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will lie at their door, if their chil- and children is of vast impordren do not see, in them, a con- tance. All children have souls cern for their souls. Did their which are liable to be lost. Great parents publicly dedicate them indeed must be such a loss. to God, and obligate themselves, Committed by God to the care in the most solemn manner, to of their parents, they are liable bring them up in his nurture and to be lost, through their unfaithadmonition? They will, then, be fulness. God hath constituted guilty of great ingratitude, to parents the guides of their offwithhold from God their own spring. And what if they guide children. These things are not them wrong? The effect will mentioned, as involving all in certainly be seen in their children equal obligations ; for they who If they give wrong instruction, have filled the place of parents it is to be expected that wrong have not been equally faithful to instruction will be received. their trust.

But, although our When received, how is it to be fathers, who are gone, rooted out ? If they give no inchargeable, in the sight of God, struction, it is to be expecte with unfaithfulness to us ; yet, that their children will grow up through them, generally speak- in ignorance. Means and ends, ing, we have enjoyed such privi- under the government of God, leges, as have brought upon us a are connected.

He who neg: great debt, which we can never lects to sow, may not expect to discharge unless we do it to reap ; and he who sows tares, the rising generation, It will may expect to reap tares. In be the basest ingratitude, not to like manner, he, who is unfaithdo as well, at least, by our chil- ful in his house, who neglects to dren, as our fathers did by uś. give divine instruction, and Shall 'the knowledge of God's whose example is bad, has no word and ordinances, communi, reason to expect that his chilcated to us by the generation dren will be seen walking in the from which we have descended, truth, How can those children be laid aside as useless, like the love and honour their Maker, talent, which the wicked and who have never been taught his slothful servant hid in the earth? character ? Trained up in ignoShall we, by our unfaithfulness, rance of divine things, their stuput out all the light, which has pidity is not a matter of surbeen transmitted to us from our prise. It is the natural fruit of fathers, and leave our children to their education. What ground grow up as heathen? Our con., is there to indulge a hope that sciences, unless scared as with a they will have any concern for hot iron, will be prompt in de, themselves, as sinful, undone ciding these questions.

creatures, if their parents neglect The only way for this genera- to acquaint them with their chartion to keep themselves pure from acter and condition? What is the blood of their children, is to be called conviction always takes faithful in communicating divine place in view of truth. Instrucinstruction to them., or light, is necessary to taught in the word of God, that conviction. Not that mere inthe connexion between parents struction is the cause of convic

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tion ; but it is essential to it. creature, and who has no oppor. That person, who is duly con- tunity to make restitution, becerved for his soul, is brought cause it has been neglected, uninto that situation by having til the injured person is no more some just views of truth ; for among the living. we cannot conceive of an exer- But, those who have but lately cise of mind, whether painful or entered into the family state, pleasant, without an object. have opportunity to save themHence we see the importance of selves from the distressing pain gospel instruction. Those par- of having been unfaithful. Their ents, who withhold it from their children are yet under their care, children, will find themselves, in and they are looking to them, as the great day, guilty of the blood their instructors and guides. of their souls. In consequence How important that they im. of their unfaithfulness, they may prove the price which is put ingo down to destruction, and draw to their hands; that they begin after them their children and early to instruct their children, their children's children.

and to make them acquainted To all parents this subject with eternal things. If they must be interesting, especially know the things, which belong to to those, who have lately entered their own peace, and to that of into the family state. Forthose, their children, they will suffer po who are in this case, it was more time to be lost. especially designed.

Such parents, as have been unfaithful in their houses, until the characters of their children

PARTS are formed, and their influence over them nearly or quite at an end, are in a most unhappy case.

