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pass from the Hanifite sect to that of as-Shàfì; and, in all the Atabek family, numerous as its members were, this prince was the only one who professed the Shafite doctrines. On the death of Nûr ad-din, in the year 607, he proceeded to Baghdad on a mission, the object of which was, to obtain the confirmation of alMalik al-Kahir Masûd, (as successor to his father). We shall speak again of alKâhir in the life of his grandfather Masud. Having succeeded in his mission, he returned with the pelisse of investiture and the diploma, and, from that time, he 667 continued to be treated by al-Kàhir with even greater favour than that prince's

father had ever shown him. He possessed the highest abilities, but was not fortunate in his works, as they seem unworthy of his talent. He was born in a small house at the citadel of Arbela, A. II. 535 (A. D. 1140-1); this house he afterwards visited, when on one of his missions, and he then applied to it the wellknown verse:

(Behold) the country in which the amulets were first suspended round my neck (5), and the first land of which my body touched the soil.

He died at Mosul on Thursday, the 19th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 608 (November, A. D. 1211).—Al-Malik al-Moazzam Muzaffar ad-din, the sovereign of Arbela (vol. II. p. 535), used to relate that, after the death of Imâd ad-din (Ibn Mana), he saw him in a dream and asked him if he was not yet dead; to which he replied affirmatively, but added that he still continued res¡ ected (6). Ibn ad-Dubaithi (7) speaks of this doctor in his Zail, and Ibn al-Mustaufi (vol. II. p. 556) mentions him in the History of Arbela. We shall notice later his brother Kamal ad-din Musa. They came of a family which produced many men of talent. His grandson Tâj ad-din (the crown of religion) Abû 'l-Kàsim Abd arRahman, the son of Rida ad-din Muhammad, the son of Imåd ad-din Abù Hâmid, is the author of a good abridgment of al-Ghazzali's (vol. II. p. 624) Wajiz, entitled at-Tajiz fi Ikhtisar il-Wajiz (the inimitable, being an abridgment of the Wajiz). He composed also an abridgment of Fakhr ad-din ar-Râzi's) treatise on the fundamentals of jurisprudence, entitled al-Mahsûl, and another on Rukn ad-din at-Tawûsi's (vol. II. p. 201) system of controverted doctrines. He was born at Mosul, A.H. 598 (A.D. 1201-2); and was still there when the Tartars took it (8), but in the month of Ramadan, A. H. 670 (April, A. D. 1272), he proceeded to Baghdad, and died in that city about the month of the first Jumâda, A. H. 674 (Nov. Dec. A. D. 1272).

(1) This sheet was already composed when I perceived that the following note could not apply to the person here named by Ibn Khallikân; but, as it contains information respecting a doctor of some reputation, it seemed to me worth preserving.-Yûsuf Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Bendâr was born at Damascus, A. H. 490 (A.D. 1096-7), in which city his father had settled on quitting Marâgha, his native place. When Yusuf had grown up, he went to Baghdad and studied jurisprudence under Asaad al-Mihani and became the tutor of that doctor's class. Having displayed great acquirements as a teacher of the Shafite doctrines, he was raised to the presidency of the Shafite sect in Iråk. He was an acute controvertist, and professed in the Nizamiya and other colleges. A college was afterwards built for himself, and regular assemblies were held to hear him preach, but this practice he subsequently renounced, and applied himself to the learning and teaching of the Traditions. He died in the month of Shawwâl, A. H. 563 (July-Aug. A. D. 1168) —(Tab. as-Shâf.)

(2) The Muhaddab is a celebrated treatise on Shafite law by Abû Ishak as-Shîrâzi, and the Wasît is a work on the same subject by al-Ghazzâli.

(3) Such is the law, but the practice is against it.

(4) He did so lest they might have contracted some impurity, for this would have invalidated his prayers. See d'Ohsson's Tab. Gén. de l'Emp. Othom. tom. II. p. 7.

(3) The amulets, like the Roman bulla, are worn by children till the age of puberty.

(6) As this anecdote appears very insignificant in the translation, I suspect that in rendering the passage

.the meaning of the last word may have escaped me بلى ولكني محترم

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(7) The life of Ibn ad-Dubaithi will be found in the third volume of this work.

(8) Mosul was taken by the Tartars, A. H. 660 (A. D. 1261), and nearly all the inhabitants were massacred.

AL-JAJARMI.

