Page images
PDF
EPUB

marked that a person versed in one science could find his way in all the others, on which Muhammad said to him : “What is then your opinion of a man who, “in making the satisfactory prostrations which some neglect or irregularity “in the prescribed prayers rendered necessary, again commits an irregularity ? “must he renew his prostrations ?" To this he replied in the negative (2), and gave for reason that a noun which has already assumed the diminutive form cannot be diminished again.—It is thus that I found this anecdote related in a number of places, but the Khatib says, in his History of Baghdad, that the con

versation took place between Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan and al-Farrâ (3, who 458 were sisters' sons.—Muhammad then asked him if the sentence of divorce joined

to the condition of possession was valid ? Al-Kisài answered that it was not, and gave for reason that the torrent does not precede the rain (4). He had some conferences and discussions with Sibawaih and Abû Muhammad al-Yazidi, of which we shall take further notice in the lives of these two grammarians. The traditional knowledge handed down by al-Kisài was received by him from Abû Bakr Ibn Aiyâsh (vol. I. p. 553), Hamza az-Zaiyât (vol. I. p. 1478), Ibn Oyaina (vol. I. p. 578), and others; among the persons who transmitted the information furnished by al-Kisâi were al-Farrâ and Abů Obaid al-Kasim Ibn Sallàm. Al-Kisai died A. H. 189 (A. D. 804-5) at Rai, to which city he had accompanied Harùn ar-Rashid. As-Samâni observes that the death of Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan occurred on the same day and at the same place, but Ibn al-Jauzi remarks, in his Shuzûr al-Okud, that he (the latter) died at Zanbawaih, a village in the canton of Rai. As-Samàni states again that al-Kisai died at Tùs in A. H. 182 (A. D. 798-9), or 183. God knows best the truth! It is related that ar-Rashid said on this occasion: “ The sciences of jurisprudence and grammar have been “interred at Rai.”Kisâi means a wearer of a kisů or cloak: he received this name because, on his arrival at Kùfa, he went mufiled up in a cloak to Hamza Ibn Habib az-Zaiyât, who (being then engaged in giving lessons to his pupils) asked which of them wished to read ? To this one of them replied : “He with "the cloak (al-Kisdi." Other's state that he was so called because he had used a cloak instead of an ihrâm when performing the pilgrimage.

(1) Ibn Khallikàn gives the verses, but they cannot be translated. They form an enigma the word of which designates the attribute of Priapus.

سجود السهو في سجود المس ولا يجب :This is con forrnable to the law which says (2)

(3) The lives of the grammarian Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Farrå and of the jurisconsult Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan will be found in this work.

(4) The sentence of divorce joined to the condition of possession (talik at-talak balmilk) is when a man says to a woman who is not his wife: If I marry thee, thou art divorced, or when he says: Every woman whom I may marry is divorced. The Hanifite doctors admit the validity of the divorce in this case, and consider it as immediately effected by the act of marriage. The Shafites deny its validity. Al-Kisai denied it also on the principle that the torrent does not precede the rain, or, in other words, that the consequence cannot precede the antecedent. The expression he makes use of was proverbial among the Arabs of the desert, and well known also to every philologer and grammarian. It is to be found in Freytag's Meidani, vol. I. page 613, under another form, namely, show og bao Gino precessit pluvia ejus torrentem ejus. The milk or possession is effected by the act of marriage SELU

and the married man is the malik or possessor. The persons who take an interest in this question will find the requisite information in D'Ohsson's Tableau général de l'empire othoman, tom. V. p. 208, and Hamilton's Hidaya, vol. I. The following extracts from works of high authority are relative to this question ; but as their technicality renders a literal translation extremely difficult, I prefer giving them in the original language.

النرويج

اذا اضاف الطلاق الى النكاح وقع عقيب النكاح نسوان يقول لامراة أن تزوجتك فانت طالق

واذا اضافه الى الشرط وقع عقيب الشرط مثل أن يقول او كل امراة أتزوجها فهي طالق الاموانه أن دخلت الدار فانت طالق د ولايت مع اضافة الطلاق لا أن يكون الطالق مالكا أو يضيفه

کالاضافة الى الملك و الى ملكك ولاصافة الى سبب

الملک کا اتزوج

-(Futawa Alemgiri, vol. I. p. 586.)

او عمم

قول أبي حنيفة انه يصح تعليق الطلاق والعنق بالملك فيلزم الطلاق أو العتق سوا اطلق

او خصص وصورته أن يقول الاجنبية ان تزوجتك وانت طالق او كل امراة أتزوجها طالق أو يقول لعبد أن ملكنكك وانت حر اوكل عبد اشتريته فهو حر وقول مالك أنه

قبيلة أو قرية أو امراة بعينها لا ان اطلق او عمم وقول

خصص او يلزم الطلاق أو العتق اذا الشافعي واحمد انه لا يلزم الطلاق أو العنق مطلقا

فهی

عدن

-(al-Mizan as-Sharaniya, MS. No. 369, fol. 194.)

