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Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Ibrahim, a native of Istirâbâd, or of Jurjan according to some, and a doctor of the sect of as-Shafi, was generally known by the surname of al-Khatan. He acquired a high distinction by his piety, his talent as a jurisconsult, and the excellent traditional information which he possessed on points connected with Shafite law (1). In the science of controversial reasoning, and in those connected with the Koran and its readings, he held the first rank, and was one of the most eminent amongst the learned whose skill lay in speculative investigations and dialectics. When in his native town, he received lessons from Abû Noaim Abd al-Malik Ibn Muhammad Ibn Adi, and other masters of the same epoch; in the year 337 (A. D. 948-9) he visited Naisapûr, and remained there two years, after which he proceeded to Ispahân, where he studied Abû Dâwûd's (vol. I. p. 589) Musnad (authenticated collection of Traditions) under the tuition of Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar (2). He then passed into Irâk, and, when upwards of forty years of age, he began to write, and produced numerous works. He was an indefatigable traveller, and received information from the lips of many doctors. A commentary was composed by him on the Talkhis, a work of Abû 'l-Abbas Ibn al-Kàss (vol. I. p. 48). He died on the Festival of the Sacrifice (the 10th of Zû 'l-Hijja), A. H. 386 (Dec. A. D. 996) at the age of seventy-five years.-He was called al-Khatan (the son-in-law) because 645 he was thus allied to Abû Bakr al-Ismaili (vol. I. p. 8).

(1) Such I take to be the meaning of the words, an expression which frequently occurs, and which, in a former part of this work, I rendered erroneously by: he had some excellent views on the subject of the Shafite doctrine. The are undoubtedly the particular channels through which certain decisions on points of law passed down to posterity by oral transmission. When a doctor was the sole possessor of some traditional information of this kind, and if the persons through whom it descended to him were men of acknowledged credibility, the expression just mentioned was applied to him. If the points of information which he possessed were transmitted down through an unusual channel, the expression emSee also p. 616 of this volume, in the life of al-Fârisi.

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Abu Sahl Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman Ibn Harûn Ibn Musa Ibn Isa Ibn Ibrahîm Ibn Bishr al-Hanafi al-Ijli (a member of the tribe of Hanifa, a branch of that of Ijl), and generally known by the name of as-Solûki, was born at Ispahân, the native place of his family, and dwelt at Naisàpûr. He was a doctor of the Shafite sect, an interpreter of the Koran, a scholastic theologian, an adept in the belles-lettres, a grammarian, a poet, a prosodian, and a katib. The Hakim Abû Abd Allah Ibn al-Baîi mentions him in his historical work, and says: "He was the chief doctor of the age, and the ablest of contemporary jurisconsults; he had studied the law under Abû Ishak al-Marwazi, "and fathomed all the depths of science. He then proceeded to Irâk, and went to Basra, where he continued to give lessons for some years, when his presence was required at Ispahân, where he also remained during some years (1)." On learning the death of his uncle Abû 't-Taiyib (2), he departed secretly for Naisâpûr, in the year 337 (A.D. 949), and, for three days, he sat there in public to receive condolences, during which the shaikh Abû Bakr Ibn Ishak (3) remained seated at his side, as did also all the chiefs of the civil administration, the kâdis, and the muftis of the two sects (4). When the ceremony of mourning was terminated, regular assemblies were held to hear him discuss points of law, and there did not remain an adversary or an approver of his opinions, but acknowledged his merit and superiority. The shaikhs visited him repeatedly, to request him that he would bring to their city those whom he had left behind him (his wife and family) at Ispahan, and he at length acceded to their wishes. He then undertook the duties of professor and mufti at Naisàpùr, and the jurisconsults of the place received lessons from him. The Sahib Ibn Abbåd (vol. I. p. 212) used to say: "We never saw the like of Abu Sahl as-Solûki, and he himself never "saw his like." Abu 'l-Walid (5) being asked concerning the respective merits of Abu Bakr al-Kaffàl (vol. II. p. 26), and as-Solùki, he replied: "Who could "possibly equal as-Solûki?" This doctor was born A. H. 296 (A. D. 908-9); he began to learn the Traditions, A. H. 305; he went to attend Abû Ali ath-Thakafi's (6) lectures on law in 313, and he died towards the end of the year 369



(A. D. 980), at Naisâpûr. His body was borne on a bier to the hippodrome of al-Husain, and the sultan authorised Abù 't-Taiyib (vol. I. p. 606), the son of the deceased, to celebrate the funeral service. He was interred in the mosque where he used to teach. The word Solûki has been already explained (vol. I. p. 607).

