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Dr. Henrietta Şachs of Chicago has superimposed known quantities of paint chips on abdominal X-rays of children to try to get some idea of how much children eat. She then compares such X-rays to X-rays of children with pica. I think her estimate was that what she saw in a child's abdomen by X-ray matched X-rays in which about 1 gram of paint had been superimposed on normal abdominal Xrays.

One square centimeter is probably a minimum intake for children with pica. We probably should be thinking in terms of a square inch or so.

Senator SCHWEIKER. Thank you very much, Doctor.

Senator HUGHES. Thank you, Doctor. I thank you very much. Your entire statement will be included in the record as given.

I want to thank the ladies, Mrs. Haskins and Mrs. Burton for coming with you and testifying.

Our next witness is Philip E. Robinson, executive vice president, Lead Industries Association.

Will you take the stand, please.



Mr. ROBINSON. Mr. Chairman, I have a very short statement but I should be glad to summarize it even more so.

Senator Hughes. Proceed in any way you wish.

Mr. ROBINSON. I have with me Dr. Jerome F. Cole, who is director of environmental health with the Lead Industries Association. He is on my left.

On my right is Mr. Jerome F. Smith of our association.

We are presenting our statement on S. 3080 on behalf of LIA's member companies engaged in mining, smelting, refining and manufacturing and fabrication of lead and lead products.

Our association endorses the objectives of S. 3080. We do not oppose the reduction in lead content of interior paints proposed on page 2, line 5, of the bill. Nor would we oppose any other limit that effectively reduces content of lead of interior paints, assuming, of course, that it is within the technical and manufacturing capabilities of the paint industry.

We do feel, however, that there is no sound toxological basis for the proposed 0.06-percent level, and we hope it will be recognized that 0.06-percent lead is not a magic number above which toxicity will result.

The intent of this bill obviously is to provide better protection to the children of our Nation against the problem of illness caused by the eating or chewing of old lead-containing paints. The lead industry is in full accord with all measures that will reduce and eliminate this problem.

We also want the committee to realize that the lead industry has long been a responsible and concerned industry that has pioneered in research and action campaigns aimed at controlling this problem. For several decades, the lead industry has supported research at leading universities and hospitals on the metabolism of lead, and the diagnosis and treatment of lead poisoning in an effort to bring about a better understanding of the problem. The information developed from this research has been disseminated in medical and public health journals, and at various symposia sponsored by LIA.

We would like to offer for the record our booklet entitled, "Facts About Lead and Pediatrics," as well as a booklet by Dr. Jane S. Lin-Fu of the U.S. Public Health Service both of which have been distributed by LIA to more than 100,000 health professionals in the past 3 years.

These booklets succinctly summarize available knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of pediatric lead poisoning, and outline community protection programs.

The lead industry has continually gone on record in support of legislative efforts to reduce and control pediatric lead poisoning at Federal, State, and local levels, and we will continue to do so.

May we also point out that, whereas lead pigments for interior applications may not be necessary or desirable, for exterior, industrial uses, we consider them indispensable.

Anticorrosive lead pigmented paints are needed and used on steel structures throughout this country and the world—indeed—anticorrosive lead pigmented paint is the standard by which all other anticorrosive paints are measured.

Even the Capitol dome has been protected from corrosion with a leaded paint. We point this out in the hope that future legislation will not restrict the use of these valuable pigments for exterior and industrial uses.

Another point worthy of consideration, and one which is important when any so-called hazardous substance is restricted, is the toxicity of its replacement. It is incumbent upon those who advocate such restrictions to show that the replacement materials will not represent a hazard to the public.

In summary, the Lead Industries Association supports the objectives of S. 3080, and only asks that the committee determine, to the best of its ability, that the bill's requirements are technologically feasible, and that the necessary replacements for lead do not present a hazard in the concentrations they will be used.

Again, we thank you for this opportunity to present our views. Senator Hughes. Thank you very much, Mr. Robinson. The pamph

HUGHES let and the booklet which you mentioned will be filed as a part of the committee record.

(The information referred to follows:)

76–737 0–725

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Lead poisoning is a needless cause of mental retardation, other neurological handicaps and death among children.

LEAD POISONING IN CHILDREN stresses the preventable nature of this health problem and is intended to stimulate some much needed action on several fronts:

• The public must be made aware that lead poisoning is preventable, be able to recognize its symptoms and seek appropriate medical help, and cooperate in efforts to eliminate this health problem.

• Physicians and other health workers need more information than many now have about the availability of screening, diagnostic, and treatment methods.

• Legislative action is needed to see that lead paint is removed from dilapidated housing and that proper warnings are given in the use of any paint containing lead.

LEAD POISONING IN CHILDREN emphasizes that each of these steps is essential if progress is to be made in preventing needless death or handicapping to children living in our urban areas.


publication number 2108-1970

lead poisoning

in children

Pediatric Consultant, Division of Health Services

Public Health Service
Health Services and Mental Health Administration
Maternal and Child Health Service

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