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METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, BY W. CARY, STRAND.

From May 26, 10 June 23, 1854, both inclusive. Fahrenheit's Therm.

Fahrenheit's Therm.

Day of
Montb.
8 o'clock
Morning.

Noon.

llo'clock
Night.

Barom.

Weather.

Day of
Month.
8 o'clock
Morning.

Noon.

llo'clock Night.

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June
48 29, 68 rain, fair 11 54 61 57 29, 85 cloudy
, 65 do. hail

12 55 66 52 58 do. fair
47 72 heavy rain 13 54 61 57 61 heavy rain
59 do. do.thndr. 14 55 67 | 54

77 cloudy, fair 89 do. do. fair 15 57 61 55

69 rain 50 94 cloudy, do. 16 57 61 54 73 do. 50 86 do. do. rain 17 56 66 56 69 cloudy, fair 50 71 'const. rn. fair|| 18 5668 53 77 fair, cloudy 48 75 cloudy 19 55 66 52

91 lido. 48 30, 05 do. fair 20 53 66 52 97 \ldo, do. 48 do. do.

21 55 67 57 30, 02 do, do. 50 05 do, do.

22 59 73 62

08 fine 51 06 do.

23 57 71 62

15 do.
05 do. do.
24 70 7561

15 do.
54 29, 98 do.

25 70 77 57 29, 98 fair, rain 54 92 'rain, do.

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90

91%

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29 206 90+
30 -

894
31 206 90%
1 206 904
2 -
3 206 91
5 206
6206 923
7 206
8 206 92
9 2051 911
10 206
12

91
13 206 91.
14 206 915
15

911
16 204
17
19
20 206
21 206 933
22 206 94
23

94
24

941 26

93 27

91% 911

3 pm. par. 4 pm. par. 90903 45

236 2 4 pm. 3 pm.

par. 91% 91 49

233 1dis.3pm. 1 dis. 3 pm.
91 913 45

236 4 pm.par. '1 dis. 3 pm.
92
913 49

4 pm. par. par. pm.
92% 91%

1 5

pm. 92% 92%

1 5

pm.
94 93

5
pm.

1
93% 9241

232 par. 4 pm. par. pm. 923

par. 4 pm. par.

par. par. 921

par. 92

par. 92 46

par. 4 pm. par. 92

par. 4 pm. par. 924g

1 4pm. par. 912

par. 3 pm. par. 914

par. 3 pm. par. 93% 49

3 pm. par. 93% 48

3 pm. par. 93 4

2'dis. 2 dis. 1 pm. 943 45

Idis.3pm. 2 dis. 2 pm. 941

2dis.2pm. 2 dis. 2 pm. 943 48

2dis.Ipm. 2 dis. 2 pm. 94

1 pm.

2 dis. 2 pm. 943

2 pm. 2 dis. 1 pm.

1
J. J. ARNULL, Stock and Share Broker,
3, Copthall Chambers, Angel Court,

Throgmorton Street, London.

4 pm. 4 pm. 5 pm. 4 pm. 4 pm. 4 pm. 4 pm. 3 pm. 3 pm. 3 pm. 5 pm.

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J. B. NICHOLS AND SONS, PRINTERS, 25, PARLIAMENT STREET.

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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE

AND

HISTORICAL REVIEW.

AUGUST, 1854.

CONTENTS.

PAGE MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.--Defoe and Paterson—Richard of Cirencester-Storey's Gate and the Birdcage Walk-—" Solitude is sweet”-Pattern Piece of Charles I.

98 History of Oliver Cromwell and the English Commonwealth : by M. Guizot.... 99 The Political Constitution of Finland (continued)..

107 Mr. Roach Smith's Collection of London Antiquities

116 Sketch of the Early History of the Jews, derived exclusively from Heathen Writers 120 Undesigned Imitations—The False Knights and the Unruly Brides of Erasmus and Shakspere .

128 Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney....

134 "Our Ladies of St. Cyr," 1686-1793..

139 Sale of the Manuscripts of the late Sir William Betham, Ulster ....

145 CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN.--Our Old Public Libraries ; Book Catalogues ;

and Special Libraries, 148.--Portraits of Sir Philip Sidney, 152.-Harrow Church and Dr. Butler's Monument, 153.-Portraits of John Hales, Founder of the Free Grammar School at Coventry..

