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on the merits of as-Shâfi.—When this great imâm died, his death was lamented in numerous elegies. One of these elegies is attributed to Abu Bakr Ibn Duraid (11), and the Khatib has noticed it in his History of Baghdad. It contains the following passages:

See you not the memorials which the son of Idris has left of his existence? in the obscurities of science their guiding lights direct us;-eternal monuments on which time spends its efforts in vain; they still rear their pinnacles aloft, though ages have expired. (They mark the) paths which conduct (to knowledge), and trace (for us) the ways of rectitude. Their obvious meaning is wisdom itself, and the deductions drawn from them embody principles which, till then, had been completely disunited. When calamity darkens the world, the genius of the son of Idris, the cousin of Muhammad, spreads over it a brilliant light. When grave difficulties embarrass the mind, the 629 brightness of that genius clears up all obscurities. God chose to raise him and exalt him; none can depress the man who is exalted by the master of the (heavenly) throne. Truth was his aim, and piety preserved him from error; 'tis error that degrades a man. He recurred to the example of the Prophet, and his decisions are held to be second only to the Prophet's. In his decisions and judgments he placed his reliance on what is fixed by divine revelation; truth is always plain and clear.

In childhood and youth he arrayed himself in piety; when a boy, he was favoured with the wisdom of old age. He shaped his conduct so sagely, that, when merit was sought for, every finger pointed towards him. He who takes as-Shafi's learning for guide, will find an ample pasture in the field of learning. Salutations to the tomb which encloses his body! may the dark rain-clouds refresh it with copious showers. The earth of that grave has covered from our view the body of an illustrious man, once highly honoured when auditors flocked around him. Misfortune has afflicted us by his death, but, for its conduct towards him, it must receive affliction in its turn ; for his maxims subsist among us, refulgent as the moon; and his traces remain, luminous as the rising stars.

If it be asked how it came that Ibn Duraid, who was not contemporary with as-Shafi, composed an elegy on his death, we answer that there is nothing extraordinary in such a circumstance, and that it is perfectly natural; we have besides met other examples of it, as in the case of al-Husain (the son of Ali, etc.

(1) See Sale, introduction to Koran; Pococke's Specimen hist. ar. pag. 49, 50, 51; Eichhorn's Monumenta hist. ar. Tab. 1.

(2) His life is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(3) The life of Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Hakam is given by our author.

(4) The imâm Abû Bakr Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair Ibn Obaid Allah al-Asadi al-Humaidi, a member of the

tribe of Koraish and a native of Mekka, was a disciple of the imâm as-Shâft and accompanied him to Egypt. The Hakim Ibn al-Baii styles him the mufti and Traditionist of Mekka, and declares that he was for the people of Hijâz what Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was for those of Iråk. He died in the month of the first Rabî, A. H. 219 (March-April, A. D. 834).—(Tabakât as-Shafiyîn.)

(3) Abû Khalid Muslim Ibn Khalid Ibn Saîd, surnamed, for his red complexion, az-Zanji (native of Zanguebar, was one of the imâm as-Shâfî's masters. He belonged to the tribe of Koraish and the family of Makhzům, being a mawla to Sofyan Ibn Abd Allah. He was an able doctor and jurisconsult, but his authority as a Traditionist has been rejected by Ibn al-Madini and al-Bukhari. He succeeded Ibn Juraij as mufti of Mekka, and he died in that city, A. H. 180 (A. D. 796-7).—(Tabakåt al-Fokaha, MSS. No 755, fol. 21.)

(6) The life of this celebrated doctor will be found in this volume.

(7) The only thing particular in this journey was the short conversation which passed between him and Mâlik, and which our author has already given in as-Shâft's own words.

(8) The manuscript of the Bib. du Roi, ancien fonds, No. 856, contains an account of as-Shåfì, his life, sayings, virtues, etc. It is a short and interesting work; nearly all of what Ibn Khallikân says in the present article is to be found there, and expressed in the same terms.

(9) In the original Arabic, the last words of this verse have such various significations, that I may possibly have mistaken the idea which the poet meant to convey.