[The reader will take the trouble to

look over the chapter.] The opportunities they once enjoyed are past, and can never be

HAVING noted the blessings, recalled. Their children will which come to believers through no more be young. They are

Jesus Christ ; free justification, gone, or are going, from under peace with God, a standing in their care ; and perhaps many of the grace of the everlasting corthem are in their graves. The enant, and joy in the hope of parents, if their feelings are in glory, with several important any measure awake, must carry concomitants ; the apostle, from their burdens all their days; the 12th verse, remarks a resemknowing that it must be forever blance between the manner in said of them, that they have been which sin and death pass upon unkind and unfaithful parents. the world of mankind, and the They may ardently wish they · manner in which the justificahad opportunity to call their chil- tion of life, with all its benefits, dren around them, and make passes upon all, who are in them acquainted with their M; Christ. “Wherefore, as by one ker; but, alas, it is too late. man sin entered into the world, Their case is similar to that of a and death by sin ; and so death person, who has robbed a fellow. passed upon all men, for that all






have sinned?" [So righteous- men, for that all have sinned." ness and life, through Christ Calvin's interpretationi agrees alone, pass upon all the heirs of with that of our translators :mercy.)

Forasmuch as all have sinned. In some such manner as this, But if, with others, we choose to according to the connexion, the read, so death passed upon all men, ellipsis in ver. 12 ought to be sup- unto which all have sinned; the plies ; as may be seen by look- same ground of condemnation is ing forward to ver. 15.

implied; and all having sinned the two intervening versesunto death, in one sense or other, appear to form a parenthesis, by is the declared reason why death which the apostle explains, as he passes upon all. goes along, what he had just 'Still the exact sense in which said. “ Sin,” he observes, “is all are adjudicated 'sinners, by not imputed where there is no means of the first man's offence,

law.”. But, in fact, sin was in is variously explained. Wheth'the world, and was imputed er that

was imputed er that judgment implicates from Adam to the time of Mo, them by imputation, in virtue of ses. If there was not a written their father's offence, and belaw to charge it, there was a law cause he acted as their federal of nature. And there was the head ; and on that ground conoriginal command Adam was signs them to a contaminating under, and which he transgress- influence of the original sin, as ed. And death reigned all that part of the death incurred; Or time, even over them, who had whether the judgment, in the not committed overt acts of sin. first instance, brings them in sin. In this respect, as in others, ners, upon the ground of contamAdam the sinner was a figure of ination and inherent depravity, Adam the righteous, through and so doons them to the reward whom the gift of life is convey- of sin : ' Or whether there be an cd to those by whom no act of 'explanation more perfect than virtue had been performed. 'either, and which more clearly

To return then to verse 12. « vindicates the ways of God to How sin came into the world by man," I wish rather to leave with one man, and death by sin, will Him whose' ways are surely unbe understood, if we can explain impeachable, than with any huthat judgment unto condemnation man expositor ; and much rather mentioned in ver. 16. What is than decide myself in a peremptoit then, but a judgment conclud. ry manner. ing the whole race under sin ; In the mean time, 'how interand then passing sentence of esting in the most general view, death upon that ground, i. e. a is the parallel here introduced ? sentence to mortality, to the loss « As by one man's disobedience of communion with God, and to many were made sinners ;” say whatever else was included in the generally, involved in depravity original threatening? I say upon and guilt, as the natural consethat ground, passing sentence ; quence of such rebellion of their because this is the language of father, under a wise and holy the 12th verse, in the last part of constitution of God; 80 by perit: “And so death passed upon all fect obedience of another Father, under a new constitution, shall livers : Especially considering many, (that is, as many as believe how momentary, and transient on Hiin with, a uniting faith) rise that death is, in the ultimately to a justification, -lounded upon redeemed (though without rehis merits, and not thờir own; demption it must have been eterwhich shall, however, be followed nal) and how endless is the life with a complete 'restoration of of holiness and glory to which original righteousness; and what they are raised up. is more, the complete image of In verse 16, another point of Jesus Christ, our head and father. difference is noted. The judg.

But the apostle hints that ment to condemnation-i. e. the there are circumstances in which original sentence which involved the parallel does not hold; and the world in death and wretchedsome of these he specifies; Dess-passed upon the ground chiefly with a view to show, as a of a single offence of the first well known expositor observes, transgressor.: (whether we say " that Adain could not propagate upon the demerit of it as his act; · so strong a poison, but that Jesus whether we say in virtue of our Christ could propagate an anti- interest in it, as the act of our dote much strouger; and that the father and head ; or whether on stream of grace and righteous- the ground of the contamination, „ness is deeper and broader than which by the law of nature it the stream of guilt.”

must impress, unless that law V. 15.

