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phet, but, being made prisoner at the battle of Badr and taken to Medina, Muhammad ordered Ali the son of Abû Tâlib, or according to another account, alMikdad Ibn al-Aswad, to execute him. He was put to death in cold blood, and in Muhammad's presence, at as-Safrà, a place between Medina and Badr. AthThuraiya was renowned for her beauty, and became the wife of Suhail Ibn Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Auf az-Zuhri, by whom she was taken to Egypt. It was on this occasion that Omar Ibn Abi Rabia composed the following verses in allusion to the well-known stars Suhail (Canopus) and ath-Thuraiya (the Pleiads), and which have since become proverbial :

O thou who joinest in marriage ath-Thuraiya and Suhail, tell me, I pray thee, how 597 can they ever meet? The former rises in the north-east, and the latter in the south-east!

It was from this ath-Thuraiya and her sister Aâisha that al-Gharid, the celebrated singer (4) and the sâhib of Mabad (5) received his liberty. The real name of al-Gharid was Abd al-Malik and his surname Abû Zaid; al-Gharid and al-Ighrîd are names given to the flower-bud of the date-tree, and he was so called for his fair complexion or for its freshness.— The following verses are by Omar Ibn Abi Rabia :

Greet the image of my beloved, come to visit me when slumber prostrated the nocturnal conversers. It approached, in a dream, under the shades of night; being unwilling to visit me by day. I exclaimed: “Why am I treated so cruelly? Before this, “ I used to hear her and see her.” The vision replied: I am as thou hast known me, “ but the favour thou demandest is too precious to be granted (6)."

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He was born on the night in which Omar Ibn al-Khattâb was murdered; this was the eve of Wednesday, the 25th of Zû 'l-Hijja, A. H. 23 (November, A. D. 644). He lost his life in A. H. 93 (A. D. 711-2), at the age of seventy; being then embarked on a naval expedition against the infidels, in which they destroyed his ship by fire. Al-Haitham Ibn Adi states that he died A.H. 93, aged eighty years. His father Abd Allah lost his life in Sijistân, A. H. 78 (A. D. 697-8) (7). When it was mentioned in the presence of al-Hasan al-Basri (vol. I. p. 370), that Omar Ibn Abi Rabia came into the world on the night in which Omar Ibn al-Khattab fell by the hand of a murderer, he exclaimed: “What “ worth was removed from the world on that night, and what worthlessness was

brought into it !” The poet's grandfather, Abû Rabia, bore the surname of

Zû 'r-Rumhain (the bearer of the two lances); his real name was Omar or Hudaifa, but some say that he had only a surname. His father Abd Allah was the uterine brother of Abû Jahl Ibn Hisham al-Makhzûmi (8); their mother's name was Asmâ, the daughter of Mukharriba (9), of the tribe of Makhzûm, or, by another account, of the tribe of Nahshal; Abd Allah and Abû Jahl were also cousins, their fathers, Abû Rabia and Hishảm, being the sons of al-Maghaira Ibn Abd Allah.

قريبة Courayba ورضيا amante d'Omar-ibn-abi-rabia, Roudharya ,الثريا et qui etaient Thourayya العبلات

,نوح

(1) See Kosegarten's Alii Ispahanensis Liber Cantilenarum, towards the beginning of the work.

(2) This Omaiya was designated as the less, to distinguish him from a brother of the same name; it was from the latter that the Omaiyides drew their descent. — (See Ibn Khaldûn MS. No. 3003, 2, fol. 127, and Eichhorn's Monumenta, pp. 83, 86.)

(3) See vol. II. page 99.

