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there from Abû Said Nasr Ibn Muhammad Ibn Silm, the philologer, Abû ’l-Faraj al-Alå Ibn as-Sawadi, the poet (vol. II. p. 415), and other masters. He then removed to Baghdad, and, having taken up his residence in the Muzaffariya (college), he became the disciple of Abû Muhammad Ibn al-Khashshâb, the grammarian (vol. II. p. 66 ), and Abû 'l-Barakầt Ibn al-Anbâri (vol. II. p. 95). He attended Abû 'l-Barakât's lessons with assiduity, and acquired vast information under his tuition. He learned Traditions from Abû Zarà Tâhir Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tàbir al-Makdisi (1), and, having abandoned the Hanbalite sect, he applied himself to the Hanifite system of jurisprudence. Some time after this, the place of grammatical professor at the Nizâmiya college became vacant, and, as the founder of that professorship had ordained that it should never be filled by any but a Shafite, al-Wajih Ibn ad-Dahhân passed over to the Shafite sect, and obtained the situation. It was on this occasion that al-Muwaiyad Abû ’l-Barakat Ibn Zaid, a native of Tikrit, composed the following verses :

Who will bear from me a message to al-Wajih ? yet I know that every message will be useless !—Say to him: You passed to the sect of (Abú Hanifa) an-Nomân, after following that of Ibn Hanbal; you did so because you had nothing to eat. It was not through devotion that you next adopted the doctrines of as-Shafi, but through the desire of obtaining a profitable result. You will surely soon go over to the sect of Mâlik ; mark what I say !

Al-Wajih composed some works on grammar, and taught the Koran-readings during a long period. His conversation was excessively silly, his discourses prolix, his avarice extreme, and his pretensions exorbitant. He composed some poetry, of which may be quoted these verses :

Although thou art the prince of generous men, I do not blame thee for requiring to be pressed before thou fulfillest a promise. The Lord of heaven bound himself to furnish food to all men, yet he must be solicited by prayer.

He was born at Wasit, A. H. 532 (A. D. 1137-8); he died at Baghdad, on the eve of Sunday, the 26th of Shaabân, A. H. 612 (December, A. D. 1 215), and was interred in the Wardiya cemetery.

(1) Ibn Khallikán gives some account of Abû Zarà Tâhir al-Makdisi in the life of that Traditionist's father, Muhammad Ibn Tåhir al-Makdisi.


Abù 'l-Madli Mujalli Ibn Jumaiya Ibn Naja, a member of the tribe of Koraish and of the family of Makhzûm, a native of Orsûf, and an inhabitant of Egypt, in which country also he died, was a doctor of the sect of as-Shafi, and one of the most eminent in that age. He is the author of an ample treatise on jurisprudence, entitled Kitâb ad-Dakhảir (book of treasures ), containing a great quantity of matter connected with the Shafite doctrine, and in which he has inserted a number of extraordinary cases, not, perhaps, to be found in any other work. This is an esteemed production, and in great request. In the year 547 (A. D. 1152), he was appointed kâdi of Old Cairo by al-Aadil Ibn as-Sallår (vol. II, p. 350), who at that time held all Egypt under his rule;

and he was removed from office towards the beginning of the year 549; in one 624 of the last ten days of Shaabản (November, A. D. 1154), it is said. He died

in the month of Zû ’l-Kaada, A. H. 550 ( December-January, A. D. 1155–6), and was interred in the Lesser Karafa cemetery.- Orsaf is the name of a small town on the coast of Syria, which has produced many men eminent for learning, and was frequented by numbers of Moslims who kept garrison there (against the crusaders). It is now in the hands of the Franks (the crusaders ; may God frustrate their projects ! - Postscript. Orsûf was retaken by al-Malik azZahir Bibars, in the year 663 (A. D. 1265).


The kâdi Abû Ali al-Muhassin Ibn Abi 'l-Kâsim Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi 'lFahm Dawûd Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Tamim at-Tanûkhi : we have already spoken of his father (vol. II. p. 304), and given some account of his life, with extracts from his poetry; and ath-Thaâlibi (rol. II. p. 129) speaks of them both in the same chapter (of his Yatima). He begins with the father, and then says of Abû Ali : “ He was a crescent of that moon; a branch of that tree; a decisive testimony of “ the glory and merit of that father ; the master-shoot of that stem; his substi“tute during his life-time, and his successor after his death.” It was of him that the poet Abû Abd Allah Ibn al-Hajjaj (vol. I. p. 448) said :

If we speak of elderly kädis, I acknowledge that I prefer the young to the old. Him who concurs not (with me) I should never strike but in the presence of our lord the kadi at-Tanukhi (1).

