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Merchant tonnage, in gross tons of vessels each of 100 gross tons or over, under

construction in 5 principal maritime nations since the beginning of 1928-Con.

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COMPARISON OF TONNAGE, SPEED AND AGE OF PRINCIPAL MERCHANT FLEETS The strength of a merchant fleet cannot be measured by gross tonnage alone. The questions of speed and age must be taken into account.

In order to show the relative standing of the merchant fleets of various nations, table V is here introduced.

TABLE V.-Comparison of merchant fleets of principal nations from the standpoint

of size, speed, and age [This table applies to vessels, each of 2,000 gross tons or over, pormally employed in the carriage of goods

and passengers in the international trade, as of Dec. 31, 1933)

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Source: United States Shipping Board Bureau, Department of Commerce.

Table V is very informative, as it shows that while from the standpoint of tonnage the United States merchant fleet stands second, from the standpoint of speed it stands fifth and from the standpoint of age it stands eighth.

The merchant fleet of Great Britain stands first in each case and from the standpoint of both speed and age the merchant fleets of Japan, Germany, and France stand ahead of the United States.

VESSELS BUILDING OR RECENTLY BUILT ABROAD

Reports in the technical press of contracts recently placed in the shipyards of Great Britain show considerable activity in the construction of cargo vessels of plain or refrigerated types and of oil tankers as shown on table VI.

During the past 5 years the construction of high-speed cargo vessels built by Japan is particularly interesting. Most of this tonnage has been constructed in accordance with the ship construction act passed by the Japanese Imperial Diet in September 1932, which allocated 11,000,000 yen for the replacement of 400,000 gross tons of obsolete vessels with 200,000 gross tons of modern highspeed cargo vessels. Many of the new vessels which have been constructed are reported to have developed a speed of 18 knots on trial.

Table VII shows that from the beginning of 1929 to the middle of 1934 there have been built in Japan no less than 39 cargo vessels of high speed, representing a total tonnage of 277,000 gross tons. While these vessels were built ostensibly for the silk trade they would be effective as naval auxiliaries in time of a national emergency.

Table VIII gives factual information in regard to some of these modern motor ships built under the Japanese ship improvement facilities act and shows the total subsidy under which these vessels were built.

TABLE VI.-Cargo vessels and tankers under construction in shipyards of Great

Britain on July 15, 1934

[Figures are for vessels each of 2,000 gross tons or over]

Type

Total
Num-

gross
ber of tons
vessels (approx.

imate)

Owner

Builder

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6,640 Not reported..

Bartram & Sons, Ltd. 8, 500 Hadley Shipping Co., Ltd.. Blythswood Shipbuilding Co.

Ltd. 10,000 Booth Line...

Cammell Laird & Co., Ltd. 10, 800 Ellerman Lines, Ltd.

Do.
9,000 B.J. Sutherland & Co., Ltd. Doxford & Sons, Ltd.
7,820 Anchor-Brocklebank. Wm. Hamilton & Co., Ltd.
6,000 Maclay & Macintyre. David & William Henderson, Ltd.
8.000
P. Henderson & Co.

Do.
7,400 H. Hogarth & Sons, Ltd.
5,500
Chr. Salvesen & Co.

Do.
5,000 British Phosphates Com. Lighgows, Ltd.

missioners.
5,000 Maclay & Macintyre..

Do.
5,000
--...do...

Alex, Stephen & Sons, Ltd.
93, 660

Do.

1

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8, 500

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8,500 C. & D. Line (Port Wynd. | George Brown & Co.

ham).
14, 200 Union Castle Line.. Harland & Wolff, Ltd.
32, 400 Blue Star Line.

Do.
32, 400 Shaw, Savill & Albion.

Do.
C. & D. Line...

Swan, Hunter & Wigham Ricbard.

son, Ltd. 96,000 11, 600 Eagle Oil & Shipping Co.... Blythswood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd 11,000 ...do...

Furness Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 7,800 Anglo-Saxon Co..