(4) Le véritable nom de ce chanteur était Abdelmélik; le sobriquet de Ghåridh lui avait été donné à cause de la fraicheur de son teint. Il était affranchi des sæurs Coraychites appelées collectivement El-abalat

---Roudhayya , et Oumm-Othman, filles d'Abdallah, fils de Hårith, fils d'Ommeyya-el-Asghar. Gharidh était Mekkois; d'abord tailleur, puis serviteur d'Ibn Souraydj, chez lequel ses maitresses l'avaient placé. Il apprit les airs d'Ibn Souraydj qui en fut jaloux et l'éloigna de lui. Gharidh devint son rival et l'égala dans le chant des complaintes funèbres

ce qui porta Ibn Souraydj à abandonner ce genre. Le prénom de Gharidh était Abouyezid. Il était nonseulement chanteur très-distingué, mais encore bon compositeur et instrumentiste habile. Il jouait du luth et du tambour de basque. Il avait en outre une figure charmante et un esprit des plus agréables. Nåfi, fils d’Alcama, étant gouverneur de la Mekke pour le calife Welid, fils d'Abdelmélik. Gharidh, par crainte de cet officier, qui était animé contre lui de sentiments très-malveillants, quitta la Mekke et se réfugia dans le Yemen. Il y passa quelque temps et y mourut, sous le califat de Souleyman, fils d’Abdelmélik.-(A.Caussin de Percival.)

(6) The word sahib signifies friend, companion, master, pupil. Its meaning here is doubtful, as may be seen by the following note:-Gharidh n'a été ni le maitre ni l'élève de Mabed. Il ne parait pas non plus qu'il ait été son ami. L'expression de yola ja pill pourrait signifier Gharidh rival de Mabed, mais il semble que ce serait faire trop d'honneur à Gharidh, qui est généralement regardé comme très-inférieur à Mabed. Peut-être le sens de cette expression est-il simplement Gharid qui eut une aventure avec Mabed. Je n'ai recueilli qu'une seule anecdote dans laquelle Gharidh figure avec Mabed. On la trouvera dans la courte notice qui suit :

Abou Abbâd Mabed, fils de Wahb, d'autres disent de Cotr, Médinois, chanteur et compositeur fameus, était, suivant les uns, affranchi de Moawia, fils d’Abou Sofyan; suivant les autres, affranchi de la famille de Wabissa, branche des Benou Makhzoum. Son père était noir, lui-même était mulâtre, grand de taille et louche. Sa voix était superbe, il possédait à fond l'art musical. C'était le prince des chanteurs de Médine. Il était élève de saib Khathir jila Yoshow, de Djémilé, et de Cachit le Persan sug'il boring, affranchi d'Abdallah, fils de Djafar. Un poëte a dit de Mabed :

g

9 « Thouways et après lui Ibn Suraydj ont été d'habiles artistes, mais la palme du talent appartient à Mabed.»

اجاد طوبس و السربجى بعله و ما قصبات السبق لا لمعبد

On raconte qu'Ibn Souraydj et Gharidh, qui tous deux avaient une grande réputation à la Mekke, se mirent un jour en route pour Médine, dans l'intention d'y montrer leur talent de chanteurs, et d'y recueillir les dons des amateurs de musique. En arrivant au lieu appelé le lavoir älmeidl, ils virent un jeune homme portant à la main un filet pour la chasse aux oiseaux, qui passa devant eux en chantant les vers d'Abou Catifa :

« Le château, les palmiers et le terroir de Djemma qui les sépare, sont plus agréables à mon cæur « que les portes de Djiroun,» etc.

Surpris de la beauté de l'air et du charme de la voix du jeune homme, ils l'accostèrent et le prièrent de répéter sa chanson. Mabed, car c'était lui, les satisfit, et continua son chemin. Ibn Suraydj et Gharidh restèrent stupéfaits. «Que dis-tu de cela?» demanda Gharidh à son compagnon.- « Si un jeune chasseur de Médine,

