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(1) See vol. I. Introduction, p. xxxv.
(2) See, Freytag's Darstellung der Arabischen Verskunst, p. 461.

(3) In this verse, the word Shw yo, here rendered by messengers, bears also the meaning of propendula (coma). It is a mere quibble, but pleasing enough in Arabic.

(4) The petals of the anemony are red and the parts of fructification black.

(4) This is an allusion to a well-known line of an ancient poet, given in the Hamasa, p. 4, and of which the meaning is : “ Had I been related to al-Mazin, the sons of al-Lakita, of the tribe of Dohl Ibn Shaiban,

had not carried off my camels."
(8) Najd, as has been already observed, was the Arcadia of the Arabian poets.

(6) “ KUUFTIDAKAN: two large castles in the dependencies of Arbela ; one, situated on a hill by the road ** leading to Maragha and called Khuftidakân az-Zarzâri; the other, on the road to Shahrozůr and called Khuf“tidakân Sarhân; the latter is the larger and stronger of the two."— (Maräsid. It appears from this and from the words of Ibn Khallikân that those castles bore different names at different times.



Abù ’l-Faraj al-Ispahâni says, in his Kitab al-Aghâni, that the real name of Tuwais was Isa Ibn Abd Allah, and that he bore the surname of Abû Abd alMunêm till the Mukhannath(1) changed it into Abd an-Naim (the slave of pleasure). He was a mawla to the Makhzoum family, and bore the surname of Tuwais. Ibn Kutaiba says, in his Kitab al-Madrif, in the article where he speaks of Aamir Ibn Abd Allah, the companion of Muhammad : “One of those who were mawlas

to the Kuraiz family was Tuwais, mawla of Arwa, the daughter of Kuraiz, her "who was mother to Othman Ibn Affan. His name was Abd al-Malik and his “surname Abû Abd an-Naim.” Al-Jauhari says, in his Sahâh : “His real name

was Tåwûs (peacock); but, when he became a Mukhannath, they changed it “into Tuwais (little peacock), and he received also the name of Abd an-Naim.” Such, as the reader' may perceive, is the difference in the statements respecting his name; but it is generally said that Isa was his real name, in as much as it is a point on which the majority of the learned are agreed. Tuwais attained so high a reputation as a singer that his talent became proverbial; and it is to him that a certain poet alludes in the following verse, wherein he praises Mabad (see vol. II. p. 374, note (5))


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Tuwais sang, and after him as-Suraiji (2); but Mâbad alone deserved the palm.

A long account of him is given in the Kitab al-Aghani. In the proverb, More inauspicious than Tuwais, he is the person meant, and the reason was this: he came into the world on the day of the Prophet's death ; he was weaned the same day on which Abû Bekr died; he was circumcised on the day in which Omar Ibn alKhattab was assassinated — some say that he attained the age of puberty on that day- he got married on the day in which Othman was slain ; and he became a father on the day in which Ali Ibn Abi Talib was murdered—some say, the day in which al-Hasan, the son of Ali, died. This was certainly a singular series of coincidences. He was extremely tall, awkward in his movements, and squinted. He resided at Medina, but afterwards removed to as-Suwaida, a place at the dis- 559 lance of two days' journey from that city and on the road to Syria; he continued 10 dwell there till his death, which happened in A. H. 92 (A. D. 710-1), being then eighty-two years of age.

Some state that he died at Medina. Yâkub alHamawi (3) mentions, in his Mushtarik, that Tuwais the Mukhannath was interred at Sukya 'l-Jazl, but he does not indicate the situation of this place.-—Tuwais," says al-Jauhari, in the Sahah, is the “ diminutive of Tâwús (peacock), and is

regularly formed after the suppression of the reduntant letters in the pri“ mitive word.” Mention is made of him by Abû Hilâl al-Askari (4) in his work, the Kitâb al-Awâil.

(1) The word Mukhannath signifies hermaphrodite, but it bears also the meanings of fool, an effeminate person, impotent, and muliebria patiens. I refer to what Reiske says on the subject in his notes on Abù 'l-Fedå ; see Annales, tom. I. adnot. hist. No. 200.

