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Value of water-borne foreign trade (including reexports) of the United States carried

in American and foreign vessels 1922–33

(Values in millions of dollars]

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COMPARISON OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND SHIPPING It would seem reasonable that the volume of foreign-trade shipping owned by any nation should be commensurate with that nation's contribution to international trade. Thus, a country whose foreign trade represents 15 percent of world international trade might be expected to own 15 percent of the world foreign-trade fleet.

Chart 2 shows a comparison of the percentage of world trade represented by United States trade with the percentage of the world foreign-trade fleet represented by the United States foreign-trade fleet for each of the calendar years 1929 to 1933, inclusive.

The chart shows that for the years 1929 to 1933 inclusive the percentage of total world trade represented by the foreign trade of the United States varied from 11.1 percent to 14.1 percent, while the percentage of the world foreign-trade fleet represented by the United States foreign-trade fleet varied from only 5.3 percent to 7.4 percent.

It should be noted that during the past 5 years there has been a declining trend in the percentage of the world foreign-trade fleet represented by the United States foreign-trade fleet. Comparison of world foreign trade and worid shipping engaged in that trade with

United States foreign trade and the American foreign-trade fleet

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11, 170 12, 150

23. 3.20 3. 124

13.4

World exports.

millions of dollars.. 32, 709 26, 051 18, 639 12, 551 World imports.

..do... 35, 443 28, 706 20, 682 13,878 Total world exports and imports.

.do... 68, 152 54, 757 39, 321 26, 429 United States exports and imports...

..do.. 9,641 6, 904 4,514 2, 934 United States percentage of total...

14.1 12.6 11. 5 IL 1 World steam and motor tonnage (Lloyd's)

1,000 gross tons and over.. 61, 492 73, 077 03,803 63, 418 Deduct idle world tonnage.

3, 947 3. 156 10, 511 14,034 Deduct United States vessels in coastwise trade. do..

3,855 3, 554 3, 281 Active world fleet in foreign trade (approximate)..do.... 53, 889 56,066 49, 738 46,083 Active American fleet in foreign trade.

..do. 4,000 4,064

3, 529 3,037 United States percentage of total.

7.4
7.2
7.1

6.6

----do...

61, 716 11, 473 3.553

3, 656

46,90 2, 498

5.3

SOURCE: United States Shipping Board Bureau, Department of Commerce, and Lloyd's Register of shipping.

OWNERSHIP OF WORLD SEAGOING MERCHANT FLEET

The world merchant fleet of ocean-going vessels of all types and of 2,000 gross tons and over, on January 1, 1934, totaled approximately 9,000 vessels of over 49,000,000 gross tons. These figures do not include vessels on the Great Lakes, but they do include vessels in coastwise trade and vessels which are laid up.

The ownership of this tonnage is shown in the following table.

Great Britain owns about 2,700 merchant vessels totaling over 16,600,000 gross tons and her merchant fleet stands number 1 among the merchant fleets of the world,

The United States stands number 2 in rank and owns over 1,500 merchant vessels of 9,000,000 gross tons. These vessels do not represent our foreigntrade fleet alone, however, but include vessels in coastwise trade and vessels in the Shipping Board's idle fleet.

As a matter of fact, at the beginning of 1934 there were only 429 American vessels, aggregating 2,702,000 gross tons, actively engaged in our foreign trade. Ocean-going merchant fleets of principal maritime nations as of Jan. 1, 1934

(Figures are for vessels each of 2,000 gross tons or over and exclude Great Lakes vessels)

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Source: United States Shipping Board Bureau, Department of Commerce.

GROWTH OF WORLD SHIPPING

In passing, it may be of interest to record that the entire world merchant fleet, including vessels each of 100 gross tons or over and including wooden vessels, sailboats, barges, and other vessels not of seagoing types, total approximately 31,000 vessels aggregating over 65,000,000 gross tons.

The following table shows the growth of this tonnage at 5-year intervals from 1900 up to date. The growth of American shipping and of British shipping is also shown. In the case of American shipping, vessels on the Great Lakes are excluded.

As indicated in the table, a large part of the United States merchant fleet was built during the World War period and is now over 15 years old.

