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the different systems); it is a large work, and proves him to have closely examined the systems of the great jurisconsults (imams). It is an excellent work, most instructive, and of great utility. Besides this, he composed a treatise called the Mabsût (extended), in which also he sets forth the systems of the principal jurisconsults, and indicates the points in which their opinions differ. This work is larger than the Ishraf. He left also a small treatise on the ijma (points of law on which the imams unanimously agree).

(1) He means Abu Ishak as-Shirazi. See vol. I. p. 9.


Abû Zaid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad al-Marwazi al-Fashầni, a doctor of the Shafite sect, and one of its most eminent imams, was distinguished for his skill in the discussion of doubtful points, his life passed in the practices of devotion, his acquirements as a hâfiz of the sect (1), and the rare information which he possessed on its doctrines (2). He learned jurisprudence from Abû Ishak al-Marwazi (vol. I. p. 7), and taught it to Abů Bakr al-Kaflål al-Marwazi (rol. II. p. 26). Having proceeded to Baghdad, he taught Traditions there, and had among his pupils the hafiz Abû 'l-Hasan adDàrakutni (vol. II. p. 239) and Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Kasim al-Mahàmili (3). He then set out for Mekka, and resided in that sanctuary seven years, during which he taught the Traditions contained in al-Bukhåri's Sahih, having himself learned them from Muhammad Ibn Yûsuf al-Farabri (4). – The Khatib (vol. I. p. 75) said of him : “Abû Zaid is the most eminent of those “ who taught this book by oral transmission ;” and Abû Bakr Ibn al-Bazzaz related as follows : “ The jurisconsult Abû Zaid travelled with me from Naisà

pûr to Mekka ; one camel sufficed to bear us both, and, as we sat in baskets

slung on each side of the animal, I was his counterpoise all the way (5). And " I do not think that the recording angels ever wrote down any thing against


By any thing he means any sin. The jurisconsult Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Hâtimi said : I heard Abû Zaid al-Marwazi say: “When at “ Mekka, I saw in a dream the Apostle of God, and he seemed to say to Jibril "(the angel Gabriel): “O spirit of God! accompany that man to his home.'' In the early part of his life, he was poor and bereft of means; so he passed the winter without a cloak, notwithstanding the severity of the cold in that country; and he used to answer, when spoken to on the subject : “I have an “ incommodity which prevents me from wearing wadded clothing.” That incommodity was poverty, and he never was induced to inform any person of

his real state. Towards the end of his life, fortune became propitious, but, as 647 he was then advanced in age and had lost his teeth, he could neither chew nor

enjoy sexual pleasure; he therefore used to address his prosperity in these terms : “ May God withhold his blessing from thee! thou hast come when I “ have neither teeth nor strength (6).” He died on Thursday, the 13th of Rajab, A. H. 371 (January, A. D. 982), at Marw. – The words Marwazi and Fåshini have been already explained (the first in vol. I. p. 7, and the second in vol. I. p. 78) (7).

(1) A hafiz of a sect is one who knows by heart and transmits to others various legal questions which have been resolved by the doctors of that sect.

(2) See vol. II. page 608, note (1).
(3) This was the father of the Mahamili whose life is given in vol. I. p. 56.
(4) The life of this traditionist is given by our author.

(3) The Arabic text expresses this very concisely and very clearly; translated literally, it would run thus: ** I counterpoised the jurisconsult Abů Zaid from Naisåpûr to Mekka."

(6) I have modified the meaning of the word whi, but it is clear enough from what precedes.

7) As it might be supposed that this doctor's name was al-Kashani, not al-Fashani, I may be allowed to observe that the latter reading is confirmed by the Tabakat as-Shafiyin, where we read that the word is written with a fa and a shin.


Abû Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nasr Ibn Warka al-Udani, a jurisconsult of the sect of as-Shảfi, was their chief imàm in that age. The Hâkim Ibn al-Baii (1) mentions his name in the History of Naisàpùr, and says: “On his return from the pilgrimage, he resided with us, at Naisàpúr, for

some time, and surpassed all the other jurisconsults by his self-mortification “ and by his lamentations for having been remiss in God's service.” He died at Bukhâra, in the month of the first Rabi, A.H. 385 (April, A.D. 995), and was buried at Kalàbåd.—Udani means belonging to Udana, a village in the depen“ dencies of Bukhâra :” such are as-Samâni's (vol. II. p. 156) words, but the jurisconsults mispronounce it and say Udi. When I was studying the law, I heard one of my masters pronounce it Audani.-- This doctor had received by tradition some particular information on points connected with the doctrines of his sect (2). The author of the Wasît (Abd Hamid al-Ghazzali) frequently mentions his name.—Kalâbâd is the name of a quarter in the city of Bukhàra. “ It was from this place that a traditionist of great authority, Abû Nasr Ahmad

Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali Ibn Rustum al-Kala“ bâdi, derived his surname. He died on the 22nd of the latter Jumada, “ A.H. 398 (March, A.D. 1008), and he was born in A.H. 460 (A.D. 1067-8).” Such are the words of Abû Saad as-Samâni, but he must be mistaken, since he places al-Kalâbâdi's birth subsequently to his death. I have consulted in many quarters, hoping to clear up this error, but could find no indications on the subject; so I let as-Samâni's words stand as they are (3).

