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IBN AL-FARADI.

Abû 'l-Walid Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yûsuf Ibn Nasr al-Azdi, surnamed Ibn al-Faradi, a native of Cordova in Spain, was a jurisconsult deeply versed in the sciences connected with the Traditions, and well acquainted with the history and character of the persons by whom the Traditions were handed down; he possessed also immense information in general literature and other branches of knowledge. Amongst the number of his compositions, we must notice his History of the Learned Men of Spain ; this is the work in continuation of which Ibn Bashkuwâl wrote his Silat. Another good production of Ibn al-Faradi is a treatise on homonymous terms (al-Mukhtalif wa 'l-Matalif), and on those relative adjectives the derivation of which might be mistaken (Mushtabih an-Nisba); he composed also a history of the Spanish poets. In the year 382 (A. H. 992-3), he travelled from his native country to the East; in this visit he made the pilgrimage and frequented the company of the learned, communicating to them information, listening to their instructions, and writing down their observations (amáli). He composed a great deal of poetry, specimens of which we here give:

A prisoner enslaved by his sins stands at Thy door, his heart filled with dread for reasons which Thou knowest well. He trembles for crimes the horridness of which cannot be concealed from Thee, and thou alone art the sole object of his hopes and fears. In whom should hopes be placed,—whom should man fear but Thee? nought can prevent the fulfilment of Thy judgments. Lord! let not the book in which my actions are written bring me to shame, on the great day of reckoning, when the registers of men's deeds shall be opened to view. Be my consoler in the darkness of the tomb when my family abandon me and my friends know me no longer. In Thy abundant mercies I hope to find pardon for my transgressions; if Thy mercies fail me, I am lost for ever!

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By the same:

If she who leads me a willing captive be not equal to the full moon in beauty, she is yet hardly surpassed by it. My submission as a lover proceeds from the power of her charms, and my languishing sickness is caused by the languor of her eyes.

He was born in the month of Zû 'l-Kaada, A. H. 351 (December, A. D. 962). During some time he officiated as a kâdi in the city of Valencia, and on Monday the 7th of Shawwal, A. H. 403 (April, A. D. 1013), he was slain in Cordova

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at the storming of that city by the Berbers (1). His body lay in his house during three days, and was at length buried in a state of putrefaction, without being washed, or shrouded, or prayed over. Speaking of this subject we may cite here a circumstance which was related by himself : “When performing the

pilgrimage, I clung to the veil of the Kaaba and asked of Almighty God the

grace of dying a martyr; but on withdrawing, I reflected on the terrors of a “ violent death and repented of my wish; I even thought of returning and “ praying God to consider it as null, but shame withheld me.” It is related also that a person saw him lying amongst the slain, and on going over to him, heard him utter these words with a feeble voice : “No one shall be wounded in " the cause of God, (and God well knoweth him who is wounded in that cause! “ but will come at the day of resurrection with his wound dropping blood; its “ colour will be that of blood, but its smell that of musk (2);” thus repeating to himself the Tradition relative to those who die martyrs. The same person said that he expired immediately after. This Tradition was first given by Muslim in his Hadith, or collection of the Prophet's sayings.

(1) This occurred in the reign of Hishâm al-Muwaiyad, who disappeared in the catastrophe and was never heard of after. Sulaiman Ibn al-Hakam, surnamed al-Mustain billah, then ascended the throne for the second time. On taking the city, his African troops passed three days in the perpetration of every excess.

(2) This is one of the sayings pronounced by Muhammad. - See Matthew's Mishkat al-Masabih, vol. II.

page 237.

AR-RUSHATI.

Abû Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Khalaf Ibn Ahmad Ibn Omar ar-Rushâti, a member of the tribe of Lakhm and a native of Almeria in Spain, was assiduously devoted to the study of the Traditions, the Traditionists, the transmitters of oral information and the historians. He is the author of a good work on the genealogy of Muhammad's companions and of the persons by whom the history of (his) deeds was handed down; it is entitled Iktibás al-Anwâr w'Iltimás al-Azhår (acquisition of lights and search for flowers. This compilation, which is drawn up with no inferior talent, was explained by arRushâti himself to his pupils : it is arranged on the same plan as the Ansâb, a genealogical treatise composed by Abû Saad as-Samâni. Ar-Rushậti was born at Oriuwâla (Orihuela), a town in the dependencies of Murcia, on Saturday morning, the 8th of the latter Jumâda, A. H. 466 (February, A. D. 1074): he died a martyr at Almeria when that city was taken by the enemy on Friday morning, the 20th of the first Jumâda, A.H. 542 (17th October, A.D. 1147) (1). -Rushâti; this relative adjective is derived neither from the name of a tribe nor from that of a place, but originated, as he himself states in his work, from the following circumstance: One of his ancestors had a mole on his body, and when a child he was nursed by a Persian (or a foreign) slave, who when playing with him used to call him Rushtâla (2), whence he became known by the name of Rushâti.

(1) Almeria was then one of the most important sea-ports of the Spanish Moslims and the centre of a vast system of piracy which desolated the shores of the Mediterranean. It was taken by the Christians after a long siege, during which Alfonzo Raimond, king of Arragon and Catalonia, aided by his Moslim ally Ibn Ghânia and by the king of Arragon, blockaded it by land, whilst the count of Barcelona, with the combined fleet of the Genoese and Pisans, attacked it by sea. We find here, for the first time, the precise date of that event.

