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mother placed him in the service of Muhammad, from whom she requested, at the same time, a prayer for

In compliance with her wish, Muhammad pronounced these words: Almighty God! give him great wealth and numerous children, and make him enter Paradise.” The effects of this prayer were manifested later; the riches of Anas multiplied, his date-trees bore fruit twice a year (it is said', and he became the father of seventy-eight sons. At the time of Ibn al-Ashâth's revolt, al-Hajjaj Ibn Yûsuf reviled Anas in the grossest terms for having sided with that rebel as he had already done with Ali and Ibn az-Zubair. Anas immediately wrote to Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwân, complaining of the indignity with which he, the Prophet's faithful domestic, had been treated; and this brought him a letter of excuses from that khalif, who addressed at the same time a severe reprimand to al-Hajjaj. Anas was ten years in Muhammad's service, and, on his master's death, he removed to Basra. A great quantity of Traditions were delivered by him, some consisted of the sayings which he had gathered from the lips of Muhammad himself, and the rest of those which he received from Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, and others. He died A. H. 93 (A. D. 711-2).- (Siar as-Salaf. -Qiyun at-Tawarikh.)

(2) See Kosegarten's Taberistanensis Annales, vol. II. p. 63. (3) Here Ibn Khallikán's text is obscure, and perhaps corrupted. At-Tabari relates the fact thus: “In templo quadraginta juvenes invenerunt (Arabes), evangelio studentes, qui fores occluserant. Fores effregit

Chàlid, iisque: quinam estis ? inquit. Illi vero: obsides sumus. Tunc fortissimis militibus eos dispertivit. “ Erant ex iis Abu Siiad.... Sirin, pater Mohammedis ben Sirin, etc."—(Kosegarten's Taberistanensis Annales, vol. II. p. 63.)

(4) Imrân Ibn Husain al-Khuzâi, one of the Prophet's Companions, became kadi of Basra, and died there in the exercise of his functions, A. H. 53 (A. D. 672-3).-(Siar as-Salaf.)

(3. The hafiz Khalid at-Haddà was a native of Basra and an eminent Tabi. He delivered Traditions on the authority of Anas, and died A. H. 142 (A. D. 789-60). He received the surname of al-Hadda, because he used to sit with the shoemakers (hudda) of the place where he resided.-(Al-Yâfi's Mirát.)

(6) Abu Bakr Aiyûb Ibn Abi Tamima, a native of Ghazza and a mawla, received the surname of as-Sakhti yâni because he sold dyed leather (sakhtiyan) at Basra. He held a high rank as a Tabi, and he saw some of the most eminent of that body, such as al-Hasan al-Basri, Ibn Sirin, Salim, and Nafi. He met also Anas Ibn Malik. Traditions were given on his authority by Ibn Sirin, Katâda, al-Aamash, the imâms Målik, ath-Thauri, Ibn Oyaina, the two Hammâds, etc. All doctors agree in assigning him the highest place for learning in the law and for credibility as a Traditionist. Shồba called him the chief of the jurisconsults, and Ibn Oyaina declared that amongst eighty-six of the Tabis whom he knew, he never met the like of Aiyub. He died A. H. 131 (A. D. 748-9).-(Tab. al-Fokaha.)

(7) Abú Muslim Abida as-Salmâni, a native of Kufa and a Tabi of the first rank, embraced islamism two years before the Prophet's death, but never had an opportunity of seeing him. He acquired his legal information from some of the principal Companions. He left Kûfa to assist the khalif Ali in his wars against the Kharijites. When Shuraih was unable to resolve a knotty point of law, he sent it to Abida. This doctor died A.H. 72 (A. D. 691-2).-(Tab. al-Fokaha.)

(8) If the Musulman, before he begins his prayers, has not distinctly heard the call to prayer (or izán) pronounced by the muezzin, it is incumbent on him to repeat it and the ikama before commencing the regular prayer. The ikāma is a repetition of the izan with some additional words. - See D'Obsson's Tab. gen. de l'Emp. Othom. tom. II. p. 116.

(9; This circumstance is cited to prove that Abida did not consider the act of eating as productive of legal impurity.

(10) The original Arabic may here bear another signification, namely: It was in Persia that ito purchase his liberty) he gave his bond to Anas Ibn Målik.