(2) Ce Souraydji est le même qu'Ibn Souraydj, chanteur et compositeur d'un grand mérite. Il s'appelait Obayd et son prénom était Abou Yahya. Il était affranchi, on ne sait pas au juste de quelle famille, et son père était Turc. Il avait l'habitude de se voiler le visage lorsqu'il chantait, afin de cacher sa laideur. Ce fut lui qui le premier chanta à la Mekke des chansons arabes en s'accompagnant lui-même avec un luth fait à la manière des luths persans. Il était né en cette ville sous le califat d'Omar fils de Khattab et il commença à chanter sous Othmån. Il était d'abord simple nâyeh (pleureur de morts, ou chanteur d'élégies funebres). Il abandonna ensuite ce genre dans lequel il avait trouvé un égal en son élève Gharidh, et se livra exclusivement au chant des autres poésies. Entre autres traits qui montrent la puissance de son talent, on cite celui-ci: Un jour étant assis auprès du jardin d'Ibn Amir, au moment où le cortège des pélerins défilait, il se mit à chanter. Le cortège s'arrêta à l'instant; les pélerins montaient les uns sur les autres pour l'approcher et l'entendre. Il en résulta une affreuse confusion. Enfin un homme perçant la foule, dit à Ibn Souraydj: Crains Dieu et laisse continuer la marche. Ibn Souraydj cessa de chanter et s'en alla. Aussitôt les pélerins reprirent leurs rangs et la colonne se remit en marche. Ibn Souraydj mourut d'éléphantiasis à la Mekke, les uns disent sous le règne de Hechâm fils d’Abdelmélik, à l'âge d'environ 88 ans; suivant quelques auteurs,

sous le califat de Souleyman fils d'Abdelmélik, selon d'autres, à la fin du règne de Wélid fils d'Abdelmélik. -(A. Caussin de Perceval.)

(3) His life is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(4) Abd Hilâl al-Hasan Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Sahl Ibn Mihran al-Askâri, a learned philologer, studied under Abu Ahmad al-Askari (see vol. I. p. 382). He composed the following works: a commentary on the Koran, in five volumes; the Awdil (origins); the Kitab as-Sandatain (book of the two arts), on prose and verse; the Amthal (proverbs); a commentary on the Hamasa (see Hajji Khalifa). He left also a Diwan of poetry. In his conduct he was most exemplary. He died subsequently to A.H. 400 (A.D. 1009).—(As-Suyuti de Interpretibus Corani; ed. Meursinge. Lugd. Bat. 1839). Hajji Khalifa places his death in 393 (A. D. 1004-5) (See Fluegel's Hajji Khalifa, tom. I. p. 490.)


Saif ad-din (the sword of the faith ) Ghazi, the son of Imåd ad-din Zinki (vol. I. p. 539), the son of Ak Sunkur (vol. I. p. 225), was sovereign of Mosul. We have already mentioned that his father Zinki was murdered whilst besieging the castle of Jaabar. Alp Arslân, the son of the Sultan Mahmûd, and surnamed al-Khafaji the Seljûk, was there with him. On Zinki's death, the chief men of the empire assembled, and with them the vizir Jamål ad-din Muhammad al-Ispahàni, surnamed al-Jawad (the generous), and the kâdi Kamal ad-din Abû 'l-Fadl Muhammad as-Shahrozûri, persons of whom notice will be again taken in another part of this work. They then proceeded to the tent of Alp Arslân, and addressed him thus : “ Zinki was thy servant (ghulâm), and we also are thy

