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It will be noted that there has been a decided increase in the
percentage of samples falling below the standard as laid down in "An act relating to the adulteration of foods and drugs in the District of Columbia," approved February 17, 1898. This condition is due probably to the fact that during a portion of the last half of the year this department was unable to prosecute cases of violation of the aforesaid act, because of a ruling made in the police court to the effect that as the food and drugs act of June 30, 1906, provided that analyses of foods and drugs shall be made in the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture, or under the direction and supervision of such bureau, for the purpose of determining from such examination whether such articles are adulterated within the meaning of said act, and that the evidence in a case brought before said court showed that the analysis had not been made in said bureau or under its direction or supervision, the testimony offered by the prosecuting analyst was deemed incompetent for that reason. The case was dismissed, the prosecuting attorney noting an exception to the ruling preparatory to taking an appeal to the higher court.
TABLE III.—Percentage of samples of milk 3 per cent fat and below.
It will be observed that the per cent of samples coming within this class and collected about the city is higher than that found during the previous two years, while a decrease is noted in those collected at the railroad stations.
Cream.-Of the samples of cream examined 292 were collected about the city; 45 from the Baltimore and Ohio station, 38 from the Southern station, and 6 elsewhere. Of this number 52.74 per cent of those about the city, 68.89 per cent from the Baltimore and Ohio station, and 44.74 per cent from the Southern Railway station were below the legal standard. Comparison with the three previous years is as follows:
TABLE IV.-Percentage of samples of cream collected from various sources.
The following table shows the percentage of samples containing 18 per cent and less of butter fat:
TABLE V.-Percentage of samples of cream 18 per cent and below.
For the sale of adulterated milk 117 cases were referred to the police court for prosecution. Collateral was forfeited in 95 cases, fines imposed in 10 cases, 4 were acquitted, and a nolle prosequi entered in 2 cases.
Fines and forfeitures for the sale of adulterated milk amounted to $690. In 34 cases prosecutions were instituted because water had been added to the milk. Of the 4 cases acquitted 2 succeeded in proving to the satisfaction of the court that they were not dealers in milk within the meaning of the law; in 1 case the defendant was a grocer, and proved that he sold the sample in the original container and had a guarantee from the dealer from whom he bought milk. A warrant was subsequently issued against the milkman, who forfeited a collateral. The remaining case was acquitted because the evidence showed that the analyses had not been made under the direction or supervision of the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture. An appeal was noted by the prosecuting attorney in this case. Two cases were nolle prossed because of the inability of the police department to find the defendants.
For the sale of adulterated cream 38 cases were referred to the police court for prosecution. Of these, 31 forfeited collateral, 2 were fined, and 5 were acquitted. Forfeitures and fines for the sale of adulterated cream amounted to $235. Five cases were acquitted because the assistant making the analyses was not deemed competent by the court, notwithstanding that the evidence showed that he had been trained by two chemists in this particular line of chemical work, and that he had made at least 20,000 such analyses during a period of about seven years. Because of this action on the part of the court a large number of informations, which had been filed in the office of the prosecuting attorney, were withdrawn, and do not appear therefore in the following table:
ANALYSIS OF WATER.
Three hundred and fifty-two samples of water were examined during the year, as follows:
Of the samples of water from public wells 40.32 per cent were condemned, 11.29 per cent were pronounced suspicious, and 48.38 per cent showed no evidence of injurious contamination.
Of the samples from private wells 41.66 per cent were condemned, 12.50 per cent were pronounced suspicious, and 45.83 per cent showed no evidence of injurious contamination.
Of the samples from public-school wells 15.62 per cent were condemned, 25 per cent were pronounced suspicious, and 59.37 per cent showed no evidence of injurious contamination.
Of the samples of water from wells on dairy farms 37.29 per cent were condemned, 10.27 per cent were pronounced suspicious, and 52.43 per cent showed no evidence of injurious contamination.
A sample of Potomac River water was taken near Giesboro Point, near mouth of the outfall sewer, in order to determine whether the water showed evidence of contamination. Such evidence was found.
