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Mr. HADDOCK. If he says his service is bad, then the man has to go through quite a bit to get his service changed if it is not correct.

The CHAIRMAN. Is not the master required to sign every discharge certificate that is issued when a sailor is discharged ?

Mr. HADDOCK. Theoretically, I have signed several thousand of them myself.

The CHAIRMAN. But the master is required to sign them?

Mr. HADDOCK. He is required to sign them. This particular case that I referred to here of licenses—I do not intend to try to argue as to the merits of whether the men acted in a manner becoming an officer on board these vessels where these two cases were involved, but the fact remains they could not get their licenses signed. In the meantime, they must remain unemployed until I come down to Washington and present facts to the Federal Communications Commission whereby they may be reinstated or their licenses revoked.

Mr. SIROVICH. This bill says so far as seamen are concerned he must sign them.

Mr. HADDOCK. That would be the same question.

Mr. SIROVICH. I think we should amend that, Mr. Chairman, to compel them to sign the papers of the radio officer the same way, and if there is anything bad they can take it up later.

Mr. HADDOCK. If this book is going to be passed upon radio operators, it will not be necessary to have a license any more, in my opinion. If such a book is adopted, I think that all licenses should be abolished and a page specifically placed in the book stating whether or not a man is a master or chief engineer or radio officer or what not.

Mr. SIROVICH. Who is to give him the license that will qualify him as a radio operator?

Mr. HADDOCK. The departments that do that at the present time.

Mr. SIROVICH. It is your theory that once he gets that license he shall have his continuous discharge book which works automatically just the same as has the seaman?

Mr. HADDOCK. Certainly. I am not_familiar with the type of licenses by all other governments, but I am familiar with that in Mexico, as an example. The Mexican Government in licensing radio officers gives them a book somewhat similar to the radio-marine red book, which contains the man's service record and his license right in the book. He can carry that book with him wherever he goes, and he will always have his service record and his license in one.

The CHAIRMAN. This, however, would be very valuable to the sailor whose record was uniformly shown to be good, would it not?

Mr. HADDOCK. I am not so sure of that; no. We have radio officers in our organization who have been given medals for commemorable acts, yet those same radio officers are on the blacklist today.

The CHAIRMAN. I said uniformly through a period of years his service is shown to be good.

Mr. HADDOCK. No; I do not agree with that.

The CHAIRMAN. Does not this continuous discharge book put him in a very advantageous position in the matter of employment !

Mr. HADDOCK. I do not think so, not insofar as the shipping companies are concerned, because experience has shown me that they pretty generally have employed their seamen without regard to their service. They were not interested in the service. In a great number

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of cases it seems as though they were interested in perpetuating what are known as the “ finkhalls".

Mr. SIROVICH. What does that mean?
Mr. HADDOCK. Where seamen have to ship, at the different halls,
or different rooming houses.

The CHAIRMAN. You mean sort of a crimp proposition?
Mr. HADDOCK. That is what it is, a crimp hall.

Mr. LEHLBACH. If the shipping operators are not interested in a man's service record, why is the service record a blacklist?

Mr. HADDOCK. I did not understand that, sir. Mr. LEHLBACH. If the ship owners in picking crews are not interested in a man's service record as shown by his discharges, then how do those discharges or how does a book containing all of the discharges become a blacklist!

Mr. HADDOCK. Because it gives them information concerning a man that they will use to his detriment, regardless of his service. I just stated that we have members in our organization who are blacklisted, yet who have the very best of records, and who have commemoraħle records with years of experience.

Mr. LEHLBACH. Then the blacklist is not based on the service record ?

Mr. HADDOCK. No; it is not based upon whether or not a man is a good man or not. It is based upon the information which you have. We radio operators have been operating ever since the old MarconiMorgan Co. started over here, under what is known as the “ service record book.” We still have one. I am sorry I do not have mine here

Mr. LEHLBACH. You say a good record in the service record book noes not cut any ice with respect to improving a man's chance for employment ?