(10) He means Labid, the author of one of the seven Moallakas.

(11) His life will be found in this work.


Abu 'l-Kasim Muhammad, the son of Ali, the son of Abù Tàlib, was generally known by the surname of Ibn al-Hanafiya (the son of the Hanifite female), because his mother Khaula was the daughter of Jaafar Ibn Kais Ibn Salama Ibn Thaalaba Ibn Yarbu Ibn Thaalaba Ibn ad-Dual Ibn Hanifa Ibn Lujaim. Some say, however, that she was one of the captives taken in Yemama (1), and that she passed into the possession of Ali. Others again say that she was of a black colour and a native of Sind; that she had been a servant to a member of the tribe of Hanifa, and that she did not belong to it by birth. They add, that Khâlid Ibn al-Walid granted peace to this tribe on condition that they should surrender up to him their slaves, not themselves. Relative to the surname of Abu' l-Kasim borne by Ibn al-Hanafiya, it is said that he was indebted for it to the kindness of God's blessed Envoy (Muhammad), who said to Ali: "After my death, a son shall be "born to thee, and I bestow on him from this moment my own name and sur


"name; but let no other of my people bear them both." (Yet) among the persons who bore the name of Muhammad joined to the surname of Abù 'l-Kasim were Muhammad, the son of Abu Bakr as-Siddik (the first khalif); Muhammad, the son of Talha Ibn Obaid Allah; Muhammad, the son of Saad Ibn Abi Wakkâs, Muhammad, the son of Abd ar-Rahmân Ibn Aûf; Muhammad, the son of Jaafar Ibn Abi Tâlib; Muhammad, the son of Hàtib Ibn Abi Baltàa, and Muhammad, the son of al-Ashath Ibn Kais. Ibn al-Hanafiya was a man of great learning (in the law), and profound piety; the shaikh Abu Ishak as-Shirazi (vol. I. p. 9) has even given him a place in his Tabakât al-Fokahâ, or classified list of jurisconsults. Some extraordinary anecdotes are told of his great bodily strength, and one of them is thus related by al-Mubarrad, in his Kamil: Ali, "the father of Ibn al-Hanafiya, had a coat of mail which he found too long, and "he therefore ordered a certain quantity of the ring-work to be cut off it. On this, his son Muhammad took the skirt of it with one hand and the body with "the other, and tore off the piece at the spot marked by his father. When this "circumstance was told to Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair, he was seized with an afkal, or trembling fit, so jealous did he feel of Ibn al-Hanafiya's strength." Ibn az-Zubair also possessed great strength, and on this subject al-Mubarrad 650 relates the following anecdote in his work (2): "He that was king of the Greeks "in the days of Moawia sent to that khalif a message expressed in these terms: "The kings thy predecessors used to send envoys to our kings, and each party endeavoured to produce something by which it might surpass the "other; permit me then to do as they.' Moawia gave his permission, and "the king sent him two men, one, very tall and bulky, the other possessing great strength. Moawia then said to Amr Ibn al-Aâsi: As for the tall fel"low, we can find his match in Kais Ibn Saad Ibn Obàda, but, with regard to "the strong one, we stand in need of your advice.' Amr made answer : "There are here two (strong) men, but you dislike them both; I mean Muham"mad Ibn al-Hanafiya and Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair.'-'Come what may,'

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replied Moawia, 'take the one who is nearest (related) to us.' When the two "men (sent by the king of the Greeks) were brought in, a message was sent to "inform Kais Ibn Saad, and he entered soon after. Having made his salutation "to Moawia, he took off his trowsers and handed them to the foreign infidel (who "tried them on), and they came up to his breast, on which he hung down his

"head as one who is vanquished. It is mentioned that they blamed Kais for this "action, saying to him: Why didst thou take such a liberty in the presence "of Moawia? why didst thou not send thy adversary another pair? And " he replied:


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'I wished all to know, and in the presence of the envoys, that these trowsers belonged to Kais; lest it might be said: 'Kais has kept away, and these trowsers belong 'to a man descended from Aad and related to Thamûd (3).' But I am the chief of eighty men, and mankind consists of those who command and those who are commanded. By my origin and rank I resemble other men, but by the length of my 'body I surpass them.'

