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Osůl al-Khamsa (1); a work on the imamate, and others on dogmatic theology. His writings were studied by numbers with advantage and profit. He inhabited Baghdad, and died in that city on Tuesday, the 5th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 436 (October, A. D. 1044), and was interred in the Shûnizi Cemetery. The kâdi Abû Abd Allah as-Saimari (1) said the funeral prayer over his corpse.--“ The word mutakallim (discourser, dogmatic theologian) is employed to designate

persons conversant with the science of kalâm (discourse), by which word is “ meant the dogmas of religion. It was called the science of discourse, because “ the first difference of opinion which arose in the (Moslim) religion sprung “ from this question : the Word of Almighty God (the Koran) is it created or “ not? People discoursed on this branch of science, and it therefore received “ the name of the science of discourse (ilm al-kalům); being specially designated “ by this term, although all the other sciences are propagated also by means “ of discourse (3).” Such are the words of as-Samani (vol. II. p. 156).

in the year :

(1) Hajji Khalifa is not very satisfactory in his note on this work ; he merely says: Al-Osoul al-Khamsa, the five foundations on which Islamism was erected; composed by the shaikh Abu Muhammad al-Bahili, who died

..., and also by the shaikh Jaafar Ibn Harb. On the first of these was composed the commentary of Abû 'l-Husain Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Basri.

2) As-Saimari was kadi vf Karkh, the suburb of Baghdad. Sce vol. I. p. 646.

(3) The word mutakallim is employed also in a more restricted sense, and then means scholastic theologian. Ibn Khallikân does not appear to make any distinction between dogmatic and scholastic theology.

IBN FURAK.

Al-Ustad (the master) Abû Bakr Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Fûrak, a noted dogmatic-theologian, philologer, grammarian, and preacher, was a native of Ispahan. He remained for some time in Iråk, giving lessons, and then proceeded to Rai, but, as the innovators in religion spread calumnies against him, he removed to Naisàpûr on the invitation of the people in that city. A college and a house were then built for him, and, by the aid of the Almighty, he

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VOL. II.

revived numerous branches of science. The divine favour which attended his endeavours was there manifested in the progress of all those who studied jurisprudence under him. The number of his works on the fundamentals of jurisprudence, the dogmas of religion, and the style of the Koran, approached to nearly a hundred. He was subsequently invited to Ghazna, and he maintained frequent controversies in that city. One of his sayings was: “The “ burden of a family is the result of lawful passion; what then must be the “ result of unlawful passion ?” He evinced great ardour in confuting the partisans of Abû Abd Allah Ibn Karrâm (1). Having left that place with the intention of returning to Naisâpûr, he died of poison on the road. His corpse was borne to Naisåpùr and interred at al-Hira. The funeral chapel which covers his remains is a conspicuous object and much frequented by pilgrims: when the

people are in want of rain, they offer up prayers at his tomb, and their request is 676 always granted. He died A.H. 406 (A.D. 1015-6). Abû 'l-Kâsim al-Kushairi,

the author of the celebrated epistle (vol. II. p. 152), states that he heard Abû Ali ad-Dakkâk (2) relate as follows : “ I went to visit Abû Bakr Ibn Fûrak when “ he was ill, and he shed tears on seeing me. On this, I said to him : The "Almighty will cure you and restore you to health;' and he replied : “You “« think that I stand in fear of death, but know that my fear proceeds from the “thought of what cometh after death.'”Al-Hira is the name of an extensive quarter in the city of Naisâ pûr; it has produced some learned men, who bore the surname of al-Hiri. This place is liable to be confounded with the Hira which lies outside of Kûfa.— Ghazna is a large city and lies just within the confines of India, where that country borders on Khorâsân'.

(1) Ibn Karrâm taught anthropomorphism.
(2) Some account of Abû Ali ad-Dakkâk is given in the life of Abu 'l-Kâsim al-Kushairi.

ABU 'L-FATH AS-SHAHRASTANI.

Abû 'l-Fath Muhammad Ibn Abi 'l-Kasim Abd al-Kârim Ibn Abi Bakr Ahmad as-Shahrastàni, a dogmatic theologian of the Asharite sect, was also distinguished as an imâm and a doctor of the law. Having studied jurisprudence under Ahmad al-Khawali (vol. I. p. 79), Abû Nasr al-Kushairi (vol. II. p. 154), and other masters, he displayed the highest abilities as a jurisconsult. In scholastic theology he had for master Abû 'l-Kasim al-Ansari, and he remained without an equal in that branch of science. His works are: the Nihâya talIkdâm (the limits of progress), on scholastic theology; the Kitab al-Milal wa 'nNihal (treatise on religions and sects), and the Talkhis al-Aksâm li-Mazahib al-Anâm succinct exposition of the (work called) al-Aksâm (sections, for the use of persons of all denominations). He knew by heart a great quantity of traditional information, his conversation was most agreeable, and he used to address pious exhortations to his auditors. In the year 510 (A. D. 1116-7), he proceeded to Baghdad, and resided there three years, during which period a high degree of favour was manifested towards him by the public. He received Traditions, at Naisåpûr, from Ali Ibn Ahmad al-Madini, and other teachers; and, of the Traditions which he himself delivered, some were taken down in writing by the hafiz Abû Saad Abd al-Kårim as-Samâni (vol. II. page 156). This writer speaks of him in his Zail, or supplement. “As-Shahrastani was born at Shahrastân, A. H. 467 (A. D. 1074-5);” so I find it written in my rough notes, but I do not know whence I took it : as-Samani says, in his Zail, that he asked as-Shahrastâni concerning the year of his birth, and he replied : “In 479 (A. D. 1086-7).” He died at Shabrastân, towards the end of the month of Shaabàn, A. H. 548 (November, A. D. 1153); some place his death, but erroneously, in 549. Towards the commencement of the Nihâya tal-Ikdâm, he has inserted the following lines :

I have roamed through all these monuments, and surveyed the various memorials (left man); and I saw nought but wretches tearing their beards in despair, or gnashing their teeth with remorse.

