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they required; he went very frequently to see them and ask them about their health, accompanying his inquiry with a donation over and above that which was regularly allotted to them. When he visited the hospital, he stopped at the bedside of each patient successively, and inquired how he had passed the night and how he felt. He founded also a house of hospitality, where all jurisconsults, dervishes, and other persons who came to the city might go to lodge. Indeed, none were refused admittance; a regular meal was furnished to them morning and evening, and when any of them resolved on continuing his journey, he received a sum proportioned to his wants. A college was built by him also and provided with professors for the Shafite and Hanifite students; he frequently went to visit them, dine with them, and pass the night in hearing religious music, to which he was so sensible that, when excited by its influence, he used to pull off part of his clothes : the next morning he always sent to the community some marks of his beneficence. The only pleasure in which he indulged was that of listening to music, for he never took the forbidden thing (wine , neither would he suffer it to be brought into the city. He built two convents for sûfis ; these were always filled with fixed residents and visitors ; on the days of solemn festival, the number of persons assembled there was astonishingly great, and these two establishments were endowed with estates (wakf sufficient to defray the expenses of providing for all these strangers, who, when they intended to depart, were even obliged to accept a donation. He often went to see the sdfis and have concerts performed in his presence. Twice every year he dispatched a number of trusty agents to the cities on the sea-coast, and furnished them with large sums for the redemption of such Moslims as might be in the hands of the infidels (the crusaders). When any of the persons thus delivered went to see him, they received from him a sum of money, and his agents

had directions to bestow a present on the others. Every year, he provided a 611 sabîl (9) for the pilgrims, furnished with every thing which they might require on

the way; he dispatched it off with a trusty servant, bearing five or six thousand pieces of gold destined to be distributed among the needy and the persons employed in the mosques of the two holy cities (Mekka and Medina). At Mekka he left numerous monuments of his piety, and these are still existing. He was the first person who brought water by an aqueduct to Mount Arafàt for the use of the pilgrims on the night during which they station there; this work cost him a large sum. He constructed a number of fountains at the same mountain, because the pilgrims used to suffer greatly for want of water, and he erected there also a funeral chapel for himself. The pomp with which he celebrated the birthday of the Prophet surpassed all description ; I shall, however, give a feeble outline of the ceremony. The people of the neighbouring provinces, having heard wbat veneration he testified for the Prophet, hastened to Arbela every year, and an immense multitude of jurisconsults, sûfis, preachers, Koranreaders, and poets arrived there, at the same time, from Baghdad, Mosul, Mesopotamia, Sinjar, Nasibin, Persian Irâk, and all the other places in the vicinity. This influx of strangers continued without interruption from the month of Muharram till the commencement of the first Rabi. Already, by his orders, upwards of twenty wooden pavilions, divided into four or five stories, were erected; one being appropriated to himself and each of the others to an emir or some person holding a high rank in the state. On the first day of the month of Safar, these pavilions were decorated in a most splendid manner; a choir of singers, a band of musicians, and a troop of exhibitors of Chinese shadows were established in each; not a story being left without a company of these artists. During the whole period all business remained suspended, and the sole occupation of the people was to amuse themselves and walk from one band to another. These pavilions were erected on a line from the gate of the citadel to the entrance of the convent near the hippodrome, and every day, after the asi prayer (10), Muzaffar ad-din went forth and stopped at each pavilion successively; listening to the music, and amusing himself with looking at the Chinese shadows or whatever else might be going on. He then passed the night in the convent, listening to religious music, and the next morning, after the prayer, he rode out to hunt, and returned to the citadel before the hour of noon. He continued in the same practice, every day, till the eve of the anniversary, and this he celebrated, one year on the eighth day of the month, and the next on the twelfth, in consequence of the different opinions held respecting the true date. Two days previously to the anniversary, he sent an immense flock of camels, oxen, and sheep to the hippodrome, accompanied with all bis drummers, singers, and musicians. These animals were there sacrificed as victims, and a number of caldrons being set up, the flesh was cooked in various manners.

On the eve of the anniversary, after the maghrib (or sunset) prayer, he listened to a concert


in the citadel, and then went forth (11), preceded by a great number of persons bearing wax-lights. Two, or four of these lights, I am not sure of the exact number, were such as are employed in the grand ceremonies, being fastened, each of them, on the back of a mule, with a man seated behind to support it. He advanced in this manner to the convent, and the next day, at an early hour, a quantity of pelisses were brought out of that establishent (12) by the sûfis, each of them bearing a bundle of them in each hand, and advancing one after another. A great number of these dresses, I do not know exactly how many, having been brought out, he went down to the convent, where the persons high distinction, the chiefs, and a great number of other eminent individuals had already assembled. A chair was then placed for the preacher, and Muzaffar ad-din went up into a wooden tower, erected to receive him. This edifice had windows overlooking the place where the assembly and the preacher were, and another set of windows opened on the hippodrome which was extremely wide. There, the soldiery were collected in a body, and the prince passed them in re

view, now looking at them, and then at the public and the preacher. When 612 the soldiers had all defiled successively, a repast was brought into the hippo