Mr. HADDOCK. It does not mean that that man will be given preference over a man who has a very poor record.

Mr. LEHLBACH. But that he may be ostracized, he may be blacklisted for reasons that do not appear in the service book at all?

Mr. HADDOCK. Absolutely.
Mr. LEHLBACH. Therefore, the service book is not a blacklist.

Mr. HADDOCK. It acts very much as a blacklist, because if a man had to present his book before the employer--to give an example of that, when I was assigning radio operators in one of the cities down in Texas, a man came in for assignment and gave me his book. I had his name, and so forth, on the blacklist that was submitted by the company. He gave me his book. I had to take that book and compare it with the record.

If I were employing those men as to their service and only as to their service, I would

take their license, see that they have had so many years of experience, that their license says that they are qualified to do such and such work, and that is as far as I would go. That is as far as I am interested. If you are qualified to do the job, you should get it without regard to any blacklists that are

Mr. LEHLBACH. Yes; but what I am trying to get at is, you have voiced

your opposition to the service books on the ground that they constituted a blacklist. Then you testified that the man's service as

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evidenced by his book or by his discharges has nothing to do with whether he is to be hired or not, that that is dependent upon extraneous records. Then why the objection to the service book if it is not used for that purpose ?

Mr. HADDOCK. I do not believe I said it had nothing to do with it. I said it did not always hold that those who have commendable records will be given preference. I did not say that those who have a mark against them would not be further discriminated against.

Mr. SIROVICH. Take a great organization like the International Mercantile Marine, who have radio operators upon their ships. What is the usual length of service of the average radio operator? Does he work for 6 months, a year, 2 years, or 3 years, or do they change them every month?

Mr. HADDOCK. He works by the trip, but they change them only when they find some cause to do so.

Mr. Strovich. Let us take that big organization, since you stated pretty nearly every one of the steamship companies have a blacklist. What percentage of the men did they discharge within a period of a year or two?

Mr. HADDOCK. I would say the International Mercantile Marine probably discharge two or three persons a year—that is, radio officers.

Mr. SIROVICH. Out of how many working there?
Mr. HADDOCK. They probably have something like 50, I guess.

Mr. SIROVICH. Is not that a very small proportion, less than in any other business or industry?

Mr. HADDOCK. Aside from what they discharge, the Radio Marine Corporation will probably remove 10 or 12, and there will probably be a turn-over of some 25 or 30 more because of the

poor conditions in that particular company.

Mr. RABAUT. According to that only 20 would keep their jobs for the period, or less than 20.

Mr. HADDOCK. Approximately that.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you finished, Mr. Haddock?
Mr. HADDOCK. Add a subsection to section 1006 under “ Confer-

to read as follows: The Authority shall endeavor to promote treaties with foreign governments wherein the subsidies shall be equalized, minimized, and eliminated, and shall. when a deduction is made in subsidies by a foreign government, reduce the subsidy to any American company in competition with such foreign lines in a proportionate amount.

It is obvious that subsidies which are granted by our Government will tend to increase subsidies granted by foreign governments, just as have their subsidies caused us to grant subsidies. If each nation is to enter into a subsidy war, there is to be nothing gained except perhaps the granting of lower rates to the exporters, which would permit them to sell their goods at a rate which is lower in foreign countries, thus making the American taxpayer suffer for the benefit of the foreign public.

We have already seen the disastrous results to the taxpayer of the armament war and should utilize this lesson and do everything pos. sible not only to prevent a subsidy war but to entirely eliminate the subsidy through international negotiations.

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Just in connection with that I would like to cite a peculiar circumat ma stance which I noticed in 1927 or 1928 concerning “Sun-Maid” borkés raisins, with which all of you no doubt are familiar from the old

phrase, “ Have you had your raisins ? ” At that time those raisins to d were selling in the United States for 15 cents per box. In Germany

the same raisins were selling for 7 cents a box, which was due entirely
to the fact that they could be shipped to Germany in American bot-
toms under a subsidy at this lower rate, having the American taxpayer
pay the difference to the company.
That is all I have.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions?
O OM

Thank you very much, Mr. Haddock.