répondit Ibn Souraydj, a pu nous frapper ainsi d'étonnement, que devons-nous attendre des artistes de cette a ville ? Pour moi, je retourne à la Mekke.» — « Et moi aussi,» ajouta Gharidh. En effet, tous deux reprirent le chemin de la Mekke. Pendant la première moitié de la carrière de Mabed, son témoignage était admis en justice à Médine, malgré sa profession de chanteur, à cause de la régularité de sa conduite. Mais lorsqu'il eut été à la cour du calife Wélid fils de Yézid, et que faisant partie de la société de ce prince, il se fut rendu le compagnon de ses plaisirs, son témoignage ne fut plus reçu. Frappé d'une hémiplegie quelque temps avant sa mort, Mabed avait perdu la voir. Il mourut à Damas sous le règne de Wélid fils de Yézid, dans le palais même de ce calife. Lorsqu'on emporta son cercueil, Sellamat el-Coss, chanteuse esclave du défunt calife Yézid, tenait un bout du brancard et chantait ces vers d'El-Ahwas sur un air que Mabed lui avait enseigné lui-même :

قد لعمري بث ليلى كاخي الداء الوجيع

« J'ai passé la nuit dans la souffrance,» etc.

Le calife Wélid et son frère El-Ghamr, vêtus seulement d'une tunique et d'un manteau, marchaient devant le cercueil et le précédèrent ainsi jusqu'à ce qu'il fut sorti du palais.—(A. Caussin de Perceval.)

(6) Literally: The necklace takes up the wearer too much for it to be lent; i. e. the wearer is too fond of the necklace to lend it. This proverbial expression is quoted by al-Maidåni. See professor Freytag's Meidanii Proverbia, tom. I. page 682.

(7) The Arabs made an expedition into Khorasån that year. See Price's Retrospect, vol. I. p. 454.

(8) This was the same person by whose advice the Meccans pronounced the sentence of death against Muhammad; he fell at the battle of Badr. (9) Read

.

خربه

OMAR IBN SHABBA.

Abû Zaid Omar Ibn Shabba Ibn Abida Ibn Zaid an-Numairi, a man of extensive information and a transmitter of historical relations, anecdotes, and pieces of verse, was a native of Basra. Shabba was merely the surname of his father, whose real name was Zaid ; some also say that his great-grandfather was called Raita (1), not Zaid. Omar Ibn Shabba composed a history of Basra. He taught Koran-reading with the authorisation of his master Jabala Ibn Mâlik, who had himself been authorised to teach by al-Mufaddal (2), who had received his own licence from Aasim Ibn Abi ’n-Najûd (3). He attended the lectures wherein Mahbûb Ibn al-Hasan (4) indicated the words of the Koran which may

be

pronounced in different manners, and he transmitted pieces of literature with the authorisation of his teachers Abd al-Wahhåb ath-Thakisi(5) and Omar Ibn Ali (6). Koran-reading was taught on his authority by his pupils Abd Allah Ibn Sulaiman, Abd Allah Ibn Omar al-Warråk, and Ahmad Ibn Faraj, and pieces of traditional literature were communicated by him to Abû Muhammad Ibn alJårûd. Abû Hâtim ar-Râzi (7) being questioned concerning his merits (as a transmitter of traditional learning), declared him worthy of the highest confidence. The hâfiz Ibn Maja, author of the Sunan (8), and some others gave

traditional information on his authority. We have quoted him in the life of al-Abbås Ibn al-Ahnaf (vol. II. p. 8). He was born on Sunday, the 1st of Rajab, A. H. 173 (November, A. D. 789), and he died at Sarr man Râa on Monday the 23rdsome say Thursday the 25th—of the latter Jumada, A. H. 262 (March, A. D. 876). According to another statement, he died in the year 263. — Numairi means descended from Numair Ibn Aâmir Ibn Såsâa, the progenitor of a great Arabian tribe ; many learned men and other persons have sprung from that tribe, and therefore bore this surname.

