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bån of that year. He was interred in the lesser Karasa cemetery, between the sepulchral chapel of the imâm as-Shâfi and the gate of the Karáfa, near the graves of Ibn al-Kâsim and Ashhâb; I have visited his tomb.—His father (Ali Ibn Nasr) was one of the most eminent scriveners (12) of Baghdad: His brother, Abû 'l-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Nasr was a learned scholar and drew up a work, entitled al-Mufàwida (conversation), for the amusement of al-Malik al-Aziz Jalâl ad-Dawlat Abů Mansûr, the son of Abû Tâhir, the son of Bahâ ad-Dawlat, the son of Adad ad-Dawlat (13) Ibn Buwaih; in this book, which is very interesting and contains about thirty sheets (14), he relates various events of which he had been a witness. He composed also some epistles. His birth took place at Baghdad in one of the months of Jumada, A. II. 372 (A. D. 982); he died on Sunday, the 26th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 437 (November, A. D. 1045) at Wàsit, whither he had gone up from Basra. Their father Abù ’l-Hasan Ali (Ibn Nasr) died on Saturday, the 2nd of Ramadàn, A. H. 391 (July, A. D. 1001).

(1) The city of Rahaba, situated on the Euphrates in lat. 34° 37', at the distance of eight days' journey from Damascus and of five from Aleppo, was founded by Malik Ibn Tauk, one of the khalif ar-Rashid's generals, who was then governor of Mesopotamia.

في شرح الرسالة not وشرح الرسالة I follow the reading of the autography and al-Yall, where I find (2)

All the other MSS. and Hajji Khalifa give the latter reading.

() 1 -, . (3) All the MSS. except the autograph have him; but that has wow. Aba 'l-Kasim Omar Ibn

Sabannak died A. H. 377 (A.D. 987-8).-(Nujům.)

(4) See vol. I. page 401.
(5) It appears from the Marasid, that these two places were situated near an-Nahrawân.
(6) See vol. I. pages 6, 534, and xxvi.

(7) Literally: Its inkhorn wearers. These words signify probably the katibs, or persons employed in the civil service.

(8) The wandering king (al-Malik ad-Dillil); this was a surname given to Amro 'l-Kais, of whom Muhammad said that he was the greatest of all the poets. See my Diwan d'Amro 'l-Kais, page xxiv.

(9) Literally : And filled its land and its sky.

(10) This verse probably means: How can we expect a recompense for our poetical eulogiums, if the sovereign exact from our patrons the little wealth which they possess ?

(11) Isird, a city of Mesopotamia, is situated near the Tigris, at the distance of a day and a half to the south of Maiya farikin.

(12) See vol. I. page 53, note (8).
(13) Ibn Khallikân, in giving this genealogy, has forgotten here the name of Rukn ad-Dawlat Ibn Buwaih.
(14) Sheets, in Arabic Kurrása : see page 98, note (3), of this volume.

THE HAFIZ ABD AL-GHANI IBN SAID.

Abú Muhammad Abd al-Ghani Ibn Said Ibn Ali Ibn Said Ibn Bishr Ibn Marwân Ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Azdi (a member of the tribe of Azd) and a native of Egypt, was the most eminent håfiz of the age in that country. He composed some useful works, such as a Mushtabih an-Nisba, or treatise on those relative adjectives the derivation of which might be mistaken, another on those (geographical) names each of which designate different places (al-Mütalis wa 'l-Mukhtalif), etc. Great numbers studied under him with much profit to themselves. A close intimacy and friendship subsisted between him, Abû Osâma Junada the philologer, and Abû Ali al-Mukri al-Antâki (a teacher of the readings of the Koran and a native of Antioch). These three used to meet at the library (founded by al-Hakim) (1) and discuss literary subjects; but when Abû Osåma and Abû Ali were put to death by al-Håkim the sovereign of Egypt, the hâfiz Abd al-Ghani retired to a place of 423 concealment, lest he should experience the same fate on account of his having frequented their society, and he did not appear in public till he received a full pardon. Of this we have already spoken in the life of Abů Osâma (v.I. p. 337). Abd al-Ghani was born on the 28th of Zù ’l-Hijja, A. H. 332 (August, A. D. 944), and he died at Old Cairo on the eve of Tuesday, the seventh of Safar, 1. H. 409 (June, A. D. 1018): he was interred, the following day, in the Musalla of the Festival (2). It is stated by Abû l-Kasim Yahya Ibn Ali al-Hadrami, surnamed Ibn at-Tahhân, in the historical work designed by him as a continuation to that of Ibn Yûnus al-Misri (see page 93), that Abd al-Ghani Ibn Said was born A. H. 333 (A. D. 944-5). Ilis father Said died A. IJ. 338, aged forty-three years. Abd al-Ghani himself mentioned that he had never received any traditional information from his father, Said.