WORLD TONNAGE IN FOREIGN TRADE ONLY The total world tonnage of ocean-going vessels engaged in the foreign trade alone aggregates approximately 37,400,000 gross tons. This figure excludes tankers which must be specially considered because of their particular type of service. It also excludes vessels that are engaged in the foreign trade on the Great Lakes and it is limited to vessels each of 2,000 gross tons or over. The distribution of this tonnage among the principal maritime nations is shown in table Ill, on page 435. Growth of world lonnage, British tonnage, and American tonnage (excluding Great

Lakes vessels) since 1900

(Figures represent millions of gross tons) 1900:

1920: World tonnage.

28. 9
World tonnage.

57. 3 British tonnage.

13. 2
British tonnage.

18. 3 American tonnage.2.0 American tonnage.

13. 8 1905:

1925: World tonnage

35. 9
World tonnage.

64. 6 British tonnage 15. 8 British tonnage.

19. 4 American tonnage.

2. 6
American tonnage.

12. 9 1910:

1930: World tonnage

41. 9
World tonnage-

69. 6 British tonnage.

17. 5
British tonnage.

20.4
American tonnage..
2. 8 American tonnage

11. 4 1915:

1934:
World tonnage

49. 2
World tonnage-

65. 6 British tonnage-

19. 5
British tonnage.

17. 7
American tonnage.
3. 5 American tonnage.

10, 4 136956–35_-77

Growth of world merchant tonnage since 1900
(Figures show gross tonnage of merchant vessels each of 100 gross tops or over)

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TABLE III.-Vessels, each of 2,000 gross tons or over, normally, employed in the

carriage of goods and passengers in the international trade as of Dec. 31, 1933

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SHARE OF SHIPPING OF PRINCIPAL NATIONS IN THE CARRIAGE OF THEIR OWN

FOREIGN TRADE

The vessels of principal foreign nations carry over 50 percent of their own water-borne foreign trade, while American vessels carry only about one-third of the water-borne foreign trade of the United States. This is shown on table IV.

TABLE IV.-Percentage of water-borne foreign trade of principal nations carried in their own vessels

Pereest Great Britain.

61 Germany.

61 France..

64 Italy

51 Japan.

76 United States.

35 [NOTE.—The above percentages were compiled from most recent information available as to the entrances and clearances of seagoing vessels with cargo.]

MODERN TONNAGE IN PRINCIPAL MERCHANT FLEETS

Chart 5 shows the percentage of seagoing merchant tonnage owned by the principal maritime nations on January 1, 1934, which has been built within the past 10 years.

A glance at the chart is sufficient to show that the United States is behind every other principal nation in the percentage of its merchant fleet represented by modern tonnage.

In cargo vessels, which make up a large share of our fleet, the United States has replaced only 1 percent of its tonnage in the past 10 years while Great Britain has replaced 41 percent, Germany 31 percent, France 15 percent, Italy 14 per cent, and Japan 17 percent.

In tanker tonnage the United States is far behind every other maritime nation in modern tonnage, its percentage being only 11 percent as compared with 51

percent for Great Britain, 41 percent for Germany, 49 percent for France, 18
percent for Italy, and 61 percent for Japan.

Taking into consideration all types of vessels, the United States has built only
11 percent of its entire merchant fleet since January 1, 1924. During the same
period Great Britain has built 42 percent, Germany 38 percent, France 25 percent,
Italy 28 percent, and Japan 21 percent.
Gross tonnage of merchant fleets of six principal maritime nations on Jan. 1, 1934,

classified according to age
(Figures are for vessels each of 2,000 gross tons or over. They exclude Great Lakes vessels and the Shipping

Board's idle fleet)

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Source: United States Shipping Board Bureau, Department of Commerce.

MODERN CARGO FLEETS OF PRINCIPAL NATIONS
Cargo vessels make up the largest percentage of the tonnage of the foreign-
trade fleet of the United States. Most of our cargo vessels were built during the
World War period. The small percentage of sea-going freighters built for the
United States since 1922 in contrast with such vessels built for Great Britain,
Germany, France, and Japan is shown on chart 6.

In the building of modern cargo vessels, Great Britain is far ahead of every
other principal maritime nation. From January 1, 1922, to January 1, 1934,
about 4,900,000 gross tons of cargo vessels have been built for British ownership
as compared with 925,000 gross tons for Germany, 450,000 gross tons for Japan,
310,000 gross tons for France, and only 113,000 gross tons for the United States.