155 NOTES OF THE MONTH.-Removal of the Learned Societies from Somerset House-British

Museum– Royal Society-Illustrations of Newton and his Contemporaries--Paris Exhi-
bition of 1855–Centenary of the Society of Arts-Educational Exhibition-Industrial
Museum in Edinburgh-Literary and Scientific Institutions Act-Architectural Museum-
Commemoration at Oxford-Honorary Degrees at Cambridge--Entertainment given by the
Mayor of Oxford--Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire-Sale of Library of John
Dunn Gardner, esq.-Numismatic Collections of Mr.J. D. Cuff-Pictures bought for the
National Gallery, and other recent Picture Sales-Roubiliac's Statue of Handel-Stained
Glass Window made for the King of Denmark-- The 350th anniversary of Printing at Bres-
lau-New materials for Paper-The mystery of Spirit-rapping solved.

157 HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.--- Notes on the Architecture and History

of Caldicot Castle, 162 ; Niebuhr's Lectures on Ancient Ethnography and Geography, 163; Hill's Travels on the Shores of the Baltic, 165 : Neale's Islamism, 165 ; Dr. Bruce's Biography of Samson, The Darkness and Doom of India, The Old Testament Pocket Commentary, 166; The Works of Apuleius, 167 ; Thomson's Bampton Lecture, 167 ; Montgomery's Popery as it exists in Great Britain and Ireland, 168 ; Bungener's Voltaire and his Times, 168 ; History of the Minor Kingdoms, 168 ; Adderley's Essay on Human Happiness, 169; De Burgh's Early Prophecies of a Redeemer

169 ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.-Meeting of the Archæological Institute at Cambridge, 169;

Sussex Archæological Society, 179; Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, 181;
St. Alban's Architectural and Archæological Society-Numismatic Society

182 HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.–Foreign News.....

182 Promotions and Preferments, 184; Births, 186; Marriages...

187 OBITUARY ; with Memoirs of The Earl of Castlestuart; Sir Charles Wolseley, Bart; Sir T.

E. M. Turton, Bart.; Lieut.-Gen. Sir Richard Armstrong; Lieut.-Gen. Mercer Henderson,
C.B.; Rear-Admiral Sotheby; Rear-Admiral Wemyss; Lieut.-Col. C. A. West; Lieut.-
Col. Handcock; Godfrey Meynell, Esq.; Rev. S. G. F. T. Demainbray; Arthur Aikin,
Esq.; George Clint, Esq., A.R.A.; Richard Prosser, Esq., C.E.; Madame Sontag ; Mr.
John Fulton ; Mr. William Laxton..

190-200 CLERGY DECEASED

200 DEATHS, arranged in Chronological Order

200 Registrar-General's Returns of Mortality in the Metropolis, Markets, 207 ; Meteorological Diary-Daily Price of Stocks...

208

...........

BY SYLVANUS URBAN, GENT.

MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.

1

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MR. URBAN, - Your Correspondent the present gate, and was employed by Mr. S. Bannister (July No. p. 2), inquires Charles II. in the improvements which he after a pamphlet published in 1717 en- made in St. James's Park.” Mr. Storey titled, “Fair Payment no Sponge." I died in 1664, and was buried in the nave of possess it, and have referred to it in a St. Margaret's, Westminster, The Volery, notice in “Notes and Queries," vol. vii. -or Birdcage, of which he was the keeper, p. 576. As I have there stated, I think was an aviary so large as to allow birds to it clearly written by Defoe and not by fly about within it. See the Rev. Mack. Paterson, to whose writings I have paid enzie Walcott's Historical Notices of St. some attention as well as to those of his Margaret's, Westminster. great contemporary. It will give me much J. T. M. inquires, who is the Frenchpleasure to see Paterson's works republished man, to whom Cowper refers in his “Rein a collected form, and some justice done tirement,” as saying that “Solitude is at last to his extraordinary merits.

sweet," but requires to have some one to Yours, &c. Jas. CROSSLEY. tell us so? Some editions give La Bruyère Manchester, 1st July, 1854.

as the author in a note. But Bonhours MR. URBAN,—Your valuable and long- solitude est certainement une belle chose,

quotes it as Balzac's. “ Selon Balzac, la extended periodical contains many refe

mais il y a plaisir d'avoir quelqu'un que rences to, and comments on, the doubtful