servants, and all the country is thine.” By these words they calmed the general agitation, and the army separated in two divisions, one of which marched off for Syria, under the orders of Nůr ad-din Mahmûd, son to Imad ad-din Zinki (1); and the other, being joined by the troops of Mosul and Diàr Rabia, proceeded with Alp Arslân towards Mosul. On their arrival at Sinjár, Alp Arslần suspected treason and took to flight, but was overtaken by a troop of soldiers and brought back. When they arrived at Mosul, presents were distributed to them by Saif ad-din Ghâzi, who had been residing till then at Shahrozûr, which place he held as a fief from the Seljûk sultan Masúd. i We shall give the life of this prince.) As soon as Ghàzi was established at Mosul, he caused Alp Arslân to be arrested, and sent him to a fortress where he remained a prisoner. Having thus become master of Mosul, and recovered the portion of Diár Bakr which had been possessed by his father, he gave a regular organisation to his empire. As for his brother, Nür ad-din Mahmûd, a prince of whom we shall again have occasion to speak, he obtained possession of Aleppo and the neighbouring parts of Syria, but Damascus at that time was in the power of neither. Ghâzi was animated with the spirit of piety and virtue; he loved learning and learned men, and he built a college at Mosul, now known by the name of al-Atika (the Old). His reign was but short, and he expired on the 29th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 544 (Nov. A. D. 1149), aged about forty years. interred in the college of which we have just spoken. His brother, Kutb ad-din Maudůd, a prince whose life we shall give, succeeded to the vacant throne.

He was

(1) The life of this Mahmûd is given by Ibn Khallikân.


Saif ad-din (the sword of the faith) Gházi, the son of Kutb ad-din Maudud (1), the son of Zinki ( see vol. I. page 539), the son of Ak Sunkur, and sovereign of Mosul, was a brother's son of the prince whose life has just been given. He 360 succeeded to the empire on the death of his father Maudûd. His son, Sanjar Shah, ruled at Jazira tibni Omar. When his father died (A. H. 565), the intelligence reached Nûr ad-diu at Tall Båshir, who set out the same night for Mosul. He reached ar-Rakka in the month of Muharram, A. H. 566 (Sept.Oct. A. D. 1170), and, having taken possession of that city, he proceeded to Nasibin and occupied it towards the end of the same month; he then reduced Sinjar, in the month of the latter Rabî, and marched from thence towards Mosul. Having led his army across the ford at Balad, a village near Mosul, he continued to advance, and finally established his camp opposite the



city. Not wishing to reduce it by force, he acquainted Saif ad-din, who was his brother's son, with his real intentions, and, a peace having been concluded between them, he made his entry into Mosul on the 13th of the first Jumada (Jan. A.D. 1171 ); having then confirmed the reigning sovereign in the possession of the throne, he received his daughter in marriage, and gave up Sinjår to his own brother, Imâd ad-din Zinki, the same prince of whom mention has been already made in the life of his grandfather, Imâd ad-din Zinki. On leaving Mosul, he returned to Syria, and entered Aleppo in the month of Shaabån of the same year (April-May). On the death of Nùr ad-din, (the sultan) Salâh ad-din obtained possession of Damascus, and afterwards laid siege to Aleppo. Saif addin then sent an army (against him) under the command of his own brother, Izz ad-din Masůd, a prince whose life will be found in this work, and the two parties came to an engagement at Kurûn, near Hamåt. The particulars of this action will be given in our biography of Masúd. Izz ad-din Masůd having been defeated, Saif ad-din marched out in person, and the two armies drew up at Tall as-Sultân, a village between Aleppo and Hamåt. This was on Thursday morning, the 10th of Shawwal, A. H. 571 (April, A. D. 1176). Imád ad-din al-Ispahảni states in his work entitled al-Bark as-Shâmi, as also Ibn Shaddad, in his History of Salàh ad-din (2), that the left wing of that prince's army was broken by Muzaffar ad-din, son of Zain ad-din (3), who commanded Saif ad-din's right wing; then Salâh ad-din charged at the head of his troops, and routed the army of Saif ad-din, who returned to Aleppo and proceeded afterwards to Mosul. The Muzaffar ad-din of whom we have spoken was sovereign of Arbela, and his life will be found in this volume.—Ghazi continued in possession of his empire, but, being attacked by a chronical disorder, he died on Sunday, the 3rd of Safar, A. H. 576 (June, A. D. 1180), after a reign of ten years and some months. He was succeeded by his brother Izz ad-din Masůd. -- The malady which afflicted him was a lingering consumption, and he died at the age of about thirty years.

(1) The life of Maudud will be found in the third volume of this work.
(2) See Schulten's Vita et res gestæ Saladini, p 43.
(3) The lives of all these persons will be found in this work.

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