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Abù Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Masûd Ibn Ahmad al-Masûdi (1), a Shafite jurisconsult, an imim of that sect, and eminently distinguished for his talents and piety, was a native of Marw. He studied the law under Abů Bakr al-Kaflàl al-Marwazi (vol. II. p. 26), and wrote an excellent commentary on al-Muzani's abridgment of the Shafite doctrines (vol. I. p. 200). He taught a few traditions on the authority of his master al-Kaffàl. Al-Ghazzàli tells an anecdote of him in the Wasit, third chapter of the section on Faith, wherein he treats of the different modes by which perjury may be committed : speaking of a subtle question on a point of law, he says: “ Question to which the preceding one gives rise (2). If a person swear that he will not eat eggs, and he

goes afterwards to a man and says : * By Allah! I shall eat what thou hast "in thy pocket!' and behold, it is an egg! (what is to be done so as to avoid " perjury?) This question was proposed to al-Kaffàl as he was seated in the “ chair (presiding an assembly of his pupils), but he could not find an answer

to it. On this, his pupil al-Masûdi said : Let him have a biscuit made “ with the egg and eat that; he will thus have eaten what was in the man's

pocket, and not have eaten the egg.' This answer received general approbation, and it was certainly a most ingenious solution of the difficulty (3).” Al-Masûdi died at Marw subsequently to the year 420 (A. D. 1030). called al-Masudi (The Masûdian) after his grandfather Masûd.

He was

(1) Another and more celebrated al-Masûdi, the author of the Meadows of gold, is noticed by ad-Dahabi in his Tarikh al-Islam, MS. No. 646, fol. 211; I there find the following indications: Abû ’l-Hasan Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali, surnamed al-Masudi, because (it is said) he drew his descent from Ibn Masûd, one of the Prophet's Companions, was the author of the Muruj ad-Dahab (meadows of gold) and a native of Baghdad, but he dwelt for some time in Egypt. This learned historian and transmitter of curious information composed also the following works: Kitab Dakhdir al-Olum (the treasures of science); the Kitab ar-Rasail (book of essays); the Kitab al-Istizkār, etc. memorial of what occurred in former times); the Akhbar al-Umam (history of nations); the Makalat fi usul ad-Didnat (discourses on the dogmas of the different religions); the Akhbar al-Khawarij (history of the Kharijites), etc. Yâkut has a notice on him in his Tarikh al-Udabà (Hajji Khalifa, No. 472), or history of learned scholars, but places his death in the year 346, which is not exact. Al-Masûdi held the opinions of the Motazalites. He died in the month of the latter Jumada, A. H. 345 (Sept.-Oet.

A. D. 936) - For further information respecting al-Masadi and his writings, see M. de Sacy's notice on the Tanbih wa 'l-Ishraf (another work by the same author, in the eighth vol. of the Notices et Extraits, and an article in the Journal Asiatique for January 1839. The first vol. of a translation of the Murůj has been published by Dr. Sprenger, under the patronage of the Oriental Translation Committee.

(2) Literally: Branch; that is : ramification of the principle which precedes.

(3) Abû Hanifa resolved this question much better. He said that the egg should be hatched, and that the man should eat the chicken.


The kâdi Abû Aâsim Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abbâd al-Abbâdi, a native of Herat ( al-Harawi) and a doctor of the sect of as-Shâfi, studied jurisprudence at Herat under the kâdi Abû Mansûr al-Azdi, and at Naisåpůr under the kâdi Abû Omar al-Bastâmi. He then became perfectly master of a great variety of sciences, and was noted for the subtilty of his investigations. In his travels to different countries he met a great number of shaikhs (masters), and received from them information. He is the author of some useful works, such as a treatise on the duties of a kâdi, the Mabsût (extended), the Hâdi (guide) to the doctrines of the learned, a refutation of asSamâni, and a small volume containing a classified list of jurisconsults. Abů 649 Saad al-Harawi (1), the author of the Ishraf, or elucidation of the duties of a kûdi, and of the Ghawâmid al-Hukûmåt, or obscure judgments, drew some of his information from al-Abbâdi. (Abû Adsim al-Abbâdi ) received and transmitted Traditions. He died in the month of Shawwål, A. H. 458 (AugustSept. A. D. 1066); he was born A. H. 375 (A. D. 985-6).--Abbâdi means descended from Abbâd, the person whose name occurs in Abû Aảsim's genealogy.

(1) Aba Said Muhammad Ibn Abi Ahmad al-Harawi (native of Herat), a Shafite doctor and the author of an exposition of the duties of kadis, entitled al-Ishraf ala Ghawâmid al-Hakumat (elucidation of the obscure principles on which certain decisions are founded), was kadi of Hamadân. He fell a martyr, with his father, in the great mosque of that city, in the month of Shaaban, 518 (Sept.-Oct, A. D. 1124). Ad-Dahabi says that the doctor who was killed at Hamadàn was a Hanifite.-(Tab. as-Shafiyin).


