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one of the chief partisans of Othmân, and, on the death of that khalif, he fought against the troops of Ali and slew Muhammad the son of Abd Bakr. In A.H. 48, the khalif Moawia named him governor of Maghrib. Towards the end of 49, he returned to the East and held other important posts under the same prince. He died A. H. 52 (A. D. 672).- (Al-Bahr az-Zakhir; an-Nujům az-Zahira; Journal Asiatique for February, 1841.)

(3) This is the same historian noticed in vol. I. page 389, note (2). I should have there observed that the date of his death as given by Hajji Khalifa is false. Instead of 246, he must have intended to write 346, and the fact is that Abû 'l-Mahâsin notices the death of a hafiz named Muhammad Ibn Yakub Ibn Yusûf, who died in that year. But this person was a native of Naisapûr, a client to the Omaiyides, and he bore the surname of Abū ’l-Abbås; here is therefore a double error committed by Hajji Khalifa. Ad-Dahabi in his Annals is more satisfactory, he says under the year 380: “In the month of Shawwal of this year died Abu Omar Mu“hammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Yakûb Ibn Hafs Ibn Yusuf Ibn Nusair al-Kindi, the author of the history of Egypt ; " at the age of 67 years.” Ibn Khallikân in this place gives him the surname of Tujibi, not of Kindi; but this difficulty is easily got over; the tribe of Tujib being descended from that of Kinda by the following line: Kinda, Ashras, as-Sokun, Sabib, Ashras, Tujib.-I must observe that in the revised edition of Hajji Khalifa’s text, MS. of the Bib. du Roi, fonds Schulz, Abu Omar's death is placed in A. H. 350 ; the foregoing observations are therefore completely borne out.

ABU SULAIMAN AD-DARANI.

Abû Sulaiman Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Ahmad Ibn Atiya al-Ansi ad-Dârâni, a person celebrated for his mortified life and one of the men of the path (1), held an eminent rank among the holy ascetics, and was one of those who were the most successful in their efforts to attain the communion with the divinity. A saying of his was : “ He who doeth good works by day is protected (by Providence) during the night, and he who doeth good works by night is

protected during the day.” He said also : “When a man seriously re

nounces his lusts, Almighty God removes them from his heart ; and He “ would be too just to punish a heart for the lusts left in it (by Himsell)." He said again : “ The best of works is to resist the passions of one's mind.” He related also as follows : “I was saying my daily task of prayer, when

sleep overcame me, and behold! a maiden of paradise stood before me, " and said: Thou sleepest, and yet I have been brought up for thee under the “ shelter of curtains during five hundred years!'” He pronounced a great number of fine maxims. His death happened in A. H. 205 (A. D. 820-1), or

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A. H. 215.— Ansi means belonging to the tribe of Ans, who was the son of Màlik Ihn Odod; it is a branch of the tribe of Madhij.— Dârâni means belonging to Dâriya ; Dâriya is a village in the Ghůta or cultivated country around Damascus: this relative adjective is formed irregularly.

(1) See vol. I. page 259.

AL-FURANI

Abû 'l-Kasim Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Fûràn alFûrâni was a native of Marw and chief doctor of the Shafites in that city. He was profoundly learned in the dogmas of religion and the developments of the law. His master in jurisprudence was Abû Bakr al-Kaffàl as-Shâshi. He composed works on the dogmas of the faith, on the doctrines of his sect, on the points of controversy subsisting between his sect and the others, on dialectics, and on the different religions and sects. Being then appointed the chief of the Shafite community, he filled the land with disciples. In explaining the doctrines of asShafi, he treated some portions of them in a manner peculiar to himself and denoting great soundness of judgment. On these doctrines he drew up an instructive treatise, entitled al-Ibâna (the elucidation); and I heard one of the learned say that when the Imam al-Haramain was a boy, he went to al-Fûrâni's lessons ; but, on account of his youth, his remarks and observations did not receive from his master the attention which they deserved: from that time he always preserved a feeling of rancour against al-Fûrâni, and it was he whom he had in view each time he says in his Nihâyat al-Matlab : A certain author says so and 80, but is mistaken, which words he always follows up by an attack. Al-Fúràni died at Marw, in the month of Ramadân, A. H. 461 (June-July, A. D. 1069) at the age of seventy-three years. The hafiz Abd al-Ghàfir al-Farisi mentions him in his Sidk, or continuation of (al-Hakim Ibn al-Bali's) History of Naisapûr.-Furdni is a relative adjective formed from Fûrân, the name of his “ great-grandfather.” Such is the observation made by as-Samâni.

VOL. II.

12

ABU SAAD AL-MUTAWALLI.