He

Abû lamid Muhammad Ibn Ibrahîm Ibn Abi 'l-Fadl as-Sahli al-Jâjarmi, surnamed Mûin ad-din (defender of the faith), was an eminent doctor of the Shafite sect, and displayed the highest abilities in various branches of science. inhabited Naisâpur and professed in that city. His treatise on jurisprudence, entitled al-Kifaya (the sufficient), includes, notwithstanding its extreme concision, most of those questions which muftis are generally called on to resolve, and forms one volume; his Idah, or elucidation of (al-Ghazzâli's) Wajiz, in two volumes, is a very good work. He is also the author of a well-known system of controversy (1) and of the celebrated Kawaid, or fundamental principles (of Shafite jurisprudence), which bear his name. Numerous pupils acquired great information under his tuition, and, after his death, many derived profit from the study of his works, especially the Kawaid, which became a standard class-book. This doctor

died at Naisàpûr on Friday morning, the 21st of Rajab, A.H.613 (Nov. A.D.1246). —Jâjarmi means belonging to Jâjarm, a town lying between Naisâpur and Jurjân, which has given birth to many learned men. When I was at Naisàpûr, in the year 612, I saw, on the 24th of the month of Zû 'l-Hijja (April, A.D. 1216), (a number of notes in) his handwriting on the margin of a book, in which he explained Traditions inserted in (Abu Ishak as-Shirâzî's) Muhaddab, and the obscure terms (found therein). A number of jurisconsults had attended the lectures wherein he explained this work.

(1) By system of controversy (Tarika fi’l-khilaf) is meant a systematic defence of the opinions held by the sect of the author.

669

RUKN AD-DIN AL-AMIDI.

Abû Hamid Muhammad, the son of Muhammad, the son of Muhammad (some say, of Ahmad,) al-Amidi, surnamed Rukn ad-din (pillar of the faith), was a doctor of the Hanifite sect and a native of Samarkand. He displayed the highest abilities in polemics, and particularly in that branch which is termed al-just (1): the first work specially devoted to this subject had him for its author, as all his predecessors had hitherto confounded it with the science of polemics. He commenced his studies under the shaikh Rida ad-din an-Naisàpûri (2), and was one of the four doctors styled Rukns, or pillars; for, amongst his fellowstudents who attained eminence in that branch of science, were Rukn ad-din at-Tawûsi (vol. II. page 201), Rukn ad-din Imâm Zâda (3), and a fourth, whose name I do not recollect (4). Al-Amidi composed a systematical treatise on polemics; it bears a high reputation, and is in the hands of every jurisconsult; he wrote also a work entitled al-Irshad (the direction) (5), on which commentaries have been composed by a number of masters in that department of science, such as Shams ad-din Abû 'l-Abbas Ahmad Ibn al-Khalil Ibn Saâda Ibn Jaafar al-Khuwaîyi (6), a doctor of the sect of as-Shâfì and formerly kádi of Damascus, Auhad ad-din ad-Dûni (7), kadi of Manbaj, Najm ad-din al-Merendi, Bedr ad-din al-Marâghi (native of Marâgha), and others. Al-Amidi

composed also a work entitled an-Nafdis (the precious) (8), of which an abridgment was made by Shams ad-din al-Khuwaiyi, the doctor just mentioned, under the title of Arâis an-Nafâis (the brides from among the number of the precious); besides this, he wrote some more fine treatises of a similar cast. Amongst the numerous pupils who studied with profit under his tuition, was the Hanifite shaikh, Nizâm ad-din Ahmad, the son of the shaikh Jamâl ad-din Abû 'l-Mujâhid Mahmûd Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abd as-Saiyid Ibn Othmân Ibn Nasr Ibn Abd al-Malik. This Nizam ad-din was a native of Bukhâra, and composed a well known Tarika, or system of controversy. He bore the surname of an -Nàjiri (9), and was generally known by the appellation of al-Hasiri (10). (Al-Amîdi) was distinguished for his noble character, profound humility, and agreeable manners. He died on the eve of Wednesday, the 9th of the latter Jumâda, A. H. 615 (September, A. D. 1218).—Shams ad-dîn al-Khuwaiyi died at Damascus on Saturday, the 7th of Shaaban, A. H. 637 (March, A. D. 1240), and was interred at the foot of Mount Kâsiyûn. His birth took place in the month of Shawwâl, A. H. 583 (December, A. D. 1187).-Auhad ad-din died at Aleppo subsequently to the taking of the citadel by the Tartars; the citadel was taken twenty-nine days after the fall of the city, an event which occurred on the 10th of Safar, A.H. 658 (Jan. A.D. 1260), Auhad ad-din came into the world in the year 586 (A.D. 1190-1).—I do not know whence the relative adjective Amîdi is derived, neither is it mentioned by as-Samâni (in his Ansâb; see p.157 of this vol.). —Nizâm ad-din al-Hasîri was slain by the Tartars at Naisâpûr, the first time they invaded those countries. This happened in the year 616 (A.D. 1219-20).—His father was a doctor of the highest reputation for learning. I met him, on different occasions, at Damascus, where he professed in the Nûriya college (11). He was born at Bukhâra in the month of Rajab, A. H. 546 (Oct.-Nov. A. D. 1151), and he died at Damascus on the eve of Sunday, the 8th of Safar, A. H. 636 (September, A. D. 1238). The next morning, he was buried outside the gate called Bâb an-Nasr, in the cemetery of the sûfis. He used to say: "My father was known by the surname of an-Najiri, but there is a quarter in Bukhara "where mats (hasîr) are made (12), and in that we resided (13)."