(1) See vol. I. page 337.

(2) The original text has all her ögres?. I am unable to fix the precise meaning of the word jyća

in this place.

VOL. II.

22

ABD AL-GHIAFIR AL-FARISI.

The hafiz Abù 'l-Hasan Abd al-Ghafir Ibn Ismail Ibn Abd al-Ghasir Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Ghafir Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Said al-Farisi (native of the province of Fars) was a traditionist and a grammarian of the highest rank. At the age of five years he was able to read the Koran, and could repeat the creed in Persian (his native language). Ile studied jurisprudence with great assiduity, during four years, under Abù 'l-Maali Imam al-Ilaramain, the author of the Nihâyat al-Matlab, which is a treatise on the doctrines of the Shasite sect and on points of controversy. He was a daughter's son (1) of the imâm Abû 'lKâsim al-Kùshairi (vol. II. p. 152) and learned from him a great quantity of Traditions, as also from his grandmother Fàtima, the daughter of Abû Ali adDakkåk (see page 152), his maternal uncles Abù Saad and Abû Said, the sons of Abù 'l-Kâsim al-Kushairi, his own parents Abú Abd Allah Ismail and Amat arRahim (the handmaid of the Clement), daughter to Abd al-Karim al-Kushairi, and a great number of other teachers. He then left Naisapùr and proceeded to Khowarczm, where he continued his studies under the most eminent masters of that country, and opened a private course for the instruction of pupils. He travelled from thence to Ghazna, and then to India, teaching the Traditions and explaining (his grandfather's work) the Latdif al-Ishârât (subtle indications) (2). On his return to Naisapúr he officiated as a preacher, and, during a number of years, he gave lessons every Monday evening in the mosque of Akil; he then composed his numerous works, of which the principal are the Mufhim (elucidator), in which he explains the obscure points in the Sahîh of Muslim; the Sikk, or continuation of the Hakim Ibn al-Bai's) history of Naisapûr, which work he finished towards the end of Zù ’l-Kaada, A. H. 518; the Majma 'l-Ghardib (collection of observations little known), in which he elucidates the rare expressions occurring in the Traditions ; he wrote besides many other instructive works. He was born in the month of the latter Rabi, A. H. 451 (May-June, A. D. 1059), and he died at Naisápůr, A. H. 529 (A. D. 1134-5).

(1) The word bemow Sibt signifies a grandson by the female line oil wil the son of the daughter, as the philologists define it. Thus Hasan and Husain were the sibts of Muhammad. A grandson by the male line is a hafid lies. This distinction has generally escaped the attention of orientalists.

(2) According to Hajji Khalifa, this is a commentary on the Koran.

ABU 'L-WAKT AS-SIJAZI.

Abů ’l-Wakt Abd al-Auwal Ibn Abi Abd Allah Isa Ibn Shoaib Ibn Ishak asSijazi knew by heart a great quantity of Traditions handed down from the highest authorities. He lived to an advanced age, and became the link which united the Traditionists of the rising generation to those of the past. In the year 621 (A. D. 1224) I heard al-Bokhåri's Sahih explained by the shaikh Abû Jaafar Muhammad Ibn llibat Allah Ibn al-Mukarram Ibn Abd Allah as-Sùsi, a man of holy life; he taught this work by right of his having studied it at the Nizâmiya College, under the tuition of this Abû 'l-Wakt, in the year 553. [Abû ’l-Wakt had learned it in the month of Zû 'l-Kaada, A. H. 465 (July, A. D. 1073), from Abù l-Hasan Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muzaffar ad-Dawûdi, who taught it with the authorisation of Abû Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hammůya as-Sarakhsi, under whom he studied it in the month of Safar, A.H.381 (April-May, A.D. 991). Ibn Hammûya had been authorised to teach it by his own master Abû Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Yûsuf Ibn Matar al-Ferbari, in A.H. 316 (A.D. 928); and al-Ferbari taught it with the permission of the author al-Bukhàri, under whose tuition he had read it twice; the first time in A. H. 248 (A.D. 862–3), and the second in 252 (A. D. 866)]. (1)– Abû ’l-Wakt led a life of holi

