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creased to an immense multitude. Their belief in his sanctity was so excessive that, in saying their prayers they took him for their kibla (1) and imagined that, for the next life, they would have in him their most precious treasure and their best support. Before this, he had followed as a disciple a great number of eminent shaikhs and men remarkable for their holiness; he then retired from the world and fixed his residence in the mountain of the Hakkâri tribe, near Mosul, where he built a cell (or monastery) and gained the favour of the people in that country to a degree unexampled in the history of the anchorites. It is said that the place of his birth was a village called Bait Fàr, situated in the province of Baalbek, and that the house in which he was born is still visited (as a place of sanctity. He died A.H. 557 (A.D. 1162), or, as some say, A. H. 555, in the town where he resided, [in the Hakkâri country,] and was interred in the monastery which he had erected. His tomb is much frequented, being considered by his followers as one of the most sacred spots to which a pilgrimage can be made. His descendants continue to wear the same distinctive attire as he did and to walk in his footsteps; the confidence placed in their merits is equal to that formerly shown to their ancestor, and like him they are treated with profound respect. Abû 'l-Barakat Ibn al-Mustawfi (2) notices the shaikh Adi in his history of Arbela, and places him in the list of those persons who visited that city. Muzaffar ad-din, the sovereign of Arbela, said that, when a boy, he saw the shaikh Adi at Mosul : according to him, he was a man of middle size and tawny complexion; he related also many circumstances indicative of his great sanctity The shaikh died at the age of ninety years.

(1) See vol. I. page 37, note (3).
(2) His life is given in this volume.


Abû Abd Allah Orwa Ibn az-Zubair, surnamed al-Kurashi al-Asadi (a descendant of Asad and a member of the tribe of Koraish), was one of the seven great jurisconsults of Medina (we have already noticed five of them in this work under the proper heads). His father az-Zubair Ibn al-Awwâm was one of the ten companions to whom Muhammad declared that they should enter paradise. Az-Zubair was the son of al-Awwâm Ibn Khuwailid Ibn Asad Ibn Abd al-Ozza Ibn Kusai Ibn Kilàb (the rest of the genealogy is well known) (1), and of Safiya, the paternal aunt of the Prophet. The mother of Orwa was Asmà the daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddik; the same who was surnamed Zât an-Nitâkain (the wearer of the two girdles) (2), and designated as one of the old women of paradise (3). Orwa was the uterine brother of Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair; the third brother, Musàb, being born of another woman. He has handed down a particular manner of reading certain words (hurûf) of the Koran, and he received Traditions from his maternal aunt, Aâisha, the Mother of the faithful. Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri and others (4) have given Traditions on his authority. Orwa was a man of learning and holy life; when in Syria with al-Walid Ibn Abd al-Malik, a mortification settled in his foot and he was obliged to have it amputated. The operation was performed in the room where al-Walid was sitting, but as his attention was engaged by persons who were conversing with him, and as Orwa made not the slightest movement, he was not aware what was doing till he perceived the smell caused by the hot iron which had been applied to the wound (5). This fact is mentioned by Ibn Kutaiba in his Kitâb al-Maârif. That same night, Orwa did not omit reciting his usual task of prayers. It is related that when he was making this visit (to Syria), his son Muhammad died, and that, on his return to Medina, he merely said: "We have had sufferings in "our journey." He survived the amputation of his foot eight years. (6) On the death of his brother Abd Allah, he went to Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwân and said to him one day: "I wish you to give me the sword which belonged to my "brother Abd Allah."—"It is (in the armoury)," answered the khalif, "with "the other swords, and I should not know it amongst them."-"Let them be brought here," replied Orwa," and I will point it out." By Abd al-Malik's

orders the swords were brought in, and Orwa selected from among them one very much hacked on the edge. "Did you know it before?" said the prince.— "No," replied the other.-"How then have you recognised it?"-" By these "words of the poet an-Nabigha :


"Their only fault lies in their swords, which are broken-edged with striking hostile squadrons

It was this Orwa who dug the well at Medina which bears his name; none 459 of the other wells in the city furnish better water than it does. He was born A.H. 22 (A.D. 642-3); but some say A.H. 26. He died A.H. 93 (A.D. 711-2), or A. H. 94, at Fura (7), a village belonging to him and situated near Medina. Fura was also the place of his interment, according to (Muhammad) Ibn Saad. The year 94 was called the year of the jurisconsults (8). We shall speak of his son Hisham.-The following anecdote is related by (Abû Abd ar-Rahmân Muhammad) al-Otbi: Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwân, Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair, and his two brothers Musâb and Orwa were assembled together within the precincts of the Sacred Temple (at Mekka) at the time in which they acknowledged the authority of Moawia Ibn Abi Sofyan (9), when one of them exclaimed: "Come, let us each make a wish (10)." On this Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair said: “My wish is to possess the two Holy Cities and obtain the kha"lifate."" Mine," said Musâb, "is to possess the two Iraks and to have for "wives the two pearls of the tribe of Kuraish, Sukaina the daughter of alHusain (11) and Aâisha the daughter of Talha (12)."-" My wish," said Abd al-Malik, "is to possess all the earth and succeed to Moawia."-Orwa then said: "I care not for those things which you desire; my wish is self-mortifi"cation in this life, the possession of paradise in the next, and the honour "of being one of those whose authority will be cited as transmitters of the "science of the law." The vicissitudes of time effected at length the fulfilment of their wishes; and Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwân used to say: "If any one has a "desire to see a man (who will be) one of the inhabitants of paradise, let him "look at Orwa Ibn az-Zubair."