(2) I here follow the reading of the autograph MS., but Rushata, as given in the printed text, seems preferable, as the relative adjective Rushati is regularly derived from it, which is not the case with Rushtala,where the relative adjective would take the form of Rushtali. The meaning of this word is unknown to me, but the Portuguese roxo (red) or the French rousse appears to form a part of it.

IBN BARI.

Abû Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Abi 'l-Wahsh Bari Ibn Abd al-Jabbar Ibn Bari was a native of Egypt, but his family belonged to Jerusalem. . His talents as a grammarian and philologer, the abundance and exactness of the oral information which he transmitted, and his general instruction obtained for him

the reputation of the most learned man of the time, the greatest hafiz of the age, 378 and the phenix of the epoch. He studied grammar under Abû Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik as-Shantarini (1), Abu Talib Abd al-Jabbâr Ibn Muham- 378 mad Ibn Ali al-Maàfiri al-Kortubi (2), and other masters in that art; he was taught Traditions by Abů Sådik al-Madini, Abû Abd Allah ar-Razi, and others. The greater part of the language spoken by the Arabs of the Desert was familiar to him, and he composed a book of excellent notes on al-Jawhari's lexicon, the Sahåh, in which he brought forward many curious examples and pointed out numerous mistakes committed by that author; this work is a proof of his extensive information, his great abilities, and his profound learning. Amongst the crowd of pupils who studied under him and profited by his tuition, one of the most conspicuous was Abû Mûsa (Isa) al-Jazůli, the author of the Mukaddama, or introduction to the science of grammar, of whom further notice shall be taken in this volume). Al-Juzůli speaks of his master in the Mukaddama, and towards the end of it he gives some traditional information which he had learned from him. Ibn Bari was well acquainted with Sibawaih's Kitâb and with the examples adduced by that grammarian in support of his doctrines (3). He was supervisor of the Chancery Office of Egypt', and every letter addressed by the government to foreign princes had to pass through his hands before it could be sent off; his duty being to peruse it and correct the faults which might have escaped notice. Such also was the post held by Ibn Bàbshảd, as we have already stated (vol. I. page 648). I met in Egypt a number of persons who had studied under him, and they communicated to me some of the traditional information which they had obtained from him; in testimony of this, I procured from them certificates of license. It is related that Ibn Bari spoke his language very carelessly and that he paid little attention to the final vowels, using whichever came uppermost. This he carried to such an extent, that he said one day to a pupil who was studying grammar under him: “Buy me a small quantity of spinage with the roots on (hindaba biorúkd).” The other replied (in correcting him) : “Yes, hindabah biorůkih.Provoked with the observation, he exclaimed: “Do not take it without the roots (bioruků);"(repeating the fault “if it be without roots, I will not have it.” He used

He used many other expressions of a similar kind, being quite indifferent to the manner in which he spoke, and paying no attention to the final vowels. I have seen a collection of notes made by him on al-Hariri’s Durrat al-Ghawâss ; there is also a little book by him in which he points out the mistakes into which jurisconsults have fallen.

Besides these works he composed an able defence of al-Hariri against Ibn alKhashshåb, who had written a work in order to expose the blunders committed in the Makamás. Ibn Bari was born at Cairo on the 5th of Rajab, A. H. 499 (March, A. D. 1106); he died in the same city on the eve of Sunday, the 27th of Shawwal, A. H. 582 (January, A. D. 1187).— Bari is a proper name, though by its form it resembles a relative adjective.

(1) Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik, surnamed Ibn as-Sarraj, was born at Santarem, but he fixed his residence at Seville. He studied grammar under Ibn Abi ’l-Aafiya and Ibn al-Akhdar, and received Traditions from Abd "l-Kasim an-Nafti sbeill from whom also he learned (the imam Malik's work) the Muwatta, which he then transmitted orally to his own disciples. In the year 515 (A.D. 1121-2) he travelled to Egypt, where he taught the reading of the Koran and the Traditions. He then made a visit to Yemen. His works are the Tanbih al-Albab (a hint to the wise), treating of the Desert Arabs and their excellencies; a treatise on prosody; an abridgment of Ibn Rashik's work the Omda (see vol. I. page 384), in which he points out the mistakes committed by that writer. He died at Old Cairo, A.H. 545 (A.D. 1150–1).—(Ibn alAbbâr's Takmila.)

(2) Abd Talib Abd al-Jabbår Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Maâfiri was born at Cordova, but he fixed his residence in Egypt. He learned the Makamas from Abu Muhammad Abd Allah, the son of the celebrated alHariri, and he taught them on his authority. In the year 552 (A. D. 1167) Abu Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr al-Judami as-Sibti learned them from Abu Talib in Egypt.— (Takmila.)

(3) Those examples are generally single verses quoted from ancient poems, and to understand them well it is necessary to study the pieces to which they belong.

AL-AADID.

Abû Muhammad Abd Allah was the son of Yûsuf Ibn al-Hafiz Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Mustansir Ibn az-Zahir Ibn al-Hâkim Ibn al-Aziz Ibn al-Moizz Ibn alMansûr Ibn al-Kâim Ibn al-Mahdi. He bore the surname of al-Aâdid and was the last Obaidite (Fatimite) sovereigns of Egypt. We have already given notices on some members of his family and shall speak of the others in the ensuing portion of this work. Al-Aadid was raised to the throne on the death of his cousin al-Faiz (in the month of Rajab, A. H. 555). His father Yûsuf was one of the two brothers who were assassinated by Abbâs on the

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