Abû Ali at-Tanûkhi is the author of a book called al-Farj baad as-Shidda (solace after suffering). In the beginning of this work he says that, in the year 346 (A. D. 957), he was director of the weighing-office at the mint in Sûk al-Akwaz (2); and, a little further on, he states, that he had occupied the place of kådi at Djazira tibni Omar. He left a diwán of poetry more voluminous than that of his father, and two other works, one entitled Kitâb nashwan al-Muhâdira (the excitement of conversation), and the other, Kitâb al-Mustajad min Félåt al-Ajwûd (the noblest of the deeds of the generous). He took lessons at Basra from Abû ’l-Abbas al-Athram (3), Abû Bakr as-Sûli (4), al-Husain Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn Othmân an-Nasawi, and other eminent masters of that day; he then went down to Baghdad, and, having settled there, he continued to teach Traditions till his death. The masters from whom he obtained these Traditions were persons of the highest authority for veracity. He was an elegant scholar, a poet, and an historian. He began to learn Traditions in the year 333 (A. D. 944-5), and he commenced his judicial career in A. H. 349 (A. D. 960-1) as kâdi of al-Kasr, Båbel (5), and the neighbouring districts, acting in the name of Abû 's-Sâib Otba Ibn Obaid Allah. The khalif al-Muti lillah then appointed him kâdi of Askar Mokram, Aidaj (6), and Râmhormuz. After that, he (successively) filled a great number of posts

in the civil administration, at different places. The following verses of his were composed on a certain shaikh who went out (one day with the people) to pray for rain: there was a cloud in the sky at the time, but when the shaikh finished, it cleared off:

We went out to obtain rain from the blessed effect of his prayers, and the skirt of the cloud was then nearly touching the earth. But when he began to pray, the sky cleared up; and he had not ended, before the cloud disappeared.

The following verses were composed, on a similar occasion, by Abû 'l-Husain Sulaiman Ibn Muhammad Ibn at-Tarawa, a grammarian, and a native of Malaga in Spain :


They went out to implore rain, and a cloud which promised a copious shower had already appeared in the west. When they took their places to pray, and it had begun to drizzle in their sight, it cleared off in answer to their invocations; one might have thought they had gone forth to ask for fair weather.

The lines which follow are attributed to Abû Ali al-Tanûkhi:

Say to the fair maiden in the gold-embroidered veil : Thou hast spoiled the devotion of a pious godly man. Between the brightness of thy veil and that of thy cheek, ’tis strange that thy face is not in flames. Thou bast combined the two means (of charming our hearts), and, between the lustre of them both, thou canst not escape being beautiful (7). When an eye is turned to steal a glance (at thee), the radiance of thy face says to it: Begone, lest thy sight be gone (8) !

How ingeniously imagined is that expression : Begone, lest thy sight be gone! These verses, on a veil embroidered with gold, remind me of a story which I read some time back at Mosul. A certain merchant went to Medina with a camel-load of black veils, but, not finding any purchasers, his goods remained on his hands, and he gave way to sadness. A person then said to him that no one could assist him in obtaining a profitable sale for them except Miskin ad-Dårimi (9). This Miskin was an excellent poet, celebrated for his wit and licentiousness. The merchant went to him, and found that he had taken to devotion, and never stirred out of the mosque. Having explained his business to him, he received this answer : “ What can I do for you? I have renounced poetry, and given myself

up to my present occupation.” The merchant answered : “I am a stranger “ here, and have no other goods but that load.” In short, he spared no entreaty, till at length Miskin left the mosque, and having put on the clothes he formerly wore, he composed these verses and gave them to the public:

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Say to the handsome maiden in the black veil : “What design have you formed “ against a pious devotee ? He had just girded his loins for prayer, when you sat in " ambush for him at the door of the mosque ! ”

The report immediately spread about that Miskin ad-Dårimi had relapsed into his former mode of life, and become enamoured with a female who wore a black veil. On this, there was not a belle in the city but wanted a black veil, and such was their eagerness to procure them, that the merchant disposed of those he had at exorbitant prices. When all were sold, Miskin returned to his devout exercises in the retirement of the mosque.—The kâdi Abû Ali at-Tanûkhi wrote the following lines to a man of high rank, in the month of Ramadàn :

May you obtain by this fast whatever you desire, and may God protect you from whatever you may dread. As this month excels all the others, so you surpass all mankind; nay, you are like the night of al-Kadar (10) in it.

He composed many other exquisite pieces. His death took place at Baghdad, on the eve of Monday, the 25th of Muharram, A. H. 384 (March, A. D. 994). He was born at Basra, on the eve of Sunday, the 26th of the first Rabi, A. H. 327 (January, A. D. 939).—His son, Abû 'l-Kâsim Ali Ibn al-Muhassin at-Tanûkhi, was an accomplished scholar and a man of great merit. He composed some poetry, but I have never seen any of it. He had been a pupil of Abû 'l-Alâ alMaarri (vol. I. p. 94), and acquired much information under his tuition. A great quantity of poetical pieces were transmitted by him to his own pupils. The family to which he and his brother belonged was noted for producing literary men of distinguished wit and talent. He was born at Basra, on the 15th of Shaabàn, A. H. 365 (April, A. D. 976), and he died on Sunday, the 1st of Muharram, A. H. 447 (April, A. D. 1055). A close intimacy was formed between him and the khatib Abû Zakariya at-Tabrizi (11), through the medium of Abů ’l-Alå al-Maarri. The Khatib ( Abu Bakr) (vol. I. p. 75) has a notice on him in the History of Baghdad, and enumerates the masters from whom he received and transmitted his traditional information; he then mentions that he himself wrote down some pieces under his dictation, and he assigns to his birth and death the same dates as those given here, with the sole difference that, according to him, he died on the eve of Monday, the 2nd of Muharram, at his own house, in the street of at-Tall. He states also that he attended his funeral, the next day, and said prayers over him. To this he adds, that he (Abû 'l-Kâsim) first began to acquire traditional information in the month of Shaabàn, A. H. 370 (12). He says also that, when quite a youth, the testimony of Abû 'l-Kâsim was received as valid, and that it continued to be so till the end of his life (a decisive proof that his character for morality had never been

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