(1) Al-Just is a Persian word, and signifies disquisition, research. Not knowing the precise nature of the science to which this term is applied, I am unable to render it by an English equivalent.

(2) Rida ad-din an-Naisapuri was celebrated for his abilities as a doctor of the Hanifite sect, and wrote several works, two of which, the Makârim al-Akhlak and the Tarika fil-Khilaf, are noticed by Hajji Khalifa. If it be taken into consideration that his pupils Rukn ad-din at-Tâwûsi (see page 201 of this volume and Rukn ad-din al-Amîdi died, the former in A. H. 600, and the latter in A. H. 615, his own death may be placed with probability between A. H. 550 and A. H. 600. Another person of the same name, but known only as a Traditionist, died at Naisâpûr in A. H. 617. (See the third volume of this work.) The author of the Tabakat al-Hanafiya, MS. fonds St. Germain, No. 132, has a notice on Rida ad-din an-Naisàpûri (fol. 176), in which he gives some particulars respecting his doctrines and opinions, but forgets to inform us of his true name and the date of his death.

(3) The imam, preacher, and mufti, Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, generally known by the appellations of Imam Zàda (sprung from an imâm), and surnamed Rukn ad-dîn, was a native of a village in the dependencies of Samarkand, called Jazyh. He studied controversy under Ridâ ad-din an-Naisâpûri, and law under Burhan ad-dîn az-Zarnûji, the author of the well-known work entitled Talim al-Mutaallim. He acted as mufti at Bukhâra, and bore a high reputation for virtue, abilities, piety, and eloquence. Besides filling the duties of a preacher, he gave lessons in Sufism. A work of his, the Shard tal-Islâm, is noticed by Hajji Khalifa; this author places his death in the year 573 (A. D. 1177–8).—(Hajji Khalifa. Tabakåt al-Hanafiya, fol. 194 )

(4) The fourth Rukn ad-din was the imam al-Haraini.—(Tab. al-Han.)

(3) This is a work on polemics and controversy.

(6) Khuwaiyi means native of Khuwaii, a city in the province of Adarbaijân. The date of this doctor's death will be found a little further on.

(7) Dûni means belonging to Duna, a village near Nehawend.

(8) This is a treatise on dialectics.

(9) I am unable to discover the meaning of this surname.

(10) This surname is explained lower down.

(11) This college was founded by Nûr ad-dîn Mahmûd, for the teaching of the Traditions.

الحصير I read ;الحصر The printed text and the manuscripts have (12)

(13) The conclusion to be drawn from this appears to be, that he was surnamed al-Hasiri for that reason, and that the title of an-Najiri was one which the family did not acknowledge.

IBN DAWUD AZ-ZAHIRI.

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Dawûd Ibn Ali Ibn Khalaf al-Ispahâni (native of Ispahân), surnamed az-Zahiri (1), was a jurisconsult, an accomplished scholar, a poet, and a man of wit. a man of wit. He used to hold discussions with Abù 'l-Abbâs Ibn Suraij, as we have already stated (in vol. I. page 46). On the death of his 670 father (vol. I. p. 501), he went to take charge of his class, holding, as he did,

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