(1) Kilab was the son of Murra Ibn Kaab Ibn Luwai Ibn Ghalib Ibn Fihr Kuraish.

(2) Asma was called Zat an-Nitåkain from her having torn her girdle in two that she might tie up, with

the pieces, the bag of provisions and the water-skin which Muhammad and Abu Bakr were taking with them when they fled from Mekka to Medina. Her death occurred A. H. 73 (A. D. 692-3).—(Al-Yafi. Matthew's Mishkat, vol. II. p. 745. MS. 855, fol. 13.)

(3) I have not been able to discover the origin of this appellation.

(4) Read in the printed text:

manuscripts of good repute, is evidently incorrect.

. The other reading, although borne out by

(3) In eastern countries the stump of the amputated limb is seared with a hot iron or plunged into boiling pitch, in order to stop the hemorrhage.

(6) Here a note in the autograph refers the copyists to a takhrija, (extract or fly-leaf), containing probably some additional information. This fly-leaf must have been lost, at an early period, since its contents have not been inserted in any of the subsequent manuscripts.

(7) The author of the Marâsid says: Fura, pronounced by some Furua, is the name of a village in the canton of ar-Rabada, and on the road leading to Mekka. It lies at the distance of eight posts

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from Medina,

from Medina.

(9, The precise period of this event is uncertain.

(10) It is supposed by Moslims that the wishes made in the temple of Mekka are generally fulfilled. (11) See vol. I. page 581.

(12) Aâisha was the daughter of Talha Ibn Obaid Allah at-Taimi and of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of the khalif Abu Bakr. On her marriage with Musâb Ibn az-Zubair, her husband settled on her a dowry of one hundred thousand dinars. She died A. H. 123 (A. D. 740-1).—(Nujùm.)


Abû 'l-Fadl al-Irâki Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Irâki al-Kazwini, surnamed Rukn ad-din (column of the faith), and generally known by the appellation of at-Tàwûsi, was an imam of great abilities and a controvertist of the highest talent. He studied controversy under the Hanifite doctor Rida ad-din an-Naisâpúri (1), the author of the Tarikat fi 'l-Khilaf (system of controversy), and attained great skill in this science. He drew up on it three Tâlîkas, one of them an abridgment, the other a Medium treatise, and the third a full exposition. Students flocked to Hamadan from countries far and near, that they might place themselves under the tuition of such a master, and it was by them that his Tâlikas were put down in writing. A college called the Hajibiya was built for



him at Hamadàn by the hâjib, or chamberlain, Jamâl ad-din (2). His Medium treatise is better than the two others, because he displays in it more legal knowledge and furnishes more abundant information; at the present day, this work is more generally studied than any other on the same subject. The reputation of the author spread abroad, and his systems of controversy were introduced into distant countries. He died at Hamadan on the 14th of the latter Jumâda, A. H. 600 (February, A. D. 1204).—I do not know, neither does asSamâni mention, the derivation of the word Tâwûsi; but I have heard a number of jurisconsults, who were his fellow-countrymen, say that this surname is borne by a great many persons in Kazwin, and that they all claim to be descended from the tabi Tàwûs Ibn Kaisân (vol. I. p. 642); at-Tàwùsi may perhaps be one of those.

(1) It appears from the Tabakât al-Hanafiya that Rida ad-din an-Naisâpûri composed two works, the Tarika fil-Khilaf and the Makârim al-Akhlak. Hajji Khalifa notices them both, but furnishes no information respecting their author. I do not think that this doctor was the same person as the Muwaiyad an-Naisâpûri surnamed Rida ad-dîn, whose life is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(2) Hamadân ceased to be the capital of Iråk on the fall of the Seljuk dynasty there, A. H. 590. It was most probably before that year that the chamberlain Jamâl ad-din built the college in question. He must therefore have been in the service of the sultan Arslân, who died A. H. 571, or of his son Toghrul, who fell in the battle with Tukush Khân, sultan of Khowârezm, A. H. 390.


Abû 'l-Maâli Azìzi Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Mansûr al-Jili (1), generally known by the name of Shaizala, was an able doctor of the sect of as-Shâfi and an eminent preacher; highly distinguished by the elegance of his language, the unction of his style, and his well-stored memory. He drew up some works on jurisprudence, the principles of the Moslim religion, and pulpit oratory; he collected also a great quantity of poetry composed by the Arabs of the desert. The place of kadi in the suburb of al-Azaj at Baghdad was filled by him for some time, and he was remarkable for the perspicacity of his judgment. He had learned

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