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our own sense on his words, to make him say things against ourselves which he never intended. It is giving a false color to the language of the bible, that we may support the false views we entertain of his character, and his dealings with the children of men.

6th, I may just add about Hades, what was noticed about Sheol, that we never find the words eternal, everlasting, or forever, used in connexion with it, or concerning it. We never read of an everlasting or eternal Hades or hell, or that men are to be punished in it forever. Nothing like this is to be found in scripture. Such epithets added to the word hell, found in books and sermons, are among the improvements in divinity which man's wisdom teacheth. The word hell is first perverted from its original signification, and then the word eternal is added to it, to make the punishment of endless duration.



“For if God spared not the Angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, (Tartarosas), and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.” See Jude 6, to which I shall also advert in


remarks. Although the word Tartarus, does not occur in the Bible, yet the word Tartarosas occurs in this single text. It is equivelent to Tartarus ; it signifies— to cast into Tartarus." See Parkhurst. Professor Stuart asserts—" that a place of punishment is here indicated by Tartarus, is put beyond all doubt by the context he spared not,' chains of darkness, imprisoned for judgment or condemnation.” But what is there in


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these expressions, which says, the angels, or any other beings, suffered pain or misery in Tartarus? They are not even said to be alive there, far less suffering torment. In my reply to his Essays, I have considered pretty fully, what he says about Tartarus. See also a quotation from Dr. Campbell in the preceding section, which relates to this subject. In what follows, I shall principally confine the readers attention, to what I consider the true sense of the passage, or passages in question.

1st, Let us examine what period is referred to, called in the one passage simplyjudgment,” and in the other, " the judgment of the great day.These expressions, are supposed to refer to a day of general judgment,” at the end of this material world. But I know of no sacred writer, who uses such language, to describe such a day. I find however this, or very similar language used, to describe God's judgments on the Jewish nation at the close of the Mosaic dispensation. “ The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood before the great and terrible day of the Lord come." Joel, ii. 31. Peter, Acts ii. 20. quotes these words, and applies them to this very event. Again, Malachi iv, 5. says, “ behold, I will send you

Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord,in reference to the same event. Our Lord, alluding to this period said, Luke xxi. 22—“For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.” And adds, Math. xxiv. 21, “For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.” But are the tribulations of this supposed day of judgment, to be less than the tribulations which came on the Jewish nation at the destruction of Jerusalem ? If not, how can our Lord's words be true ? In Rev. vi. 17. we read also of the great day,and “the great day of God Almighty;" but no man will say, that this refers to a day of

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general judgment at the end of this world. The context shows, this cannot be meant.

2d, Let us now consider who are referred to by the angels, that kept not their first estate, (principality), but left their own habitation ? The reader ought to notice particularly, that neither of the texts, give the least intimation, that they were angelic Spirits, sinned in heaven, and were cast out of it. It is said they sinned, but not in heaven. They kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, but it is not said, this habitation was heaven. Indeed, if we admit, angelic Spirits, once sinned in heaven and were cast out of it, what security is there, that this may not take place again ; yea, that all who are there may not become sin

and share the same fate? The question then is what angels are here referred to ? I answer, it is well known the term rendered angel, is not a' name of nature but of office. It is frequently rendered messenger and is often applied to human beings. Some have thought, the angels here mentioned, were the spies sent out to view the land of Canaan. I am of opinion however, that Korah and his company, are the angels here referred to; the history of whom is given, Num. 16th. My reasons for entertaining this opinion, I shall briefly detail, and let the reader judge for himself.

1st, Korah and his company were two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, famous in the congregation, men of renown.” Num. 16. 2. From the high station, which they held in the congregation, with scriptural propriety they might be termed Angels. Certainly, with just as much propriety, as men are called Angels in many other passages. See for example Rev. Chaps. 2d. and 3d.

2d, It will not be questioned, Korah and his company sinned: and their sin was, they kept not their first estate, or the station God assigned them in the congregation of Israel. They raised a rebellion against Moses


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and Aaron, Num. 16:3, with a view to their own preeminence. They sought the priesthood also v. 10. Certainly, the passage applies much better to them than Angelic Spirits, who sinned in heaven, and were cast out of it. People, are more indebted to Milton's paradise lost, than to their bible for the information, that angelic Spirits sinned in heaven and were cast down to Tartarus.

3d, The connexion in which the passage is introduced, favors this view of the subject. Peter, in verses 1-4, speaks of false teachers, and the troubles which their heresies gave to the congregation of Christians. At the close of verse 3, he says of them, whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not. Was it not then very natural for him, in verse 4, to refer to Korah and his company, who duced similar troubles in the congregation of Israel and the judgment which came on them? He then from verse 5–9, mentions God's judgments on the Old world and the cities of the plain, confessedly inflicted on human beings, and of a temporal nature. It is very incongruous then to suppose, that in verse 4, he referred to Angelic beings, and punishment of endless duration in another world. But the connexion of the parallel text in Jude, is still more clearly in favor of the view I have given. Jude, verse 4, also speaks of false teachers, and the pernicious effects of their teaching on oth

He adds, by way of warning verse 5, “I will therefore put you in rememberance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.”. And what could be more natural, than for him in verse 6, to refer to Korah and his company, as a signal example of God's destroying such unbelievers ? It is certainly more rational, than to suppose, he immediately breaks off, and introduces an example of God's judgment on Angels who sinned in heav



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He also refers in verse 9, to God's judgments on the cities of the plain. But if verse 6, refers to Angelic Spirits, we must conclude, that he first gives an example in general of God's judgments on men v. 5, then in v. 6, starts off and gives an example of his judgment on angelic Spirits in heaven, and then comes back to his judgments on men in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. But if my views are admitted, it makes both writers, refer to temporal judgments on men, uniformly throughout both passages. Certainly all will allow, it is not the custom of the sacred writers, to blend in this way, examples of God's judgments on men and angels together. If it is done here, another example of the kind, cannot be produced from the bible.

4th, It will be admitted, that all the other examples mentioned in the contexts of these passages, of God's judgments on men, were adduced as a warning to ungodly men. They are all of a temporal nature, and are calculated for this purpose. But, if we understand by Angels in these passages angelic Spirits, how could God's casting them out of heaven down to Tartarus, be any warning to ungodly men ? No man had seen this done, or had any means of knowing the fact, if it was true. It rested entirely on Peter and Jude's statements in these passages, for no other sacred writer ever mentions such a remarkable event, as angels' sinning in heaven and being cast down to Tartarus. But the case of Korah and his company, is detailed at length in the Jewish Scriptures, was well known, and calculated to be a warning to those who lived ungodly. But it will be asked, what Tartarus did God cast them down to ?Further evidence of my views will be then given by considering this. viz.

3d, The punishment here said to have been inflicted on them. Peter says, God "spared not the Angels that .

, sinned but cast them down to hell, (Tartarosas), and delivered them into chains of darkness to be reserved

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