388

Abû Saad Abd ar-Rahmân the son of Muhammad (whose real name was Màmûn), the son of Ali (or of Ibrahim it is said), and surnamed al-Mutawalli, was a doctor of the sect of as-Shâfî and a native of Naisåpůr. To his great learning he united a profound spirit of piety; the rectitude of his conduct was not more admired than the scrupulous care with which he investigated legal questions ; and in dogmatic theology, jurisprudence, and controversy he displayed abilities of the highest order. On the death of the shaikh Abû Ishak as-Shirazi, he was appointed professor in the Nizâmiya College at Baghdad; but towards the close of the year 476 (A. D. 1084), he was superseded by Abû Nasr Ibn as-Sabbàgh, the author of the Shamil, who thus filled that post a second time (1) but was again removed from it in the following year, when Abû Saad al-Mutawalli was reinstated and continued to hold it till his death. In the supplement to Abû Ishak as-Shîrâzi's Tabakåt, or Classification of the Jurisconsults, which was written by Abû Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik al-Hamadàni, this author says: “Ahmad Ibn Salåma the muhtasib (2) related to me as follows: When “Abû Saad al-Mutawalli took his seat as professor, on the death of our shaikh “(meaning Abů Ishak as-Shirazi), the jurisconsults disapproved of his sitting “in the place which had been occupied by their former doctor, and wished " that he had given a mark of deference to his predecessor by sitting lower. “ Their feelings on the subject did not escape the penetration of Abû Saad, and " he said to them: “Know that, during the course of my life, two events only

gave me pleasure; the first, that I came from beyond the Oxus and entered "Sarakhs in garments much used and not such as are worn by persons of

learning : I then went to the conference held by Abû 'l-Harith Ibn Abi «« « ’l-Fadl as-Sarakhsi and sat down behind his pupils : they then discussed " " a question, and I spoke upon it and made objections ; when it came to my "o turn to speak again, Abû 'l-Hårith bid me come forward and I obeyed; I " again spoke in my turn, and he told me to draw nearer, till at last he called " • me to him and seated me by his side; he then stood up with me and ad"• mitted me into the number of his disciples. On this occasion I was over

powered with joy. The second circumstance which gave me pleasure was,

“ “ to be judged worthy of succeeding our shaikh Abů Ishak, which is the great«« est delight and favour I could ever hope to enjoy.' ” A number of eminent jurisconsults finished their studies under him; he himself had studied the law at Marw under Abû 'l-Kasim Abd ar-Rahmân al-Fûrâni (see page 89), at Marw ar-Rûd under the Kadi Husain, and at Bokhåra under Abû Sahl Ahmad Ibn Ali ’l-Abiwardi (3). He learned also the Traditions, and composed a work on jurisprudence, entitled Tatimmat al-Ibâna, intended to form the completion of his master al-Fûrâni's treatise, the Ibâna, but he did not live to finish it. It only went as far as the chapter on punishments, but was terminated afterwards by the joint labours of some doctors, one of whom, Abû ’l-Futûh Asaad al-Ijli has been already noticed (vol. I. page 194). They did not, however, follow the plan nor attain the object of the original author, who had collected into that treatise legal questions of the rarest occurrence, and extraordinary cases, scarcely ever to be found in any other book. Al-Mutawalli composed also a short but very instructive treatise on the division of inheritances, and he drew up a system of controversy containing the indication of the different manners in which questions may be discussed. Another of his works is a short treatise on the dogmas of the Moslim faith. All his writings are highly instructive. He was born at Naisapûr, A.H. 426 (A.D. 1034-5), some say A.H. 427; he died at Baghdad on the eve of Friday, the 18th of Shawwal, A. H. 478 (February, A. D. 1086), and was interred in the cemetery at the Abrez Gate.-I do not know for what reason he received the surname of al-Mutawalli, neither does as-Samâni mention it.

(1) See vol. I. page 11, and the life of Ibn as-Sabbagh in this volume. (2) See vol. I. page 378.

(3) Abu Sahl Ahmad Ibn Ali 'l-Abiwardi was a doctor of the Shafite sect, but little else is known of him than what is here indicated by Ibn Khallikân. The author of the Tabakat as-Shafiyin places his death, by conjecture, between A.H. 460 and 480.

FAKHR AD-DIN IBN ASAKIR THE JURISCONSULT.

Abû Mansûr Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibat Allah

Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Husain ad-Dimishki (native of Damascus), surnamed Fakhr 389 ad-dîn (glory of the faith), and generally known by the appellation of Ibn Asåkir

al-Fakih (the jurisconsult), was a doctor of the sect of as-Shảfi, and the most eminent person of that age for his learning and piety. He studied jurisprudence under Kutb ad-din Abû 'l

Maali Masûd an-Naisapûri (a shaikh whose life will be found in this work), and derived great profit from his tuition during the period in which he lived with him as a pupil. He then married the daughter of his master, and, confiding in his own abilities, he professed for some time at Jerusalem and Damascus. Many of those who attended his lessons and completed their studies under him rose to distinction as imâms of great talent. The legal opinions which he gave as a mufti were held in high esteem for their correctness. He was brother's son to the hafiz Abû ’l-Kasim Ali Ibn Asakir, author of the history of Damascus. This family produced a number of men eminent for their learning and for the exalted posts which they filled. Fakhr ad-din was born, to the best of my opinion, A. H. 550 (A. D. 1155-6), and a note in his own handwriting states that his birth took place in that year (1). He died at Damascus on Wednesday, the 10th of Rajab, A. H. 620 (August, A. D. 1123). I have visited his tomb, which is situated in the Cemetery of the Sûfis, outside Damascus.

(1) It may be perceived that this last passage was added subsequently. In the autograph, it is written in the margin.

ABU 'L-KASIM AZ-ZAJJAJI.

Abû 'l-Kasim Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Ishak az-Zajjâji was an inhabitant of Baghdad from his early youth, but by his birth he belonged to Nahâwend, which was also the native place of his family. He was a master of the highest au

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