drome for the poor ; a public repast, consisting of an immense quantity of meat and bread. Another repast was prepared in the convent for the persons who had attended the preaching. Whilst the troops were defiling and the preachers exhorting, he sent for all the chiefs and eminent men, and for the doctors, preachers, Koran-readers, and poets, who had come from the neighbouring countries to witness the solemnity; each of these persons was separately introduced and clothed in a pelisse, after which he returned to his place. When all had been presented, the repast was brought in, and a portion of it was sent to the house of such of the company as were judged worthy of that honour. Towards the hour of the asr-prayer, or somewhat later, the repast ended, and the prince passed that night in the convent, listening to religious concerts till day-break. Such was his custom every year, and I have given merely an abridged account of the ceremony, because a full description of it would lead me too far. When the solemnity was ended, all prepared for their departure, and every one of them received from him a donation. We have already mentioned (vol. II. p. 385) that, when the hafiz Ibn Dihya arrived at Arbela and remarked the zeal displayed by Muzaffar ad-din in celebrating this anniversary,

he composed for him the work entitled at-Tanwir, etc., and that the prince made him a present of one thousand pieces of gold ; this was exclusive of the abundant gifts which he received for his subsistence during his stay. When Muzaffar ad-din (may God be merciful to him!) tasted of any dish and found it good, he never reserved it for himself, but told one of the persons in waiting to carry it to such and such a shaikh, or to such and such a woman, and these were always persons whom he had noted for their piety. He did the same with the sweetmeats, fruit, and every other article set before him. Noble qualities, profound humility, sincerity of belief, and soundness of moral principle were all combined in Muzaffar ad-din; he showed a strong partiality to the followers of the Sunnite doctrine and orthodox believers; the only class of learned men which he treated with special favour was that of the jurisconsults and Traditionists ; none of the others ever obtained any thing from him unless some particular considerations induced him to show them attention; the poets were also in the same case; he had but little esteem for them, and never made them any presents unless they came to recite him poems composed in his honour; then indeed he granted them a recompense, not wishing to frustrate the hopes of any person who counted on his generosity. He cultivated with pleasure the study of history, and his acquirements in that branch of knowledge were evident from his conversation. In his encounters and battles, numerous as they were, he was invariably victorious; the accounts which have been transmitted down of his battles not indicating a single defeat. Were I to enumerate all his virtues and noble deeds, I should be obliged to give a great extension to this work, but they are so well known that it is needless to enter into any details. If the reader remark that this article has been extended to too great a length, he will excuse me when I tell him that our family were under such obligations to Muzaffar addin, that, to repay even a part of them, our utmost efforts would be vain; gratitude to a benefactor is, however, a binding precept. May God reward him for us with the best of retributions ! inasmuch as the benefits and favours conferred by him on us, and by his forefathers on ours, were boundless, and men's affections are gained by acts of kindness. Having now proclaimed his virtues, I shall only add that all which I have stated has my own ocular testimony to support it, and that I have throughout avoided even the slightest exaggeration; nay, some of his acts I have passed over in silence, through my desire of avoiding prolixity.

avoiding prolixity. He was born in the castle of Mosul, on Tuesday the 27th of Muharram, A.H. 549 (April, A.D. 1154), and he died at the hour of noon on Wednesday, the 18th of Ramadân, A.H. 630 (June, A.D.1233) in his house at al-Balad. This town formed the state of Shihab addin Karata, but, when Muzaffar ad-din Kukubûri arrested him in the


614 (A. D. 1217-8) and took it into his own possession, he made it his occasional residence. His body was transported to Arbela and buried in the citadel, but, in pursuance to his dying injunctions, it was subsequently sent off to Mekka, where he had erected a mausoleum at the foot of the mountain to receive it, as has been already stated. When the pilgrim-caravan set out for Hijaz in the year 631, the body was sent with them, but it so happened that, on arriving

at Lina, they were obliged to return without effecting their journey, and the 615 corpse was carried back and interred at Kûfa, near the Mash’had (or funeral

chapel of Ali). May God in his mercy requite him well, and accept his good works, and receive him into everlasting happiness! — His wife Rabia Khâtûn, the daughter of Aiyûb, died at Damascus in the month of Shabân, A. H. 643 (Dec.-Jan. A. D. 1245-6), and, to the best of my opinion, she had then passed her eightieth year. She was interred in the college which she had erected at the foot of Mount Kâsiyûn, and endowed for the Hanbalites. The number of her male relatives, such as brothers and nephews, whom I saw, and who were also princes, surpassed fifty - exclusive of those who were not princes. To name them individually would extend this notice too far, but I shall simply state, that her husband was prince of Arbela; her daughter's sons, princes of Mosul ; the son of one of her brothers, prince of Khalåt and that region; al-Ashraf, another brother's son, prince of Mesopotamia ; other nephews were princes of Syria and Egypt, whilst Hijàz and Yemen were possessed by her brothers and their sons. From this indication the whole number may be imagined. - Kukubůri is a Turkish name, and signifies blue wolf (13). Baktikin is also a Turkish name. - Lina is the name of a station on the road from Irâk to Hijaz, but nearer to Iråk. In the year before mentioned, the caravan turned back on reaching it, in consequence of the extreme suffering they underwent for want of water (14).

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