(1) Being unable to distinguish where the extract from Ibn al-Baii's work finishes, I indicate it as ending here; but what follows to the date of as-Solûki's death may perhaps belong to it. I am however inclined to suppose it shorter than I have indicated, and that the last words of it are: The ablest of contemporary jurisconsults.

(2) Abu 't-Taiyib Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman al-Hanafi as-Solûki, an eminent doctor of the sect of as-Shâfi, a traditionist and philologer, died in the month of Rajab, A. H. 337 (Jan.-Feb. 949). (Tab. asShafiyin.)

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(3) Abû Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ishak Ibn Aiyub, a native of Naisàpûr, and surnamed ad-Dubai (all)


one of the imams of the Shafite sect, and a mufti of the highest reputation. He wrote a number of large works, such as the Mabsût (the developed, probably a treatise on Shafite jurisprudence), a treatise on nouns and adjectives, another on faith and free will, a fourth on the merits of the four first khalifs, etc. Born A.H. 238 (A. D. 871-2); died in the month of Shaabân, A. H. 342 (Dec.-Jan. A. D. 933–4).— (Tabakåt as-Shafiyîn.} (4) The two sects were probably the Hanifite and the Shafite.

(5) Abû 'l-Walid Hassan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad, a member of the Omaiyide family and a native of Naisapûr, was one of the imams of the Shafite sect, and the first Traditionist of his age in Khorasan. He was distinguished for piety and learning. In one of his works, he treated of Moslim's Sahih, and, in another, of the Shafite doctrines. He composed also an excellent commentary on as-Shâfi's Risala (see p. 606, note (3) ). Died in the month of the first Rabi, A. H. 349 (May, A.D. 960), aged seventy-two years.-(Tab. as-Shafiyin. (6) Abu Ali Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhâb ath-Thakafi al-Hâjjâji drew his descent, as his surnames indicate, from al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf ath-Thakafi. This imam, equally distinguished for learning and piety, resided at Naisȧpûr. Born A. H. 244 (A. D. 838-9); died in the month of the first Jumâda, A. H. 328 (Feb.-March, A. D. 940).- (Tab. as-Shafiyin.)


Abu 't-Taiyib Muhammad Ibn al-Mufaddal Ibn Salama Ibn Aâsim ad-Dubbi, a native of Baghdad, and one of the most eminent doctors of the Shafite sect, studied jurisprudence under Abû 'l-Abbàs Ibn Suraij (vol. I. p. 46). He was noted for his extreme penetration, and this induced Abû 'l-Abbâs to pay him the