.ابن الحسن The autograph has (4)

(1) The autograph has aboly
(2) Some account of al-Mufaddal is given by Ibn Khallikàn in the life of his son Muhammad.
(3) See his life, vol. II. page 1.
(4) The
()

(5) Abd al-Wahhàb Ibn Abd al-Hamid ath-Thakafi (a member of the tribe of Thakif) and a native of Basra, transmitted traditional information from Aiyûb as-Sikhtiyâni, Jaafar as-Sådik, Said al-Jårfri, and many others. His own authority was cited by as-Shafi, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Ibn al-Madini, Yahya Ibn Main, and some others. Ibn Main declared him deserving of the highest confidence as a Traditionist. Towards the end of his life he went deranged, and he died A.H. 194 A.D. 809-10).—(Ibn al-Athir. Ad-Dahabi.)

(0) Omar Ibn Ali Ibn Atâ, a native of Basra and a mawla to the tribe of Thakif, gave Traditions on the authority of ath-Thauri, Hajjaj Ibn Artà, and others. His own authority was cited by Ibn Hanbal, Kutaiba Ibn Said, and some others. He died A.H. 190 (A.D. 805-6).-(Ad-Dahabi.)

17) The hafiz Abu Hâtim Muhammad Ibn Idris Ibn al-Mundir Ibn Då wûd, surnamed ar-Razi because he

was a native of Rai, and al-Hanzali because he was mawla to the tribe of Hanzala or because he lived in the street of al-Hanzala in Rai, was an excellent judge of the authenticity of Traditions, and held himself the highest rank as a Traditionist. In the pursuit of this branch of knowledge, he travelled to Khorâsân, the two Iråks, Hijaz, Yemen, Syria, and Egypt. He died at Rai in the month of Shaabán, A. H. 277 (Nov.-Dec. A. D. 890).-(Nujum.)

(8) His life will be found in this work.

AL-KHIRAKI.

Abû 'l-Kâsim Omar Ibn Abi Ali al-Husain Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad al-Khiraki was an eminent jurisconsult of the Hanbalite sect. He composed a great number of works in illustration of the doctrines professed by the followers of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. One of these treatises is a Mukhtasir (compendium), which still serves as a text-book for young students belonging to that sect; when he set out for Damascus from Baghdad, in consequence of the maledictions which were pronounced in the latter city against some of the early Moslims (as-Salaf) (1), he left this book behind him, and it was burned during his absence 2). He died at Damascus, A. H. 334 (A. D. 945-6). His father also was distinguished for his abilities, and transmitted traditional information received by him from many teachers.Khiraki means a seller of rags (khirak) and clothes.

(1) This was in A. H. 321 (A. D. 933'. We learn from Abû 'l-Fedâ that Ali Ibn Balik, having conspired with Manis the eunuch to depose the khalif al-Kâhir and place a son of al-Muktafi on the throne, was arrested with his accomplices and put to death in that year. But what Abu 'l-Fedå has neglected to mention, was the means taken by Ibn Balik to effect his design. He began by exciting a sedition in Baghdad, and the fact is noticed by ad-Dahabi (MS. No. 646, fol. 101 verso) in these terms: “In this year troubles broke out “ because Ali Ibn Balik and his secretary (katib) al-Hasan Ibn Hårûn decided on having the memory of “ Moawia publicly cursed from the pulpits. This produced a riot at Baghdad, and Ibn Balik gave orders to “arrest the chief of the Hanbalites, Abû Muhammad al-Barbahâri, but this doctor retired to a place of con" cealment. number of his followers were then banished to Basra. In the meanwhile al-Kâhir took secret

arrangements against Mûnis and Ibn Mukla,” etc. The Hanbalites of Baghdad were at that time notorious for their bigotry and turbulence, as may be learned from the Annals of Abû 'l-Fedà, years 310, 317, 323, etc. From Ibn Balik's first proceedings it would appear that he meant to rally the Shiites to his cause, as with them the memory of Moawia was held in detestation. It must be recollected also that the Karmats (see vol. I. p. 429) were then extremely powerful. What may serve also to confirm my conjecture is, that the VOL. II

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