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923). ,

He was buried, the next day, in (the court of his own house. I saw in the Lesser Karafa cemetery, at the foot of Mount Mukattam near Old Cairo, a tomb which is often visited, and at the head of which is a stone bearing this inscription : “ This is the tomb of Ibn Jarir at-Tabari.” The public imagine it to belong to the author of the history, but this opinion is erroneous, the fact being that he was buried at Baghdad ; and Ibn Yûnus himself says, in his History of the foreigners who came to Egypt (2); that such was really the case. Abů Bakr al-Khowårezmi, a celebrated poet whose life we shall give, was a sister's son to at-Tabari.

(1) See vol. I. Introduction, page xxvi, 201. 2 See vol. II. page 94.


He com

Abù Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Hakam Ibn Aảyan Ibn Laith Ibn Råfi was a native of Egypt and a doctor of the Shafite sect. menced by receiving lessons from Ibn Wahb (vol. II. p. 15) and Ash'hab vol. I. p.223), the disciples of the imam Malik, but, when as-Shafi went to Egypt, he became his pupil and studied jurisprudence under him. During the persecution at Baghdad (1), he was taken before the kâdi Ibn Abi Duwad al-Iyàdi (vol. I. p. 61), but, as he refused to do what was required of him, they sent him back to Egypt, where he finally became chief of the Shafite sect. He was born A. H. 182 (A. D. 798-9), and he died on Wednesday, the first of Zů’l-Kaada (some say the 15th), A. H. 268 (May, A. D. 882.) His tomb is stated to be near those of his father and of his brother Abd ar-Rahman, and these two are situated close to as-Shảfi's. Of this we have already spoken (vol. II. p. 14). Ibn Kâni (vol. I. p. 374) mentions that he died at Old Cairo, A. H. 269. Abû Abd ar-Rahman an-Nasâi cites him as bis authority for some of the Traditions which he gives in the Sunan (vol. I. p. 58). Al-Muzani (vol. I. p. 200) relates as follows : “We “ used to go to as-Shảfi that we might hear his lessons, and we would sit down " at the door of his house. Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Hakam “would then come, and go in, and make a long stay; he would even sometimes " breakfast with him. On coming down, as-Shafi would begin to read to us,

and, on finishing, he would bring Muhammad's mule and help him to mount, “ after which, he would keep watching him till he disappeared, and then say: «« « To obtain a son like him, I should consent to be in debt for a thousand dinars “6 and unable to find wherewithal to pay them.' ”...-It is related that Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Hakam said: “I used to go frequently to as-Shảfi, and in consequence “ of this, a number of persons belonging to our sect went to my father”—who, as has been said (vol. II. p. 14), was a Malikite — “ and said to him : • Abù "* " Muhammad ! (thy son) Muhammad attaches himself exclusively to this man, 641 “ 6 and frequents him constantly. This indicates that thy son has a dislike for " " the sect to which he belongs.' My father essayed to calm them, say,“ ing: “He is young, and wishes to learn and examine the different opinions “ held on the same subject.' He then took me in private and said : “Stick “« to that man, my boy! for if you leave this city, and happen to say, when

you discuss a question : Ash hab relates that Malik saidyou will be asked who “o was Ash'hab.' In consequence of this advice, I attended with assiduity the « lessons of as-Shâfi, and the words of my father never left my memory; till,

having gone to Irak, the kûdi consulted me on a question in the presence of “ the company assembled at his house, and, in discussing it, I happened to say:

*Ash'hab relates that Malik said'-on which he asked who was Ash'hab, " and turned towards the company for an answer. One of the persons present

replied, as if perfectly ignorant on the subject : “I know neither Ash'hàb "(brown) nor Ablak (gray)!Of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Hakam, numerous anecdotes are related. Al-Kudài states, in his Khital (2), that this was the Muhammad whom Ahmad Ibn Tûlûn (vol. I. p. 153) took by night to the aqueduct which he had constructed at al-Maàfir, and the water of which the people hesitated to employ either for drinking or for making ablutions (3). Muhammad then drank thereof and made use of it for his ablutions, whereat Ibn Tûlûn was so highly pleased, that he detained him no longer and sent him a rich present (4). It is generally said that the circumstance here spoken of occurred to al-Muzani, but this is not exact.