He omits naming the author of these verses, but I have found them attributed to Abů Bakr Muhammad Ibn Baja, surnamed Ibn as-Sàigh, a native of Spain, whose life will be found in this work. - Shahrastân is a name borne by three cities; the first in Khorâsân, and situated between Naisàpůr and Khowarezm, on the edge of the sandy desert which forms the frontier of Khorâsân, and extends to Khowarezm: this is the one generally known, and the same which produced Abû 'l-Fath Muhammad (the subject of this notice) and many other learned men. It was built by Abd Allah Ibn Tahir (vol. II. p. 49), the emir of Khorâsàn, in the khalifate of al-Màmún. The second Shahrastàn is the capital of the district of Såpûr, in the province of Fars; so, at least, it is stated by Ibn al-Bannà al-Bashshàri (1). The third, called also Djai, lies on the bank of the

river Zenderùd, at a mile's distance from al-Yahudiya (the Jewish quarter), now 677 the modern city of Ispahân ; a market is held there, and it contains the tomb

of the imâm (khalif) ar-Rashid, the son of al-Mustarshid. The name itself is a compound Persian word ; shahr signifying city, and istân, country; it is therefore equivalent to the city of the country. Such are the observations made by Yakût al-Hamawi, in his Mushtarik, to which we have added some remarks of

As-Shahrastâni used to repeat the following saying, uttered by anNazzàm al-Balkhi Ibrahim Ibn Saiyar (vol. I. p. 186), and authenticated by a chain of evidence through which he traced it up to that learned and celebrated scholar : “ If discord could assume a visible form, the hearts of men would be “ appalled at its aspect and the very mountains would tremble : its burning “ heat would be less supportable than that given out by live coals of ghada “wood (2); and if the people of hell were tormented with it, they would seek “shelter in their former punishments, as in a place of repose." He gave

also as authentic the following passages, attributing them both to Ibn Duraid :

our own.

I bade him farewell, but my soul withheld its adieus and departed with him. We separated, and my heart shrunk within me, but my tears gushed out.

O you who bear away a heart love-broken and wretched ! love is a torture, but the torture which I endure surpasses all.

The preceding anecdotes are given by Abû Saad as-Samâni, in his supplement to the history of Baghdad. Towards the end of the article, he says: “I was ( at Bukhara when I heard of his death."

(1) Perhaps this name must be pronounced al-Bushåri, in which case the person who bore it was a native of Alpuxaras, near Grenada.

(2) See vol. II. page 483, note (19).

MUHAMMAD IBN ISHAK.

Abû Bakr, or, according to others, Abû Abd Allah, Muhammad Ibn Ishak Ibu Yasar Ibn Jabbâr (alias Saiyår) Ibn Kûnân, the author of the work called al-Magházi wa 's-Siar (the conquests and expeditions of the Moslims', was a native of Medina and a mawla (client) to the family of al-Muttalib ; his grandfather, Yasår, having been made prisoner by Khålid Ibn al-Walid at Aîn at-Tamr, and delivered as a mawla (slave) to Kais, the son of Makhrama, the son of al-Muttalib, the son of Abd Manâf, member of the tribe of Koraish. Muhammad Ibn Ishak is held by the majority of the learned as a sure authority in the Traditions, and no one can be ignorant of the high character borne by his work, the Magházi. “ Whoever wishes to know the (history of the Moslim) conquests," says Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri (vol. II. page 581), “ let him take Ibn Ishak (for guide);” and al-Bukhåri himself cites him in his history. It is also related that as-Shảfi said: “Whoever wishes to obtain a complete acquaintance with “the (Moslim ) conquests, must borrow his information from Ibn Ishak.” Sofyan Ibn Oyaina (vol. I. page 578) declared that he never met any one who cast suspicions on Ibn Ishak's recitals, and Shoba Ibn al-Hajjaj (vol. I. page 493) was heard to say: “Muhammad Ibn Ishak is the Commander of “ the faithful” – meaning that he held that rank as a traditionist. It is related, that, as az-Zuhri went to a village of which he was the proprietor, a number of the seekers of Traditions (1) were following him, on which he said : “Why do

you keep away from the squinting boy?" or (by another account) : “I left the “ squinting boy with you;” meaning Ibn Ishak. As-Såji (2) mentions that azZuhri's pupils had recourse to Muhammad Ibn Ishak, whenever they had doubts respecting the exactness of any of the Traditions delivered by their master; such was the confidence which they placed in his excellent memory. It is stated that Yahya Ibn Màin (3), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (vol. 1. p. 44), and Yahya Ibn Sâid al

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