poem. As she said these words they (i. e. the We now again turn from the Wizard Princess Matilda and her maid Bianca) of the North to those modern French heard the casement of the little window enchanters M.M. Sue and Dumas. In beneath Matilda's open. They listened some of the works of these writers the

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