(1) This was the persecution in which Ahmad Ibn Hanbal displayed the fortitude which rendered him illustrious. See vol. I. page 44. The khalif al-Motasim endeavoured to force the doctors of that time to hold that the Koran was created. See Abu 'l-Feda's Annals, year 219.

(2) The life of al-Kudai will be found some pages farther on.

(3) The people refused to make use of the water coming from this aqueduct, because they imagined that the money employed in its construction had not been acquired by the sovereign in a lawful manner. See, vol. I. p. 414 of this work, the anecdote told by Ibn Khallikân of Abà Ishak as-Shirâzi's repugnance to saying his prayers in the Nizamiya College.

(4) “ The compiler of the history of Ahmad Ibn Tulùn says: When Ahmad Ibn Talan had finished the ** erection of this aqueduct, he learned that some persons did not consider it lawful to drink of the water

which it supplied. Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Hakam"—the doctor whose life Ibn Khallikân gives here—“ relates as follows: I was one night in my house, when a slave of Ahmad Ibn Tolùn's came to “ find me and said: “The emir wanteth thee.' Filled with terror and apprehension, I mounted my horse, " and the slave led me off the public road. “Whither dost thou take me ?' said I. “To the desert,' was his

answer, and the emir is there. Convinced that my last hour was come, I said to the slave: "God help ** • me! I am an aged and feeble man; dost thou know what he wanteth with me?' He took pity on my • state and answered: • Avoid making any remark against the aqueduct.' I still went forward with him, " till suddenly I perceived torch-bearers in the desert, and Ahmad Ibn Talun on horseback at the door of " the aqueduct, with great wax-lights burning before him. I immediately dismounted and saluted him, but “ he did not greet me in return; I then said : O emir! thy messenger hath grievously fatigued me, and I

suffer from thirst. Allow me, I beg, to take a drink.' On this, the pages offered me water, but I said : • • No; I shall draw some for myself.' I then drew water whilst he looked on, and I drank to such a degree that I thought I should have burst. On finishing, I said : O emir! may God quench thy thirst at the rivers of Paradise! for I have drunk to my utmost wish, and I know not which to praise most—the excellence

of the water, joined to its sweetness and coolness, or its clearness, or the sweet smell of the aqueduci.' " He looked at me a moment, and said : I want thee for something, but this is not the time. Let this man “ retire.' I immediately retired, and the slave said to me: “Thou hast hit the mark!' To which I answered:

May God reward theel were it not for thee, I had perished.' The construction and completing of this aqueduct cost forty thousand dinars.” — (Al-Makrizi's Khitat; chapter towards the end of the work, and entitled


.قناطر ابن طولون وبیره


Abů Jaafar Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Nasr at-Tirmidi, a jurisconsult of the sect of as-Shảfi, was the ablest of them all in that age, the most devout and the most abstemious. He resided at Baghdad, and taught Traditions that city on the authority of Yahya Ibn Bukair al-Misri (1), Yûsuf Ihn Adi, Ka

thir Ibn Yahya, and other masters. Traditions were delivered on his own authority by the kâdi Ahmad Ibn Kâmil (vol. I. p. 874), Abd al-Båki Ibn Kânî (vol. 1. p. 374), and others. His character as a traditionist is perfectly established, and he bore a high reputation for learning, merit, and self-mortification. Abù 't-Taiyib Ahmad Ibn Othmân as-Simsår, the father of Abû Hafs Omar Ibn Shảhin (vol. I. p. 324) relates as follows : “I was at Abû Jaafar at-Tirmi“di's, when a person consulted him about the saying of the Prophet, that God descendeth to the heaven of the world (i. e. the lowest of the seven heavens); and

this person expressed his desire to know how there could, in that case, be

any thing more exalted (than the lowest heaven)? To which at-Tirmidi replied: “The descent is intelligible; the manner how is unknown; the belief therein “ ' is obligatory, and the asking about it is a blamable innovation.'” His moderation in respect to food was extreme, and this resulted from indigence, devotion, and patience under poverty. It is related by Muhammad Ibn Mûsa Ibn Hammad, that at-Tirmidi told him that he had subsisted seventeen days on five pence