greatest attention, and take the utmost pains in giving him instruction. Abû 'tTaiyib composed a number of works, and he died in the month of Muharram, A. H. 308 (May-June, A. D. 920); being cut off in the flower of his age. He possessed some excellent traditional information on points connected with the Shafite doctrines (1).-His father, Abû Tâlibal-Mufaddal Ibn Salama Ibn Aâsim ad-Dubbi, was a philologer, and author of some celebrated works on various branches of literature, and on the rhetorical figures of the Koran. He belonged to the school of Kûfa (2) and wrote an elegant hand. He met (and received information from) Ibn al-Aarâbi (3) and other men eminent for learning, and he composed a book in which he pointed out and corrected the errors committed by al-Khalil Ibn Ahmad in his Kitab al-Ain (vol. I. p. 496). The following is a list of his works: the Kitâb at-Tarikh (book of history), treating of philology; the Kitâb al-Fâkhir (liber se jactantis); the Kitâb al-Ud wa 'l-Malâhi (on the lute and other musical instruments); the Kitâb Jalâ as-Shubah (obscurities cleared up); the Kitâb atTaif (4), the Kitâb Dîâ il-Kulûb (light of hearts), treating of the rhetorical figures of the Koran, and filling more than twenty volumes; the Kitâb al-Ishtikâk (on etymology); the Kitâb az-Zari wa 'n Nabât (on seed and plants); on the members of 646 the human body; on the requisites for a katib; on the words ending in a long and in a short elif; a Mudkhil, or Introduction to the science of grammar (5). Abû Bakr as-Sûli (6) transmitted traditional information on his authority, and says that he attended his lessons in the year 290.-Salama Ibn Aàsim, the grandfather of Abû 't-Taiyib, was the pupil of al-Farrà (7), and the person who transmitted to the world his master's peculiar system of Koran-reading. They belonged to a family of which all the members were celebrated for talent.-Al-Mufaddal was a favorite of the vizir Ismail Ibn Bulbul (8); being informed that the poet Ibn ar-Rumi (vol. II. p. 297) had composed a satire on him, (he made a complaint to) the vizir, (who) testified his displeasure towards Ibn ar-Rûmi by refusing him a share in the recompenses which he was accustomed to distribute. The poet then composed the following verses against al-Mufaddal :

Cover yourself with the cloak of al-Kisâi-or dress in the furred garment of al-Farrå or have al-Khalil for a friend or Sibawaih for an inseparable companion (9)—or become one of Abu 'l-Aswad's company (10) and take a surname indicative of melancholy; yet God will never permit thee to be counted a man of learning, but will let you be reckoned among the dunces (11).

(1) See page 601, note (1), of this volume.

(2) See vol. I. page 379, note (2).

(3) His life is given in this work.

(4 This is a treatise on the Taif al-Khial. See vol. I. Introd. p. xxxvi.

(5) Compare this list with that of al-Asmâi's works, page 126 of this volume, and see an observation on the subject in the Introduction to vol. I. page xxiii.

(6) The life of Abu Bakr as-Sûli is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(7) The life of al-Farrâ is given in this work.

(8) Abû 's-Sakr (!) Ismail Ibn Bulbul was appointed vizir to al-Motamid by al-Muwaffak, that khalif's brother. His noble and generous character gained him many friends, and his talents placed him at the head of the civil and military authority of the empire. This office procured him the title of the grateful (l) vizir. In his youth he led a disorderly life, but, when invested with power, his conduct gave general satisfaction, and drew from the poets al-Bohtori, Ibn ar-Rumi, and others, the warmest eulogiums. He claimed kindred with the tribe of Shaibàn, but this was repelled as an unfounded pretension by some of his enemies, and Ibn ar-Rumi incurred his displeasure by reciting to him a piece of verse in which he said that even if he had not the honour of being descended from Shaibân, he would have been an honour to Shaibån. The poet who thus unintentionally lost his patron's favour, became his enemy and lashed him in virulent satires. Ibn Bulbul was arrested by al-Motadid; and, after undergoing severe tortures, he was executed in prison by that khalif's orders.-(Ad-Dual al-Islamiya, MS No. 895, fol. 233.)

(9) Literally: As a pledge in (your) possession.

(10) That is a grammarian. See vol. I. page 662.

(11) This piece is a mere tissue of puns on the names of the most celebrated grammarians. Their lives are given in this work.


Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mundir an-Naisâpúri (native of Naisipûr), a jurisconsult of great learning and information, is spoken of in these terms by Abû Ishak (1) in his Tabakât al-Fokahâ (classified list of jurisconsults): "The questions on which jurisconsults disagree were set forth by him in some "works of quite an original cast, and which are indispensable for such persons "as wish to defend or attack any of those points." I do not know from whom he acquired his knowledge of the law. He died at Mekka, A. H. 309 (A. D. 921-2), or 310. A well-known book of his, on the points of disagreement between jurisconsults, is that which bears the title of Kitab al-Ishraf (view of

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