(1) His life will be found in this work. (2) See vol. II. page 608, nole (1).

(3) It appears from the Tabakat al-Huffaz, that al-Kalábådi taught Traditions at Baghdad in the lifetime of ad-Dârakutni. That doctor died A. H. 385, whence we may conclude with great probability that the date of 398 is that of al-Kalàbådi's death, and such is, in fact, the statement of the author of the Tabakat. He places his birth in the year 318.


Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Shầhawaih, a native of Fars (alFärisi) and a doctor of the Shafite sect, is spoken of in these terms by the Hakim Abů Abd Allah Ibn al-Baii, in his history of Naisàpůr: “He resided for some “ time at Naisåpůr and then proceeded to Bukhara, whence he returned to the “ former city; he then came back to this country, Fars, and occupied the post " of kûdi. He subsequently removed to Naisàpůr, and taught Traditions in “ that city.” He died there, A. H. 362 (A. D. 972-3). Some points of traditional information, connected with the doctrines of the sect, and received from the very highest authorities, were communicated by him to his disciples; he was the only person in possession of this information, and we have never found it given on the authority of any other person but himself. I do not know from whom he acquired his knowledge of jurisprudence. - Shâhawaih is a Persian name, composed of Shah (king), and waih (woe!). Relative to this last word, al-Jauhari (vol. I. p. 22) says, in his Sahâh : Sibawaih and other names of a “ similar form are composed of a noun and an interjection, coalescing so as to “ form a proper name.”Faris is an extensive region, of which the capital is Shiraz. Its pronunciation is so well known, that it is needless to indicate it.


Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Salama Ibn Jaafar Ibn Ali Ibn Hukmún Ibn 648 Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muslim al-Kudài, a doctor of the Shafite sect and

the author of the Kitâb as-Shihab (1), is spoken of, in the History of Damascus, by the hafiz Ibn Asàkir (v. II. p. 252); he mentions there that Abû Abd Allah alHumaidi transmitted Traditions on his authority, and that he was appointed deputy-kàdi of Old Cairo by the Egyptian government (the Fatimides), and had been once sent by them on an embassy to the Greek court. He composed a great number of works, such as the Kitâb as-Shihåb (the flambeau), a treatise on the merits of the imâm as-Shafi with an account of his life, the Anbå an il-Anbia (history of the prophets), the Tawdrikh al-Khulafa (history of the khalifs), and the Khitat Misr (topography of Cairo) (2). The emir Abû Nasr Ibn Måküla says, in the Kitâb al-Ikmål (v. II. p. 248), that he was conversant with a great variety of sciences. He died at Old Cairo on the eve of Thursday, the 16th of Zů 'l-Kaada, A. H. 454 (Nov. A. D. 1062), and the funeral service was said over him in the Musalla (3) of an-Najjar, on the afternoon of the following day. As-Samâni (vol. II. p. 156) mentions, in his article on the Khatib Abû Bakr Ahmad (vol. I. p. 75), the author of the History of Baghdad, that the Khatib made the pilgrimage, A. H. 445, the same year as Abû Abd Allah al-Kudài, and that he learned some Traditions from him. We have already spoken of al-Kudâi in the life of az-Zahir al-Obaidi (vol. II. p. 341), and that he was alâma-writer to al-Jarjarài al-Akta (the mutilated), that prince's vizir. — Kuddi means belonging to Kudâa, the son of Maadd Ibn Adnân; or, according to some, a descendant of Himyar; the latter opinion is more generally held, and comes closer to the truth. Kudda's real name was Omar Ibn Mâlik; a great number of tribes draw their descent from him, such as those of Kalb, Bali, Juhaina, Ozra, etc.

The Najjar (carpenter) whose name is borne by the Musalla, was a mawla to the family of Ghâsik, and bore the name of Imrån Ibn Mûsa an-Najjar: some say, however, that he was called Abû 't-Taiyib Muhammad Ibn Jaafar al-Baghdadi anNajjår, and that he bore the surname of al-Ghundar (the corpulent); he died A. H. 358 (A.D. 968-9), some time previously to the arrival of the Kaid Jauhar (vol. I. p. 340) in Egypt.

(1) The Shihab is noticed by Hajji Khalifa; he calls it the Shihab al-Akhbar i flambeau of information). and says that it contains moral maxims, proverbs, and rules of politeness, extracted from the sayings of the Prophet, by Abû Abd Allah al-Kudài.

(2) This work appears to have been closely copied by al-Makrizi, in his compilation usually bearing the same title.

(3) See vol. I. page 605.



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