Harland & Wolff, Ltd.
7,400 Eagle Oil & Shipping Co.... Do.
11,000

R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.,

Ltd. 12, 100Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richard.

do...--

Do..

1

son, Ltd.
11,000 Eagle Oil & Shipping Co... Do.
12,000 Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Workman, Clark (1933), Ltd.
12,000
- do.

Lithgow's, Ltd.
11,000 Eagle Oil & Shipping Co.... Do.
106, 900
296, 560

Do..
Do.
Do...
Do...

1
1
1
1

Total..
Grand total.

10
36

(Source: Foreign Technical Press.)
15,000 gross tons each.
* 4,000 gross tons each.
33,700 gross tons each.

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TABLE VII.-High-speed Japanese cargo vessels built or building since the beginning of 1929

Name or vessel

Lloyds Register dimensions

(in feet)

Gross tons

Trial speed

Owner

Builder

-do.

Sydney Maru.

380.0 x 54,5 x 34.2.

5, 425
Kohwa Maru.

417.0 x 56.0 x 31.7.

5,879
Hide Maru..

400.9 x 53.0 x 31.0.

5, 256 Heiyo Maru.

460.0 x 60.0 x 40.5

9,816
Kinai Maru.

446,0 x 60.5 x 40.7.

8, 360 Tokai Maru..

446,0 x 60.5 x 40.7.

8,360
Sanyo Maru.

446,0 x 60.5 x 40.7.

8, 360 Hokuroku Maru.

446.0 x 60.5 x 40.7

8, 360 Kwento Maru.

461.7 x 61.5 x 39.7.

8, 607 Kwansai Maru.

461.7 x 61.5 x 39.7.

8, 614 Ryoyo Maru.

415.0 x 56.0 x 31.8.

5, 974 Soyo...

415.0 x 56.0 x 31.8.

6,081
Shohei Maru

437.0 x 58.0 x 35.0.

7, 256 Kirishima Maru.

443.1 x 60.0 x 30.0.

5, 959 Katsuragi Maru

443.6 x 60.0 x 30.0.

5, 840 Koryu Maru..

436.4 x 58.5 x 32.8.

6, 680 Kurama Maru.

438.0 x 58.0 x 33.4.

6, 791 Johore Maru.

411.7 x 56.0 x 32.5.

6,181
Nagoya Maru.

406.8 x 55.5 x 32,5.

6, 050 Nankai Maru.

446,8 x 60.5 x 40.7.

8, 416 Kosei Maru..

436.4 x 58.5 x 32.8.

6, 666 Hokkai Maru

446.8 x 60,5 x 40.7.

8, 416 Azumasan Maru.

454,0 x 60.0 x 37.0.

7, 614 Uyo Maru..

436.4 x 58.5 x 32.8.

7, 504 Amagisan Maru.

454.0 x 60.0 x 37.0.

7, 624 Komaki Maru.

453,6 x 61.0 x 30.0.

6,648
Koyei Maru

436,4 x 58.5 x 32.8.

6, 774 Shinshu Maru.

360.5 x 50.0 x 29.0.

4,000
Kano Maru

450,0 x 61.0 x 40.0.

6, 990
Nichiyo Maru.

436.3 x 58.5 x 32.8.

7, 509
Getsuyo Maru.

435.0 x 58,5 x 32.8.

7, 450
Kiyosumi Maru.

450,0 x 61.0 x 40.0.

7,000
Kongo Maru.

450.0 x 61.0 x 40.0.

7,000
Nagara Maru.

446.0 x 62.3 x 34.4.

7, 300 Naruto Maru.

146,0 x 62.3 x 34.4.

7, 300
Nako Maru..

446,0 x 62.3 x 34.4.

7, 300
Noto Maru..

446.0 x 62.3 x 34.4.

7, 300
Nojiro Maru.

446.0 x 62.3 x 34.4.
Nojama Maru........

7, 300 446.0 x 62.3 x 34.4.

7, 300 Total.. 39 vessels.

277, 260 Source: National Council of American Shipbuilders, August 1934.