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STATEMENT OF C. A. ABELE, CAPTAIN, UNITED STATES NAVY,
RETIRED, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS NAUTI.
CAL SCHOOL

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Captain ABELE. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, a perut what I wanted to say was pretty well covered by Congressman

Walter, but he recommended the removal of the last sentence of section 802, page 36, beginning on line 19. I would suggest that that be changed somewhat as follows:

Add the words: “ Provided nothing in this section shall interfere with the present activities of the existing State nautical schools."

I have a fairly short statement which I would like to present to $ $22" the committee:

The U. S. S. Nantucket, ex-Ranger, is the school ship of the

Massachusetts Nautical School. She is an auxiliary bark of 1,261 protons' displacement, a coal-burning steamer,

The complement of cadets is 118. Classes are entered in April and October. The course is 2 years. Both deck and engineering courses are provided. Cadets choose the courses they desire to follow.

The school was started in 1893. Since that time there have been graduated 1,674 cadets, 893 deck and 781 engineer. From 1919 to date 824 cadets have been graduated. During the World War some 500 graduates were in the Government service, more than 300 serving as officers in the United States Naval Reserve, and some 150 in Shipping Board ships. Besides the $25,000 granted the school annually by the Federal Government, the ship has been maintained at the following cost during the years noted for which data is available: Year: 1

Repairs 17, 066 15, 102 31,512 14, 375 39, 847 12, 037 19, 690 29, 180

16, 070 1934, Equipient averages about $1,500 per year.

1923. 1926. 1927 1928. 1929 1930 1931. 1932. 1933

None this year.

13595635-31

During the above years cadets were graduated as follows:

48 41

1925. 1926. 19271928 1929. 1930. 1931 1932 1933. 1934.

52 52 57 45 70 40

With the States interested conducting the schools, the cost to the Federal Government must be less than if the Government were to take over the entire work of educating young men for the merchant marine. Education has been traditionally a function of the States. The Federal Government has educated for the national defense, and its wards. If the Federal Government undertakes to educate for the shipping industry, it will probably not be long before other industries demand Federal schools. There are many land-grant colleges throughout the country. Support of State nautical schools is in a way complementary to Federal support of such colleges.

If a National Merchant Marine Academy were to be established students would be admitted from all parts of the country. It is doubtful that those from inland States would continue to follow the sea after graduation. Graduates can hardly be assured of jobs upon graduation as are graduates of Annapolis and the Coast Guard Academy. It is believed that they would soon drift back home. Men whose homes are near the ports that their ships touch are the ones more likely to continue to follow the sea.

The Massachusetts Nautical School is well regarded in the State. The State legislature provides generously for its operation. Applicants for training exceed vacancies three to five times. All sections of the Commonwealth are represented in the school's enrollment. During the past year 78 towns and cities were represented by students in attendance. Cadets enter the school by competitive examination. With such excess of candidates over vacancies to be filled there is good selection. The merchant marine cannot afford to lose such material.

Cadets live on board the Nantucket throughout the course under ship routine and discipline. An intensive school schedule, both theoretical and practical, is conducted during the winter months, from November 1 to April 1. The ship cruises from early in May till late in September. School is conducted during the cruise as weather and ship's work permits. About one-third of the voyage is made under sail alone, and even when steaming, sail is used much of the time. Pulling boats are used almost entirely. The aim of the school is to prepare young men to be seamen, firemen, and oilers, as well as officers. The success of the school is attested by the fact that thoughout the depression graduates have consistently gotten jobs. Practically all have been placed within 2 months of graduation.

Whatever the committee may recommend with regard to the proposed National Merchant Marine Academy, it is hoped that it will in no way jeopardize the Massachusetts Nautical School, which has been

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