(11) I read here, Ibn Aûn. Abu Aun Abd Allah Ibn Aun Ibn Artaban, a mawla of Abd Allah Ibn Dorra, was a distinguished traditionist and one of Ibn Sirin's disciples. He died A H. 151 (A. D. 768).—(Nujum.)

(12) See vol. II. page 534. — The Katil at-Taff (slain at Tafs) was Husain, the son of Ali. — (Ibn Khaldun, MS. No. 2402, f. 52 v.)

IBN ABI DIB.

Abû 'l-Harith Muhammad, a member of the tribe of Koraish and of the family of Aâmir, and surnamed Ibn Abi Dib, was the son of Abd er-Rahman Ibn alMughaira Ibn al-Harith Ibn Abi Dib Hisham Ibn Said Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abi Kais 636 Ibn Abd Wadd Ibn Nasr Ibn Malik Ibn Hisl Ibn Aâmir Ibn Luwaiyi Ibn Ghalib Ibn Fihr Ibn Malik Ibn an-Nadr Ibn Kinana Ibn Khuzaima Ibn Mudrika Ibn al-Yâs Ibn Modar Ibn Nizâr Ibn Maadd Ibn Adnân. This illustrious jurisconsult was one of the imam Mâlik's disciples, and a sincere friendship united them in the closest attachment. When Mâlik went to Abû Jaafar al-Mansur, that khalif asked him what masters (in the science of jurisprudence) he had left behind him at Medina, and he replied : “Commander of the faithful ! Ibn Abi

Dib, Ibn Abi Salama (1), and Ibn Abi Sabra (2).” Abd ar-Rahmàn, the father of Ibn Abi Dib, went to see the emperor of the Greeks (Kaisar), but in consequence of some malicious reports which were made against him, that sovereign had him arrested and confined in prison for life. Abu 'l-Harith Ibn Abi Dib died at Kûfa, A. H. 159 (A. D. 775-6); some say, 158. He was born in the month of Muharram, A.H. 81 (Feb.-March, A. D. 700); some say, A.H. 80, the

year of the great torrent (as-Sail al-Juhål) (3).- Hisl as an appellative name) signifies the young of the dubb (4). If the second syllable of the word Luwaiyi be considered as a hamza, this name is the diminutive form of lãi (bull); but, if not, it is the diminutive of lawa (a sand-hill).--Fihr means a stone.

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(1) Abû Abd Allah Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi Salama, surnamed al-Majishûn, died at Baghdad, A. H. 160 (A. D. 776–7).-(Tabakat al-Fokahû.)

(2) Abu Bakr Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Sabra, a member of the tribe of Koraish, was employed as kadi by Abu Jaafar al-Mansûr. He died A. H. 172 (A. D. 788-9), aged sixty years.— Tab. al-Fokaha )

(3) “ The year 80 (A. D. 699-70) was that of the great torrent at Mekka called al-juhaf. It was so denominated because it bore away (jahaf) men, women, and camels with their loads."(Oiyūn at-Tawdrikh.) 14. See vol. I. page 86, note (8).

MUHAMMAD IBN AL-HASAN.

Abú Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Farkad, a doctor of the sect of Abù Hanifa, and a mawla to the tribe of Shaibân, came of a family which resided at Harasta, a village outside the gate of Damascus and in the midst of the Ghůta (1). His father left Syria and proceeded to Wasit in Irak, where he settled. Muhammad, the subject of this article, was born in that city, and he passed his early life in Kûfa. He then travelled to collect Traditions, and met a number of the most eminent imams. During some years, he attended the sittings of Abû Hanifa, after which, he studied jurisprudence under Abû Yûsuf, the disciple of Abû Hanifa. He composed many valuable works, such as the Great and the Lesser Jåmi, or collection of Traditions, etc. In his various productions he inserted disquisitions on various obscure points, particularly those connected with grammar. He contributed actively to the propagation of the doctrines taught by Abû Hanifa. He expressed himself with great elegance, and, when he discoursed on any subject, it seemed to the hearers as if the Koran had been sent down to mankind in the language which he spoke. When the imam as-Shảfi (vol. II. p. 569), went to Baghdad, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan was there, and they both met frequently and discussed points of law in the presence of Hårûn ar-Rashid. As-Shâfi was (afterwards) heard to say: “I

never saw a person who, when questioned on a point which required “ reflexion, did not betray some uneasiness by his countenance; but I must

except Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan.” He said again : “ The information which “ I learned by heart from Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan would suffice to load a “ camel.” The following anecdote was related by ar-Rabi Ibn Sulaiman al

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Muràdi (vol. I. p. 519): “ As-Shàfi, having asked from Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan " the loan of some books which he wished to copy, waited for a considerable “ time without obtaining them, and he at length wrote to him the following on lines :

Say to him whose like was never seen by any eye you ever saw

to him whose "aspect would make the spectator think that he had before his eyes (the united merit of “ all former doctors: • Learning forbids the learned to withhold it from the learned.' “ Perhaps he may bestow it on one deserving ! perhaps he may !