. origin and authenticity of the Itinerary sqache répondre, à qui on puisse dire de of Richard of Cirencester." It is time all

temps en temps, que c'est une belle

chose." guch doubts on this subject be settled, and

(Pensées des Anciens et des

Modernes, ed. 1737, p. 311.) I think it may be satisfactorily done by a series of eleven letters, from Bertram to

Some account of the prices for which

the late Mr. Cuff's coins have been sold Dr. Stukeley, in my possession, and which

will be found in our Notes of the Month. I trust will come under the cognizance of the Wiltshire Archæological Society, at

One of them, the pattern gold-piece of

Charles I. was sold for the largest sum its first anniversary meeting at Salisbury, in August next.

ever given for a single coin. This highlyYours, &c. J. BRITTON.

interesting medal was intended, it is July 12, 1854.

thought, for a 51. piece. It was never pub

lished. It bears the King's bust to the Storey's Gate. The stone gate-posts at left, bare-headed, and over his armour a the entrance of St. James's Park from lace collar. Its history is curious. It was Great George Street, Westminster, have purchased by Lieut.- Colonel Drummond been pulled down during the past month, of the Rev. Mr. Commeline, of St. John's in order to widen the road-way, the iron college, Cambridge, a collateral descendant gates themselves having been removed of Bishop Juxon, to whom it was presented some years ago. An absurd paragraph by Charles I. a little before his death. has been going the round of the news- The bishop devised it by will to Mrs. papers, asking who the Storey could have Mary Gayters, from whom it descended to been who built this gate so inconveniently her grand-daughter of the same name, who narrow : whereas, since we ourselves have married the Rev. James Commeline, the resided in Westminster, the said gates were grandfather of the Mr. Commeline from kept constantly closed, and only opened whom it was bought by Colonel Drumon very unfrequent occasions for objects mond. Mr. Till, the late worthy coinconnected with works in the Park,-Bird- dealer in Russell-street, Covent-garden, cage Walk being then literally a walk, and bought it from Colonel Drummond for 501. not a roadway, except for the Royal Fa- He then offered it to the British Museum mily, or, as we have said, for necessary for 801., but the trustees refused to purworks. It was entirely by royal favour chase, and it was immediately sold by Mr. that the public was permitted to pass along Till to the late Mr. Cuff for 601. At the this road, which is now become the great recent sale the agent of the Museum conhighway from Belgravia to the senate-house. tended for it at thrice the sum the trustees The question as to the origin of the name might have had it for some twenty years of the Gate is answered in Peter Cunning ago. The enthusiastic gentleman who has ham's Handbook for London, thus :- given 2601. for a single coin is Mr. Brown,

Storey's Gate was so called after Edward of the eminent publishing firm of Messrs. Storey, who lived in a house on the site of Longman & Co.

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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE

AND

HISTORICAL REVIEW.

GUIZOT'S CROMWELL. History of Oliver Cromwell and the English Commonwealth from the Execution of

Charles the First to the Death of Cromwell. By M. Guizot. Translated by Andrew R. Scoble. 2 vols. 8vo. Bentley.

THE contents of M. Guizot's book of its majestic course, setting amidst would be described more accurately in the louring indications of a coming this title-page if “the English Com; tempest, but leaving behind it a trail monwealth” and “ Oliver Cromwell” of stormy splendour, which has exerwere to change places—that is, were cised a curious kind of fascination to occupy the relative positions which upon all historical inquirers. Those of they occupied in fact and in chrono- them who condemn the most strongly logy. M. Guizot begins his history, of the means by which Cromwell accourse, not with Oliver Cromwell, but quired his authority, and rejoice the with the vain endeavour of the Parlia- most sincerely that it so soon came to ment to erect republican institutions an end, yet cannot forbear to admire upon the ruins of the monarchy, and the way in which he wielded what was in the midst of a people the vast ma.

in their estimation his ill-gotten power. jority of whom were sincerely attached Something of this kind seems to have to the ancient constitution. This por- taken place in bis own day, even with tion of the subject runs through the reference to the personal qualities of first volume. As it proceeds, the grim the man himself. The courtly young shadow of the successful soldier rises gentleman who observed with congradually over the scene: it soon tempt, and recorded with foppish parbegins to overtop his so-called masters. ticularity, the “plain cloth suit made by They indeed exercise nominal autho- an ill country tailor," the linen plain rity; their ordinance takes the place and not over clean, and the hat with. of the king's proclamation ; but the out a band, for all which Cromwell soldiers, the sinews of actual govern- was noticeable in the early sittings of ment, are moved by Cromwell. The the Long Parliament, was yet comParliament holds the purse, but, with- pelled to bear witness to the fact, that out his consent, they dare not draw at a subsequent period this same rustic its strings with reference to the victors sloven “ appeared of a great and maof Dunbar and Worcester. Such a jestic deportment, and of a comely state of things could not last long presence.' Dissension arose between the Parlia- In the present state of our historical ment and its too powerful servant, and knowledge in reference to the period Cromwell openly assumed the power of ten years comprised in M. Guizot's which he had long in fact possessed. present work, we are struck with