and passed most of his time in the practice of piety. He was born in the 426 month of Zů ’l-Kaada, A. H. 458 (October, A. D. 1066), at Herât, where his father had settled, and he died on the eve of Sunday, the 6th of Zů 'l-Kaada, A. H. 553 (November, A. D. 1158), at Baghdad, where he had arrived on Tuesday, the 21st of Shawwal, A. H. 552, and taken up his abode in the Ribat of Fairûz. He died in that convent, and prayers were said over him there; but afterwards, the funeral service was celebrated in the presence of a great concourse of people, at the principal mosque, by the shaikh Abd al-Kâdir al-Jili (2). He was interred in the Shûnizi Cemetery under the same seat (dakka) in which the body of the celebrated ascetic Ruwaim (3) was deposited. Abù 'l-Wakt commenced learning the Traditions somewhat later than the year 460 (A. H. 1067-8), and he was the sole survivor of those who taught Traditions on the authority of ad-Dawûdi.- His father died between the years 510 and 520 of the Hijra.—Sijazi means belonging to Sijistân, as has been already observed ;

this relative adjective is formed irregularly (4).- My master Abu Jaafar Muhammad Ibn Hibat Allah Ibn al-Mukarram as-Sufi was born on the eve of the 27th of Ramadàn, A. H. 538 (April, A. D. 1144); he died at Baghdad on the eve of the 5th (5) of Muharram, A. H. 621 (January, 1224). He was buried in the Shûnizi Cemetery.

(1) This passage is written in the margin of the autograph. The original text will be found in the appendix to the Arabic edition.

(2) Abû Muhammad Abd al-Kâdir Ibn Abi Salih Mûsa Ibn Abi Abd Allah Abd Allah Ibn Yahya Ibn Muhammad Ibn Dâwûd Ibn Mûsa Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Mûsa Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib al-Jili, surnamed Muhi ad-din (reviver of religion), was one of the most eminent Sofi doctors. By his self-mortification, his piety, and his application to contemplative devotion, he attained the highest degree of holiness, and often received special proofs of God's favour, the veils which concealed the Truth, or Divine presence, having been frequently withdrawn to give him a glimpse of the Being who is the source of all happiness and the sole object worthy of love. Al-Yåsì devotes eleven pages of the Mirdat al-Jinan to the enumeration of his excellencies, and informs us that in another work, the Nashr al-Mahdsin, he has mentioned some of the innumerable miraculous acts which this saint performed by a concession of the Divine grace. Abd al-Kâdir was born at Jil, which is a collection of villages beyond Taberistàn. · This place is called also Kil, Kilân, and Jilân, whence the surnames of Jili, Kili, Jilâni, and Kilàni, which are given to him by different writers. It may here be observed that there was a village bearing the name of Kil, and lying on the bank of the Tigris at a day's journey from Baghdad, on the road to Wasit; this place was also called Jil. Hence originated the terms Jil al-Ajam (Persian Jil) to mark the place of Abd al-Kâdir's birth, and Jil alIrak to designate this latter place. Another Jil existed near al-Madáin. Abd al-Kâdir's mother bore the name of Omm al-Khair Fâtima; she was a woman of holy life and the daughter of a man celebrated for his piety and his progress in Såfism, Abd Abd Allah Rizk Allah Ibn Abd al-Wahhåb as-Sümài slugell

. Abd al-Kâdir was born A. H. 471 (A. D. 1078-9); he went to Baghdad in 488 (A. D. 1095), and died in that city (where he held the place of guardian of Abû Hanifa's tomb), A. H. 561 (A D. 1165-6). The order of dervishes called after him the Kadris, acknowledges him as its founder.

(3) Abû Muhammad or Abû 'l-Hasan Ruwaim Ibn Ahmad Ibn Zaid Ibn Ruwaim, an eininent Sufi and a native of Baghdad, was a disciple of al-Junaid. He was also distinguished as a hasz, a koran-reader (according to the system of Nafì), and a doctor of the law, in which he was a Zahirite, or follower of the imâm Dâwûd al-Ispahậni. His master al-Junaid esteemed him highly, and used to say of him, alluding to their application to spiritual exercises ; “Ruwaim was busy when at leisure, but we others were leisurely in our * business.”

) -(Al-Yâfi.- Ad-Dahabi.) (4) The regular form would be Sijistani.

الخامس Read (5)

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