“ Immediately on receiving this note, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan sent him " the books." I found these verses also in the collected poetical works of Mansûr Ibn Ismail, a jurisconsult whose life I shall give. He is there said to be the author of them, and to have written them to Abû Bakr Ibn Kâsim ; as for the former statement, it is made by Abû Ishak as-Shîrâzi (vol I. p. 9), in his Tabakât al-Fokahâ. It is related that as-Shafi said: "I never met with a “fat man possessing acuteness of mind, except Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan.” Ar-Rashid conferred the kadiship of ar-Rakka on Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan, but afterwards removed him, and this doctor then proceeded to Baghdad. “ The following anecdote was related by Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan : “ Some

persons went to consult Abû Hanifa about a woman who had just died, " and in whose womb they felt a child stirring. He told them to extract “ the infant by making an incision, and it proved to be a boy. The child “ survived and grew up to be a youth; and this youth, having commenced “his studies, used to attend my sittings, where he was known by the appel66 lation of the son of Abû Hanîfa." Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan remained constantly with ar-Rashid, till that khalif made his first journey to Rai; he 637 then set out with him, and died at Ranbawaih, a village near Rai, in the year 189 (A. D. 804-5). He was born A. H. 135 (A. D. 752-3); some say 131 or 132.

As-Samâni (vol. II. p. 156) says that Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan and al-Kisài (vol. II. p. 237) died at Rai on the same day. It is mentioned that ar-Rashid was heard to say: “I buried at Rai the sciences of jurisprudence “ and grammar.” Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan was cousin by the mother's side to al-Farrà, the celebrated grammarian and philologer.

MUHAMMAD IBN ALI AL-HASHIMI.

On seeing

Abù Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbâs Ibn Abd alMuttalib al-Hashimi was the father of the two khalifs as-Saffâh and al-Mansur. We have already spoken of his father Ali (see page 216 of this volume). “ This “Muhammad,” says Ibn Kutaiba, “ a most handsome man, and lived “ honoured with the deepest respect. A

space of only fourteen years intervened " between his birth and that of his son Ali. The latter used to die his hair

black, and the former, red; it therefore happened that persons who were not “ well acquainted with them mistook one for the other.” Yazid Ibn Abi Muslim, the secretary of al-Hajjaj Ibn Yûsuf (vol. I. p. 356), states that he heard his master relate the following anecdote: “We happened to be with Abd al-Malik Ibn “Marwån, at a country-seat of his, near Důma tal-Jandal (1); he was conversing “ with a physiognomist and addressing questions to him, when Ali Ibn Abd “ Allah Ibn al-Abbâs came in, accompanied by his son Muhammad. “him approach, Abd al-Malik ceased from conversation ; his colour changed, “ and he began to mutter some words between his lips. I immediately sprung

up with the intention of preventing Ali from advancing, but the khalif made “ me a sign that I should let him alone. He then drew near and made his saluta

tion, on which Abd al-Malik seated him by his side ; and whilst he was pass“ing his hand (carelessly) over his (Ali's ) clothes, he signed to Muhammad “ that he also should be seated. He then commenced discoursing with Ali, the “ agreeable tone of whose conversation was well known. A repast being brought “in, the khalif washed his hands, and ordered the tray to be placed near Abù “ Muhammad (Ali), but he said that he was then keeping a fast, and, rising up

suddenly, he retired. Abd al-Malik followed him with his eyes till he had nearly

disappeared from sight, and then, turning to the physiognomist, he asked “ him if he knew who that was? The man replied that he did not, but that “ he knew one thing respecting him. The khalif desired to know what that

was, and the physiognomist said : “If the youth who is with him be his son, " there will come forth from his loins a number of Pharaohs, destined to

possess the earth and slay whoever attempts to resist them ! On hearing

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