Knots

14 Osaka Shosen Kaisha.
14 Sbowa Shosen Kaisha.
14 | Tochiki Shoji Kaisha
16 Nippon Yusen Kaisha..
18 Osaka Shosen Kaisha.
18

.do.
18 .do.
18 ..do.
16 Kishimoto Kisen Kajsha.
16 do.
14 Toyo Kisen Kaisha.
14
16 Shimatani Kisen Kaisha.
18 Kokusai Kisen Kaisha.
18 .do.
18 | Hiroumi Shoji Kaisha.
15 Kokusai Kisen Kaisha.
16 Ishihara Gomei Kaishs.
16

.do.
18 Osaka Shosen Kaisha.
16 Hiroumi Shoji Kaisha.
18 Osaka Shosen Kaisha.
18 Mitsui Bussan Kaisha.
16 Toyo Kisen Kaisha..
18 Mitsui Bussan Kaisha..
18 Kokusai Kisen Kaisha..
16 Takachiho Shosen Kaisha..
16 Azuma Kisen Kaisha.
18 Kokusai Kisen Kaisha.
16 Toyo Kisen Kaisha.
16

do.
18 Kokusai Kisen Kaisha
18

do.
18 Nippon Yusen Kaisha.
18

do..
18 do.
18 do
18 do
18 do

(b) Higher cost of officers, crew, and shore staff.-A recent analysis by the American Steamship Owners' Association shows differences in the wage scales for seagoing personnel of maritime nations as shown on table I.

There is also a somewhat higher cost of subsistence on American vessels brought about by the requirement of the navigation laws of the United States.

Ship repairs are affected in the same manner as shipbuilding by the higher wage scales in the United States and consequently the cost of repairs in this country is higher than abroad. With a view to giving employment to labor in American ship repair yards and in American industries that furnish materials for ship repairs Congress, in the Tariff Act of 1930, imposed an ad valorem duty of 50 percent on the cost of repairs performed on American vessels in foreign countries.

The cost of shore staffs for ship operation, together with the cost of operating floating equipment for the handling of cargo, is also affected by the wage scales in this country and is consequently higher than abroad.

Ship operating charges of interest on investment, insurance, and depreciation of the vessel are all factors of the cost of the ship itself, and it is for this reason that the cost of the ship, which is a capital charge, plays such an important part in the higher cost of operation to the American owner.

Figures show that from 60 percent to 80 percent of the total operating differtial, varying with different services and ships, is due to the higher cost of the ship itself.

Conversely the higher operating cost of all other items on American ships ranges from 40 percent down to 20 percent of the total differential depending again upon the services in question and the particular ships involved.

GOVERNMENT AID TO SHIPPING To encourage the development and operation of privately owned ships in foreign trade the Government must in some manner compensate the owner for the higher cost of the ship itself, for the higher cost of its operation, and for the subsidies paid to foreign competitors by their respective governments.

Throughout our history as a Nation shipping has been aided in some form or other, at first through discriminating duties and tonnage taxes, later through compensation for the carriage of mails and at the present time through mail contracts and construction loans. Under past and under existing laws aid has been granted directly to the ship operator to compensate him for his differential in cost.

A form of aid by which the Government would assume directly the higher cost of a ship in the United States over one built abroad is practicable and would in such a case become a direct subsidy by the Government to the shipbuilder.

Foreign countries have adopted almost every conceivable kind of subsidy both to the shipbuilder and to the operator to encourage the home building of ships and their operation in foreign trade under their respective flags.

Government aid to American shipping is justified because the development and growth of our foreign trade and the control of our freight rates to foreign markets are matters of national importance, affecting all of our people through the products which we sell abroad and through the foreign goods which we buy for domestic use. Further justification lies in the fact that American merchant vessels are auxiliaries for our Navy and are, therefore, an important factor in national defense.

Since the World War our foreign trade has averaged from 8 percent to 12 percent of our total business. In many of our industries this may be just the difference in the volume of business to show a profit instead of a loss and as such it is believed to play a very important part in the maintenance of the high standards of living in the United States and in our national welfare.