(three pence, according to another version)—“ I then asked “him,” said Ibn Hammad, “ how he had managed, and he replied : “That “sum was all I possessed, and I laid it out on turnips, one of which I ate “ each day.' ” Abû Ishâk az-Zajjaj (vol. I. page 28) states that at-Tirmidi received a monthly stipend of four dirhems (2), and that he never asked any thing from any person.

At-Tirmidi used to relate the following circumstance : “I had studied jurisprudence under Abû Hanifa, when, being in the mosque of Medina the year I made the pilgrimage, I had a dream in “ which I saw the blessed Prophet, and I said : 0 Apostle of God! I have “studied the system taught by Abû Hanîfa; shall I adopt it?' and he answered: “No!' I then said : “ Shall I adopt that of Målik Ibn Anas?' and he replied :

Adopt that portion of it which is in conformity with my sunna (sayings and

doings).' I then asked him if I should adopt the system taught by as-Shafi, " and he replied: 'It is not his system; he took my sunna, and nothing more, “6 and he refuted those who contradicted it. After having this dream, I “ immediately proceeded to Egypt and copied out as-Shâfi's books.” Ad-Dara“kutni (vol. II. p. 239) styles him a Traditionist of veracity, trust-worthy and pious. At-Tirmidi mentioned that he passed twenty-nine years in writing out the Traditions. He was born in the month of Zû ’l-Hijja, A. H. 200 (July,

66 6




A. D. 816); some say A. H. 210; and he died on the 11th of Muharram, A. H. 295 (October, A. D. 907). He never dyed his hair (as was customary at that

period). Towards the close of his life, his intellect got deranged to an extreme 642 degree.—“ At-Tirmidi, says as-Samâni (vol. II. p. 156) “ means belonging to

(Tirmid) an ancient city on the bank of the river of Balkh, which is called “ Jaihûn (the Ocus). Various opinions are held respecting the pronunciation " of this name; some say Turmid and others Tirmid; the inhabitants themselves

pronounce it Tarmid; the pronunciation which was long familiar to us was " Tirmid ; but

persons who pretend to exactness, and possess information on the “ subject, pronounce it Turmud. Each of these pronunciations has its partisans, “ who give reasons in support of their opinion.” Such are the words of asSamâni, and I am unable to offer any thing decisive on the subject. Persons who have been there inform me that it is situated, not in the province of Khowarzem, but in that of Transoxiana, and on the same side of the river) as the latter.


(1) Yahya Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Bukair, a maula to the tribe of Makhzûm, was an eminent traditionist of Egypt, and taught Mâlik's Muwatta from memory. He died in the month of Safar, A. H. 231 (October, A. D. 845).-(Husn al-Muhadira.)

(2) Four dirhems are nearly equivalent to half a crown. This stipend was paid to him out of the public treasury: every doctor of the law, regularly ordained, being entitled to a pension from the state.


Abû Bakr Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Jaafar, surnamed Ibn al-Haddad, was a doctor of the sect of as-Shảfi, a native of Egypt, and a member of the tribe of Kinana. He is the author of the work entitled Kitab al-Furit in which he treats of the development of the law according to Shafite principles. It forms a small volume, but is replete with information, and the questions of which it treats are discussed with extraordinary subtility. Some of the most eminent imâms have undertaken to comment it; al-Kaffàl al-Marwazi (vol. II. p. 26) composed a moderately-sized volume on the subject; the kâdi Abû 't-Taiyib

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