"Moawia then sent for Ibn al-Hanafiya, and, when he came in, he informed "him for what purpose his presence was required. Ibn al-Hanafiya then said "to the interpreters): Tell him to take his choice, either to sit down and give "me his hand so that I may try and pull him up, or else to stand and I shall "sit down.' The Greek preferred sitting down, and Muhammad Ibn al-Hanafiya pulled him up on his feet, whilst he was unable to pull Ibn al-Hanafiya "down. Having then asked Ibn al-Hanafiya to sit, he pulled at him, but was pulled down himself. Both Greeks retired vanquished (4).”— Ibn al-Hanafiya bore his father's standard at the battle of the Camel; it is said that, in the early part of the day, he hesitated to take it because it was a war between Muslims, a thing which had never been witnessed before; but his father Ali said to him : "Canst thou have doubts concerning (the just cause of) an army com"manded by thy father?" These words decided him, and he took charge of the standard. He was once asked how it happened that his father exposed him to dangers and thrust him into difficulties, whilst he never risked his other sons, al-Hasan and al-Husain? To this he replied: To this he replied: "They were his two eyes " and I was his hands, and he protected his eyes with his hands." One of his sayings was : "He is not a man of prudence who, when in company with a person whom he cannot avoid, does not treat him with politeness, till such time "as God may set him free." When Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair proclaimed himself khalif and received the oath of allegiance from the people of Hijâz, he told Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbâs and Muhammad Ibn al-Hanafiya to take the oath, but they refused, saying: "We shall not enter into such an engagement with thee till "thou hast all the land under thy orders, and the people unanimous in thy

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"favour." From that moment he rendered their residence in his neighbourhood extremely irksome, and employed every means of annoying them; he even threatened to burn them alive unless they took the oath. But the history of these proceedings would lead us too far.— Ibn al-Hanafiya came into the world (A. H. 21, A. D. 642) two years before the death of the khalif Omar, and he died at Medina on the first of Muharram, A. H. 81 (Feb. A. D. 700); others say 83, 82, and 73. The funeral service was said over him by Abbân, the son of Othman Ibn Affân, who was then governor of the city. His corpse was deposited in the Baki Cemetery; but some persons state that he had fled to Tâif in order to escape from Ibn az-Zubair, and that he died there. Others again say that he died at Aila.-The sect called al-Kaisâniya believe him to be one of the Imams, and that he is still residing at Mount Radwa. Kuthaiyir, the lover of Azza, who was himself a Kaisanite, alludes to this opinion in the following verses from one of his poems:

A grandson (of the Prophet's) who shall not taste of death till he lead on the cavalry 651 preceded by the standards. He remains concealed and invisible for a time, at Radwa, having honey near him and water.

Al-Mukhtar Ibn Obaid ath-Thakafi was the person who called on the people to acknowledge Muhammad Ibn al-Hanafiya for Imâm, pretending that he was the Mahdi (5). Al-Jauhari says in his Sahah, that Kaisan was the surname of this Mokhtar. Other authors say that Kaisân was a mawla to Ali Ibn Abi Tâlib. The Kaisanites pretend that Ibn al-Hanafiya is still residing in a valley of Mount Radwa, and that he is not dead. According to them, he entered there with forty of his companions, and that they were never heard of after; they are still alive however, and receive their sustenance (from God). They say also that he remains in this mountain with a lion on one side of him and a panther on the other; near him are two springs, running with water and honey, and he will return to the world and fill it with justice.— Muhammad (Ibn al-Hanafiya) dyed his hair with hinna and katam (6); he used also to wear his ring on the left hand. The histories told of him are well known. The imamate passed from him to his son, Abû Hàshim Abd Allah, and from him to Muhammad Ibn Ali, the father of (the khalifs) as-Saffâh and al-Mansûr. Of this we shall speak in the life of Muhammad Ibn Ali.-At-Tabari says, in his great historical work,



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