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Shipbuilding is an important national asset for any maritime nation. It exists for the building of both merchant and naval vessels, and in both cases it gives employment to labor.

It is inconceivable that the American merchant marine should be developed and maintained by ships other than those built in American shipyards. All vessels receiving Government aid are built to certain specific requirements for quick conversion to national needs in a time of emergency. For this reason their plans must be prepared by our own designers and the work must be subject to the approval of the various Government departments and other agencies prescribing requirements for merchant shipbuilding.

strument is perfect as to the nerruity of builting Gosernment vessels in € naparte

Intball shows the news of private alıprande lor the build.nk of naval parls in A bolterof war of a favtal: 200 crise fr9 te frip naval pa rin place during the for**capatista vel thar lite state in the Wofie! War 24.3 were ananited to private ausgestatie and extaly 17 to conteftinent navy varde TABLE II - (nutracta pared for naral resses in the l'nited States from A por 8, 1917,

to lor. 11, 1912

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Bow Skipu' Data l'ailed States Navy Iepartment, July 1, 1024

Heship in American slip arts gises en plin mene to American labor. 01.lv atrust one hall of the cut of a sup 1 expued within the shapsard, the other hat being broails distributed ail over the l nited states to those industries er and it making materials and equipiesit from which the ship is constructed. At least we preend and brutal is a larket prertage of the total cat of builing

s!..p is further move pand irreth or liedirectly wi lalu in pruniucurig materials and equiprue:.6 or isi labncate the ship itd. Teu muiuin donan copeuded annually in the buildig of stops will give employment to approximately 5,000 fetes a year.

Anir NEPI ALMINT PROGRAM in oprep for it to be effective, any merchant manne program must provide for

tramitalise trpiace text of old skife that has become olette by modern slutna that are up to date. Forriga tabia keep their slupping up k date by * ensinatie metditwon of new tonlar protirally.

i he average life of a ship which is limited by wear and tear, obsleecetiap or cas", alts 8 ks. rally wanted to be almal 20 years and it should be repiaced it's that tunne

Itae atual Council of American Sptnlters has made a study of the future requirements of shipping for furrwti tra le On the colorative basis of kital imsmart a'd rapist tra le of $3.500 (0anual, ali ahtlis carriage u saob v or thrill of dutinde als Our 03. st., a po! ii orta lauclu unts at the LPT it latvie, the appupuntate ano rit of time to be res, sed alias in of jer to fal.caun o'ir atapps in foreign tror is at least 13)) gruas tsa year. It is inspiratise that much a trpiacrmei.t program be undertaart, without dav Part II, which follas, presets an aralysis of wurld sluppdrag

Part II. World Bairriso Tur tontage of wrid akippir.se teprve in ferrian trade is de wett upon the vol.11,e of water te tra le came between the nate the wist!! T!, listed states is portar's intenstei in siiperi trole, that is, its carriage of ita 1911 impuitte arrituta, it is integrated otils to a very lunitedi extent in indirect trade, that is, its carriage of kiwis between ot ber nations. PER ENTAGE OF OUR WATER-DOBNE FOREIGN TRADE ( ALBIED IN OUR OWN VLABELS

(hart 1 us the value of wir water-title furrogn tra le fine the year 1972 to 19.53 inelove. With the erreption of the sean 1932 and 1933 !r anrund value of this trade las not entres san $397000) (01.11.1:, ****** hase married to the 33 pret to 365 pmore: tbs inlce in sit*

nde (art 11n informatieberause it shows that for the past 12 yean the sense is of foresan natane have carried over 63 prent of the watet burtie furrign trade of the United States

It is the mai inte of Congress that we should have a merchant marine riffelrnt to carry the greater im sto ou por cortisti.fpre in our own perle T.15 mrans that we shouid carry at least 50 puterit, aithrigh an st.1*n by the elart we have not carried more than ju 5 procent during any year since 1922

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