AD-DARAKUTNI.

Abû 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Omar Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mahdi, a hafiz of great learning and celebrity, and a jurisconsult of the sect of as-Shafi, was a native of Baghdad. He acquired his knowledge of the law from Abu Said al-Istakhri the Shasite doctor (vol. I. p. 37'); but this statement is contradicted by some, who pretend that one of Abù Said's disciples was his master in that science. He learned the reading of the Koran, by audition and repetition (1), under Muhammad Ibn alHasan an-Nakkâsh, Ali Ibn Said al-Kazzaz, Muhammad Ibn al-Husain at-Tabari, and other eminent teachers of the same period. When a mere boy, he began to learn Traditions from Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid vol. I. p. 27), and having at length come to be considered as the sole imâm (or first master; of the age

in that science, none of his contemporaries ever disputed his title. Towards the end of his life, he commenced teaching the koran readings at Baghdad. He was well informed on the points wherein the doctors of the different sects disagree, and he knew by heart many of the diwûns, or collected poetical works, of the desert Arabs. As one of these diwâns consisted of the poems composed by as-Saiyid al-Himyari (2), he was held by some for a follower of the Shiite doctrines. Traditional information was given on his authority by Abù Noaim (v. I. p.74) the author of the Hilyat al-Awliâ, and by many other persons. In the year 376 (A.D. 986-7) he gave evidence as a witness before the kâdi Ibn Màrùf (vol. I. p. 379), an act of which he afterwards repented, “ because,” said lie, “ the statements which I furnished relative to the blessed Prophet were ad“ mitted on my own authority as exact, whereas my declaration in a court of “ justice is not receivable unless corroborated by that of another person (3).” Amongst the works composed by him are a Sunan, or collection of Traditions, and a Mukhtalif wa Mûtalif (4). He was induced to leave Baghdad and travel 10 Egypt by the intelligence which he received that Abù ’l-Fadl Jaafar Ibn Ilinzàba (vol. I. p. 319), the vizir of Kåfør, had the intention of composing a Musnad (5). As he wished to assist in that work, he undertook the journey and remained with the vizir for some time, during which he received from him marks of the highest honour, with a liberal subvention for his expenses, and an abundance of presents. He thus, by the favour of Ibn Hinzàba, became possessor of a large fortune, and he remained with him till the completion of the work. During that period, he and the hâfiz Abd al-Ghani Ibn Said (vol. II. p. 169) contributed their joint efforts to the task of extracting (the materials of) the Musnad (from various sources and writing them out.

Abd al-Ghani used to say : sons who discoursed the best of all on the Traditions of the Prophet were

66 The per

“ three in number; Ali Ibn al-Madini (6) in his age, Mûsa Ibn Hårûn (7) in

bis, and ad-Dàrakutni in ours."— One of ad-Dårakutni's pupils having 459 asked him if he ever saw a person equal to himself in learning), he returned no direct answer, but merely observed that God had said : Justify not yourselves (8). The other insisted notwithstanding, and ad-Dàrakutni at length replied : “If

you mean in a single science, I have seen (persons) more able than myself ; “ but if you mean in all the branches of knowledge which I possess, why then “ I never met my equal.” He was versed in a great variety of sciences, and was a master of the highest rank in those connected with the Koran. His birth took place in the month of Zû 'l-Kaada, 306 (April, A. D. 919), and his death occurred at Baghdad on Wednesday the 8th (some say the 2nd) of Zû 'l-Kaada, A. H. 385 (December, A. D. 995). Some place his death in the month of Zů ’lHijja. The funeral service was said over him by Abû Hàmid al-Isfarâini (vol. I. p. 53), and he was buried in the cemetery at the Convent Gate (Bůb ad-Dair), near the tomb of Màrúf al-Karkhi (9).- Dárakutni means belonging to Dar alKutn (cotton-house), an extensive quarter of Baghdad.

(1) See the observations in vol. I. p. 675, nole to p. 568.
(2) I am indebted to M. Caussin de Perceval for the following note on as-Saiyid al-Himyari:

Esseyid al-Himyari, dont le prénom était Abou Hachim et le véritable nom Ismail, était fils de Mohammed fils de Yézyd fils de Rabia, etc. Son grand-père Yézyd avait composé des satires contre Zyâd (Ibn Abihi) et ses fils, et fut pour cela jeté en prison et tourmenté par Obaydallah fils de Zyâd. Les trois poëtes arabes qui ont fait le plus de vers sont Béchår, Abou 'l-Atahiyya et Esseyid ; personne n'a pu recueillir toutes leurs poésies. Quant a Eseyid, ses vers sont tombés dans l'oubli, malgré leur nombre et leur mérite, parcequ'ils sont remplis d'attaques contre les compagnons du Prophète, contre Abou Becr, Omar, Othman, et contre Ayecha et autres épouses de Mahomet. Les père et mère d’Esseyid étaient de la secte hérétique des Ebadhi ävell, lui il était de la secte chiite des Keïssani äwland. (Cette secte, suivant Ibn Khaldoun, tirait son nom de son fondateur Keïssan.) Il admettait l'imámat de Mohammad Ibn al-Hanefiya (his life is given by Ibn Khallikan) et professait l'opinion du retour är! Juzi, c'est-à-dire qu'il croyait que Mohammed Ibn el-Hanefiya n'était point mort et qu'il reviendrait un jour. Esseyid a fait beaucoup de poésies en l'honneur des Hachemites, particulièrement des Alides, et contre leurs adversaires. Lorsque les Omeyyades furent renversés, il complimenta Abou ’l-Abbas Seffàh, qui, pour le recompenser de ses vers, lui dit de demander ce qu'il voudrait. Esseyid demanda pour Souleyman fils de Habib le gouvernement d'el-Ahwaz, qui lui fut accordé. Le cadi de Basra, Sewwar fils d’Abdallah, ayant un jour refusé d'admettre son témoignage en justice, Esseyid lui écrivit une lettre où il le baffouait et alla ensuite réciter au calife Mansour une satire virulente contre ce magistrat; celui-ci vint à l'instant se plaindre. Mansour lui dit en riant: “Ne sais-tu pas qu'Eyas fils de “ Moảwia reçut le témoignage de Farazdak; pourquoi blesser un homme qui a une langue comme celle d'Esseyid ?” Ensuite le calife ordonna à Esseyid de faire sa paix avec le cadi. Mais l'inimitié du poëte et VOL II.

31

du juge continua, et ils cherchaient à se nuire réciproquement. Esseyid ayant dit un jour au calife que Sewwår voulait suborner des témoins pour le condamner comme coupable de vol, Mansour fit venir le cadi

et lui dit: “ Je t’ôte à l'égard d'Esseyid tes fonctions de juge." Esseyid mourut à Wasit, les uns disent sous le règne de Mansour, d'autres sous celui de Haroun –(According to Abu 'l Mahâsin, in his Nujům, this poet died A. H. 171 (A.D. 787-8).)

(3) In all civil and criminal causes, generally speaking, the evidence of two witnesses is requisite to establish the proof of a fact. In civil matters, witnesses may, if they like, withhold their evidence.

(4) This is a treatise on such traditionists as might be confounded with others from the similarity of their

names.

الجرح و

.والعلل

(8) See vol. I. page 323, note (7).

(6) Abû 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar Ibn Najih Ibn al-Madini, a maula to the tribe of Saad, a hafiz of the highest eminence, and one of the great imâms of Islamism, was a native of Basra. His acquirements in the Traditions were most extensive, and he displayed great penetration in appreciating their authenticity and the credibility of the persons by whom they had been transmitted down Jo teill

He composed nearly two hundred works on the subject, and his authority was cited by alBukhâri, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Abū Dawud, an-Nisài, Ibn Maja, at-Termedi, and others. His conduct and demeanour were modelled on that of the early Moslims, and his actions, words, dress, manner of sitting, and general behaviour were noted down, by the learned doctors of that time, as worthy of imitation. He received his traditional knowledge from his own father, who was also a celebrated traditionist, and from Hammad Ibn Zaid, Sofyån Ibn Oyaina, Hushaim, and others. Al-Bukhari said of him: “I was never sensible of my infe“ riority but in the presence of Ali Ibn al-Madini;” and Ibn Oyaina declared that were it not on Ibn al-Madini's account, he would never have given lessons la lo. He was born A. H. 161 (A. D. 777-8), and he died in the month of Zů 'l-Kaada, A. H. 234 (May-June, A. H. 849). - (Oyun at-Tawdrikh. An-Nujům a:zahira. Tabakat al-Fokahd. Abu 'l-Feda's Annals; and Reiske's note.)

(7) The hafiz Abà Imran Musa Ibn Hârûn was a native of Baghdad. He bore the reputation of being the first imam of the age in the science of Traditions. He died A. H. 294 'A. D. 906–7). –(Al-Yafi.)

(8) Koran, surat 53, verse 33.
(9) The life of Måruf is given by Ibn Khallikân.

AR-RUMMANI.

Abû 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Isa Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah ar-Rummani was a celebrated and learned imam in the sciences of grammar and scholastic theology. He is also the author of an interpretation of the Koran. His masters in general literature were Abû Bakr Ibn Duraid and Abu Bakr (Muhammad) Ibn as-Sarraj; and some of the information which he acquired was transmitted down from him by Abû 'l-Kasim Muhammad) at-Tanukhi (1), Abů Muhammad al-Jauhari, and

« PreviousContinue »