M. Guizot's second volume comprises astonishment, that, in the face of a dea narrative of the strong and in many cidedly hostile people, the parliament respects glorious protectorate of Crom- should have succeeded in establishing well;-rising out of what seems like an a republic at all. It must be admitted, unjustifiable usurpation, dazzling all in explanation, that there were at Europe with the force and brilliancy that time amongst the parliament leaders some entirely sincere advocates the abolition

of kingship and the House of republicanism, men of the purest of Lords. The persons appointed ascharacters and most liberal and bene- sembled. Nineteen took the oath; volent intentions. Nothing but the twenty two refused. As a compromost violent partisanship will deny mise Sir Harry Vane suggested an this clear and certain fact. But these oath of fidelity for the future. Crommen, however exemplary in reputa- well eagerly expressed his approval. tion, prominent in talent, and eminent The new oath was adopted by the in station, were few in number, and house, and the Council of State was comparatively devoid of the semi- then ushered into the world. feudal territorial influence which at The necessity for thus submitting that time was so necessary to persons to the private consciences of the memin authority. Under such circum- bers of the Council of State should stances it speaks trumpet-tongued for have taught the parliament to respect their ability and energy that they met the scruples of all their subjects; but with even momentary success. M. their very next public act brought Guizot sees the difficulty, and explains them into a similar collision with the it, not perhaps without an eye to the city of London. The lord mayor was illustration it has derived from a simi- ordered to proclaim, not the republic, lar modern instance with which he is which as the proclamation of a fact peculiarly familiar. But there was one might have been so worded as to avoid important circumstance in the English collision with the prejudices of any case which finds no parallel in that of person, but the ordinances for the of France. England had then been abolition of kingship and the House of recently exhausted by a war in which Lords. The lord mayor refused to much of its noblest blood had fallen obey. M. Guizot shall tell us the rein the field. The country was also sult, and we select the passage not but just recovering from the terrible only for its contents, but as an illusconsequences of the spasmodic efforts tration of the way in which he has

-- foolish and in every way fatal- brought the despatches of foreign amwhich had been made to succour the bassadors to bear upon the facts of his king in 1648. But, even although narrative-one of the special merits of smarting, under the fatal results of his book. those ill-judged risings, although with

When summoned to the bar, ten days out competent leaders, and split up into afterwards, he alleged the scruples of his a variety of party divisions, the neces- conscience in justification of his conduct. sary consequence of the state of em- The House condemned him to pay a fine branglement into which every thing of two thousand pounds, and to be imhad been reduced by the weakness and prisoned for two months; and ordered the impolicy of the king, it is still difficult election of another lord mayor. Alderaltogether to understand how it came

man Thomas Andrews, one of the king's to pass that the friends of monarchy, did not think it wise to require of him

judges, was elected; but, though the House who comprised, be it remembered, immediately that official proclamation of many of the most strenuous of the

the Commonwealth which his predecessor original opposers of the king, felt them

had refused to make, it gave intimation of selves constrained to submit to the

more rigorous intentions with regard to government of a party numerically by the city. “They believe they may make far the smallest in the state.

sure of the metropolis," wrote the PresiThe parliament, which was now re- dent de Bellièvre, the French ambassador duced to less than 100 members, in England, to M. Servien, “either by met with no physical opposition in causing the election of other magistrates their establishment of a republic, but

who are devoted to their service, or by they had to encounter moral oppo

absolutely suppressing the form of governsition at every turn. One of their and establishing one of the officers of the

ment which has hitberto been observed, first acts was to appoint a Council of army as governor of the city-as it is beState which was to be the depository lieved they intend to do. But, according of the executive authority. It was to to all appearance, although it may be their consist of 41 members, each of whom intention to do this at some time or other, was to take an oath which contained they will be contented for the present with an approval of the king's trial, and of establishing their authority therein, with

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