Bread.—The inspector detailed to obtain the samples visited a number of bakeries, and from each he received four loaves of bread directly after their removal from the oven, three of which were at once wrapped in the following kinds of paper, the ends of the wrappers being sealed with gummed labels: One was wrapped in unsized paper, known to the trade as “32-pound newspaper;" one was wrapped in paper known to the trade as “10-pound onion-skin paper;" and the third loaf was wrapped in “light wax paper." The fourth loaf was not wrapped. The loaves were at once brought to the laboratory, where they were set aside for a period varying from twenty-four to seventytwo hours. When the bread was received it was still warm and the wrappers were more or less damp. At the end of the periods of time specified the wrappers were removed and the bread subjected to certain tests to determine what changes, if any, had taken place. In all, 24 samples were examined.
Attention is invited to the following table:
Condition of samples numbered A 1 to F 4.
Examined at end of 24 hours:
Crumb rather dry; not easily made into bolus.
sweet. Crust dry but not hard; crumb easily made into bolus, and is somewhat
soggy. Crust moderately hard; crumb easily made into bolus, but is not soggy;
odor slightly sour. Crust not hard but is dry; crumb easily made into bolus, but not soggy;
odor slightly sour. Crust dry; crumb easily made into bolus; odor slightly sour. Crust slightly damp; crumb easily made into bolus; odor slightly sour.
Examined at end of 72 hours:
a No. 1, unwrapped; No. 2, unsized paper; No. 3, onion-skin paper; No. 4, paraffin paper. The bread wrapped in unsized paper, and that wrapped in the onionskin paper, appeared to be in better condition for consumption than the unwrapped bread. With the exception of the samples wrapped in paraffin paper, which presented a crust that was rather too moist, little difference was found in the wrapped and unwrapped loaves.
Acidity:-As acidity is an important factor in estimating the quality of bread, this determination was made in all samples. Ten grams of the crumb were triturated with distilled water, and phenol phtalein was used as an indicator, the mixture being titrated with tenth-normal sodium hydrate solution.
Moisture.—For the purpose of determining to what extent, if any, the moisture in the crumb was affected by wrapping the bread, 5 grams of the crumb, finely divided,.were weighed in a tared platinum dish, and placed in a water oven, and allowed to remain there for a period of three hours, then removed to a desiccator, and when cold, weighed, the loss in weight being charged to moisture.
Attention is invited to the following table:
Per cent. No. 1.
2.8 (6) No. 2.
3. 4 (6) No. 3.
2.8 (0) No. 4.
2.8 () Sample B: No. 1.
3.5 40. 72 No. 2.
3.6 41. 36 No. 3..
3.6 41. 36 No. 4.
3.6 40.97 a Cubiccentimeters of tenth-normal sodium hydrate solution required to neutralize 10 grams of the crumb. o Not determined.
It will be noted that neither the degree of acidity nor amount of moisture give any indication as to whether the bread was wrapped or unwrapped.
Nothing was discovered in this examination which would demonstrate the impracticability of wrapping bread in unsized
paper previous to its delivery by the bakers. On the contrary, such bread was found to be in much better condition at the end of twenty-four hours than the unwrapped bread, and in equally as good condition as the fresh loaves.
Butterine.—Two samples of butterine, submitted by the property clerk for the purpose of determining their relative value as food, were examined. The analysis showed that,
Candy.—Just previous to the advent of the Christmas holidays, 72 samples of assorted candies were examined. No injurious substance was found in any sample.
Celery.—Two samples of celery, suspected to have been treated with paris green, were examined. They were found to be free from contamination with the suspected substance.
Cider.-One sample of cider, suspected to contain an excessive amount of alcohol, was examined. The analysis showed it to contain of alcohol, by weight, 1.97 per cent; by volume, 2.05 per cent. It could not be classed, therefore, as an intoxicating beverage.
Ice.-A sample of manufactured ice procured from a wagon on the street was found, on analysis, to be contaminated with organic matter, probably of vegetable origin. An inspection of the ice plant revealed an insanitary condition which was corrected, after action by this department.
Ice cream. Six samples of ice cream were examined, two of which were procured from push carts, and were found to contain 2.43 per