While, as a result of the Merchant Marine Act of 1928, 32 vessels of the com-
bination type were built under the mail-contract provisions of the act and 10
others under the construction-loan provisions, nevertheless, no cargo vessels
except 2 freight-car carriers were constructed as a result of the act. Conse-
quently, the participation of the United States in the construction of cargo ton-
nage since 1928 has been much less than that of other nations.

Cumulative gross tonnage of sea-going freighters built since Jan. 1, 1922, at the

beginning of each year from 1923 to 1934, inclusive

(Vessels each of 2,000 gross tons or over)

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Source: United States Shipping Board Bureau, Department of Commerce.

MERCHANT TONNAGE BUILT IN PRINCIPAL NATIONS SINCE THE BEGINNING OF 1928

Chart 7 shows the merchant tonnage under construction in five principal maritime nations at the end of each quarter since the beginning of 1928.

At the beginning of 1928 there were under construction in the shipyards of Great Britain about 1,580,000 gross tons of ships while in the United States the tonnage under construction was not over 100,000 gross tons. From the beginning of 1929 to 1931 the merchant tonnage under construction in the United States increased gradually to a peak of 300,000 gross tons on June 30, 1931 but thereafter it declined rapidly until it reached á low of practically zero on July 30, 1933.

The chart also shows the comparatively large amount of construction performed in shipyards of Great Britain for foreign account during recent years. Out of 1,580,000 gross tons under construction in British shipyards on January 1, 1928, not over 1,200,000 gross tons were for British account, the balance being for the account of other nations. The green area on the chart shows the extent of British building for the ownership of other nations. The United States has built practically no vessels for foreign account since the World War.

Merchant tonnage, in gross tons of vessels each of 100 gross tons or over, unde construction in 5 principal maritime nations since the beginning of 1928

(Source: Lloyd's Register of shipping.)

Great Britain

Date

United
States

Japan

France

Germany

Total un-
der con-
struction

Under con-
struction,

British
account

472, 248

407, 433, 375 382, 42 408,

231,1

Dec. 31, 1927 Mar. 31, 1928. June 30, 1928. Sept. 30, 1928 Dec. 31, 1928. Mar. 31, 1929 June 30, 1929 Sept. 30, 1929 Dec. 31, 1929. Mar. 31, 1930. June 30, 1930. Sept. 30, 1930 Dec. 31, 1930 Mar. 31, 1931. June 30, 1931. Sept. 30, 1931. Dec. 31. 1931. Mar. 31, 1932 June 30, 1932. Sept. 30, 1932. Dec. 31, 1932. Mar. 31, 1933.

97, 370 56, 049 55, 502 64, 572 47, 949 96, 438 119,098 112, 010 179, 062 222, 974 238, 163 212, 974 232, 030 231, 003 301, 489 261, 364 207, 837 206, 703 162, 203 124, 703 59, 628 31, 128

1,579, 713 1, 440, 842 1, 202, 610 1,089, 760 1, 242, 794 1, 357, 375 1, 453, 006 1, 448, 355 1, 500, 254 1, 614, 993 1, 392, 063 1, 116, 746

908, 902
693, 814
555, 603
417, 385
400, 505
372, 973
280, 692
238, 433
225, 497
252, 401

1, 182, 072
1,035, 298

900, 466
789, 778
953, 464

969, 226
1, 180, 356
1, 116, 440

911, 714 973, 840 810, 016 668, 947 618, 506 468, 312 387, 138 320, 835 284, 390 259, 183 191, 974 164, 467 145, 746 187, 005

68, 870 91, 775 111, 325 99, 257 118, 580 147, 010 179, 968 156, 810 183, 570 167,055 121, 607 104, 250 86.060 57, 200 46, 269 32, 620 53, 280 46, 770 43, 669 46, 441 63, 345 55, 570

115, 029 103, 494 125,984 138, 362 161, 566 155, 351 139, 316 135, 776 167, 177 182, 930 186, 960 209, 307 174, 215 232, 115 211, 940 169, 720 164, 440 156, 760 128, 128 109,285 101, 675 97, 489

194,90

185, 251 130, 651 113, 478 108,91 103.888 10%, 500 80.770 8Q 316 52, 53

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