Abû Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Khidri, a native of Marw and a doctor of the Shafte sect, was imâm and chief jurisconsult of the Shafites in city. He had studied under Abû Bakr al-Fårisi (1) and was one of the most distinguished disciples of Abû Bakr al-Kaffål as-Shâshi (vol. II. page 605). He always continued to reside at Marw, devoting his efforts to the propagation of as-Shafi's peculiar doctrines. The retentiveness of his memory was proverbial. He possessed some points of traditional information relative to the doctrines of his sect, and of which he was the sold depository; these were transmitted down orally by the jurisconsults of Khoråsân on his authority. He stated that asShảfi considered as valid the indication of the kibla by a little boy (2), but, added al-Khidri, the kibla here means the niche which is visible in the mosque (and marks the direction of Mekka); otherwise, if the mere direction be pointed out by the boy, according to the best of his belief, the indication is not receivable. Abû 'l-Futůh al-Ijli (v. I. p.191) writes as follows in his Mushkilât, or elucidation of the obscurities in the Wajêz and the Wasit (3), towards the beginning of the section on marriage : “ The shaikh Abů Abd Allah al-Khidri was asked if it was “ lawful for a woman to cut her nails in the sight of a man to whom she was “ not related ? and he reflected a long time without uttering a word. But his “ wife, the daughter of the shaikh Abů Ali as-Shabbûi, who happened to be present, said to him : What need hast thou to reflect? didst thou not hear my father

say, in answer to this very question, that, if it be the nails of her " ' fingers which she cuts, the man may lawfully look on; but, if it be the nails "oof her toes, he must not look on. And the reason is, that her bands are

not parts of the body indecent to be shown, whereas the instep is one of ""those parts which cannot be shown.' Al-Khidri was delighted at these “ words, and exclaimed : • Had I only gained this single point of information “' from frequenting persons of learning, I should think it quite enough for my pains.'” I may

here observe that this distinction between the hands and the feet is questionable, for the doctors of our sect say that (a woman's) exposing of her hands during prayer is not indecent; but we consider it indecent (in her) to expose either the hands or the feet before a strange man. It may be perceived that this point requires consideration. Al-Khidri had some knowledge in the Traditions, and his authority therein is held to be good. He died between the years of 380 and 390 (A.D.990–1000). Khidri means descended from Khidr; this Khidr was one of his ancestors : if the surname be pronounced Khadari, his ancestor's name must then have been Khadir. This is analogous to the derivation of Namari from Namira (4), and this rule is absolute, admitting of no exception.-Shabbúi means belonging to Shabbûyah; this person was one of the shaikh Abû Ali's ancestors; he was an able jurisconsult and a native of Marw.

(1) This must be either the same doctor whose life is given by Ibn Khallikân (page 616 of this volume), or else Abû Bakr Ahmad Ibn al-Husain Ibn Sahl al-Farisi, a doctor of the Shafite sect and author of the esteemed treatise on Shafite law, entitled Oyun al-Masail. He died A. H. 350 (A.D. 961-2), or 305 by another account. He composed some other works, treating of jurisprudence and controversy.-(Tab. al-Fok.)

(2) It must be recollected that, with the Moslims, prayers are not valid unless the worshipper face the kibla when saying them. The kibla is the point of the horizon in which Mekka lies. Now, if a Moslim be in a country where he does not know the direction of the kibla, and if he ask a little boy how it lies, and then says his prayers in that direction, is his prayer valid ? for the boy might have been mistaken. This is the point on which as-Shafi answered affirmatively. It is true that al-Khidri gives a different turn to the meaning of as-Shafi's words.

(3) These are two celebrated treatises on Shafite law by Abd Hamid al-Ghazzáli. See next article. (4) ee M. de Sacy's Grammaire Arabe, tom. I. p. 331, No. 770.


Abû Hamid Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Ghazzáli, surnamed Hujja tal-Islâm (example for the followers of Islamisism) Zain addin ornament of religion), was a native of Tùs and a doctor of the Shafite sect. Towards the close of his life, the Shafites had not a doctor to be compared to him. He commenced bis studies at Tùs under Ahmad az-Zadkâni, and, having then proceeded to Naisâpûr, he attended the lessons of the Imam al-Haramain, 630 Abû 'l-Maàli al-Juwaini (v. II. p. 120), under whom he studied with such assiduity

that, in a short time, he completed his education; and became, even in the lifetime of his master, one of the most distinguished among the doctors. It was at that period he began his labours as an author. As long as his master lived, he remained with him, and he never ceased furnishing him motives of just pride in having such a pupil. On the Imâm's death, he left Naisåpůr and went to the army, where he met with a highly honorable reception from the vizir Nizâm alMulk (vol. I. p. 413). A number of men eminent for talent were then at the vizir's court, and in some public conferences which Abû Hàmid had with them, he remained victorious in the debate and acquired a reputation which spread to distant lands (1). Soon after this, the professorship in the Nizamiya College of Baghdad was conferred upon him, and, in the month of the first Jumada, A. H. 484 (June-July, A. D. 1091), he commenced his lessons. His abilities filled the people of Iråk with admiration, and they gradually conceived for him the highest respect. In the month of Zû ’l-Kaada, A. H. 488 (Nov. A. D. 1095), he abandoned all the occupations in which he had been hitherto engaged, and entered on the path of ascetism and retirement from the world. He then undertook the pilgrimage to Mekka, and, on his return, he proceeded to Syria and stopped for some time at Damascus. During his residence in that city, he gave lessons in a corner of the Great Mosque situated on the west bank of the Tigris. He then set out for Jerusalem, where he applied himself with ardour to the practices of devotion, and visited the holy monuments and venerated spots of that sacred ground. He next passed into Egypt and remained for some time at Alexandria, whence, it is said, he intended to sail to Maghrib, in hopes of having an interview with the emir Yûsuf Ibn Tåshifin, the sovereign of Morocco; but, having received intelligence of that prince's death, he abandoned the project. The life of Yûsuf Ibn Tashifin will be found in this work. On leaving Egypt, he returned to Tùs, his native place, and, having resumed his studies, he composed those instructive works, on various branches of knowledge the most celebrated of which are the Wasit (medium treatise), the Waji: (compendium) (2), the Khulåsa fi l-Fikh (quintessence of jurisprudence), and the Thya Olům ad-Din (revival of the sciences of religion). This last is a most valuable and comprehensive work. To this we may add the Mustassa (chosen extract), treating of the principles of jurisprudence, and which he terminated on the 6th of Muharram, A. H. 503 (August, A. D. 1109), a treatise

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