“ But not as the. of- were suspended ;) but the free fence, so also is the free gift. gift prevails over the multipli, For if, through the pffence of ed offences of milțions of subone, many be dead; much more, jects, unto their discharge from the grace of God, and the gift condemnation and their instateby grace"-i. e. the gift of righ- inent in divine favour. The arteousness and life, which is gument appears to intend this ; by Jesus Christ, hath abounded if one offence, by the jus& judg. unto many." The explanation ment of God, brought such a of this may be found in part, , by death upon a whole world, how a little varying of the expres- great must be the GRACE which sion. If Divine Justice had can triumph over such a multia signal display in sending deatla tude of offences, of innumerable upon the world through the of- guilty subjects, and confer upon fence of the first transgressor; them such immense positiv, the grace of God has a inore sig blessings, nal display in the recovery by In verse 17 there is another such a Redeemer; by the ainaz- comparison.“ If by one man's ing love that gave Him to the disobedience, death reigned by world in a way of such humilias one ; much more, they who retion and suffering i by the ceive abundance of grace, and of foundation laid in his important the gift of righteousness, shall obeslience, for such blessings to reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.” siuners; and by the grace The general intention seems to be, actually besiowed--whichi how greatly will that life, which countervails

the death and true believers shall possess by wretchedness from which it de- the abundant grace conferred on

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them through the glorious right- faith: and faith, however defineousness of Christ their head, ed, will surely be acknowledged transcend and 'overbalance the to be not universal.' .; wretchedness of that death According to the 5th verse through which they shall have our hope will make us ashamed, passed ! And when it is compar- unless the love of God be shed ed in point of duration, what-isthé abroad in our hearts by his own, short reign of death, which they Spirit given to us. But who have realized, to the endless will say, that this felicity is apblessed life in which they shall plicable to all men ? reign in heaven with Christ their Again. The Christian's hope, head:

as mentioned in verse 10, is, that In verse 18 the apostle re- being reconciled through Christ's turns to note another point of death, he shall be saved by his resemblance. « Therefore, as

life. But he is not reconciled, by the offence of onc, judgment who still has the heart of an encame upon all rien to condem- emy. Other restrictive intimanation ; even so by the right- tions might be found without goeousness of one the free gift ing out of this chapter. But I 'came upon all men unto justifi• forbear ; only observing that cation of life.” The indebted. while we revolt at the universaness of all who are saved to the lian construction, as discordant righteousness of Jesus Christ to the whole tenor of Paul's alone, as the procuring cause, is discourses, it is of importance to commonly confessed. The quest note what this large expression tion of chief difficulty here is, does intend ; for it has a mean. how the apostle came to speaking, and of a most interesting of the descent of the free gift, in nature, viz. That there is in fact terms so extensire. The infer- a free gift of God made to all ence that all will be saved, has men, by proclamation ; a gift been drawn indeed, but with too of righteousness and abundant much precipitation. The com grace through Jesus Christ; a ment of an ancient father is cer- gift extending in its import to tainly natural'' and 'rational ; justification of life through faith. “ That is a gift common to all, How generally it is or will be rewhich is held out to all, tendered ceivee, is another question. And to all. Not as though it must how this same apostle came to in fact bless all, whether it be re- have such heaviness and soliciceived or rejected.” ! How i in- tude for the salvation of his deed can a free gift, however lib- countrymen, as he expresses in erally made, be theirs to effect, the 9th chapter, is very hard to by whom it is always refused'? explain, if they were in no danor how be enjoyed, when it has ger of coming short by rejecuing never become welcome ?

the heavenly gift. ! : Bút indeed the restrictive If any still suppose that this clauses, interspersed through clause can only be explained by this discourse, might be suffi- actual justification, then the parcient to save it from the inter. allel, in orde;' to' agree with the pretation first mentioned. The analogy of scripture must be justification of life is through carried out in this for: 'As by

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